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1.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1552240

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O câncer de pulmão é uma doença grave, sendo a segunda maior causa de morte em todo o mundo, entretanto, em alguns países desenvolvidos, tornou-se já a primeira causa de morte. Cerca de 90% dos casos de neoplasia pulmonares são causados pela inalação da fumaça do cigarro. Objetivo: Correlacionar a prevalência de tabagismo e morbimortalidade por câncer de pulmão nos estados brasileiros, além de demonstrar a associação destes com sexo e faixa etária. Métodos: Estudo de caráter ecológico acerca da prevalência de tabagismo e morbimortalidade por câncer de pulmão nos estados brasileiros, nos períodos de 2013 e 2019, dividida por sexo e faixa etária. Foram utilizados bancos de coleta de dados como o Tabnet e Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde. Resultados: As maiores taxas de mortalidade e internações hospitalares foram do público masculino, em 2013, com taxa de 2,7 e 10, respectivamente, e em 2019 com 3,3 e 11,9, respectivamente. Ademais, a maior prevalência de tabagismo foi encontrada nos homens; entretanto seu índice tem caído, enquanto a quantidade de mulheres tabagistas tem aumentado. A Região Sul demonstrou maiores números de mortalidade em ambos os períodos estudados, com taxas de 4,9 e 5,8 por 100 mil habitantes, e morbidade hospitalar com 19,9 e 23,5 por 100 mil habitantes. Já a Região Norte se configurou com as menores prevalências: em 2013 apresentou taxa de óbito por câncer de pulmão de 1,0 e morbidade hospitalar de 3,5/100 mil habitantes, em 2019 apresentou taxa de mortalidade de 4,6 e internações de 1,6/100 mil habitantes. Os coeficientes de correlação de morbidade hospitalar e prevalência de tabagismo foram R2=0,0628, r=0,251 e p=0,042, enquanto os de mortalidade e prevalência de tabagismo foram R2=0,0337, r=0,183 e p=0,140. Conclusões: Na presente pesquisa, pode-se inferir que houve associação positiva na comparação entre taxa de morbidade hospitalar e prevalência de tabagismo; em contrapartida, não foi possível observar associação positiva na correlação da taxa de mortalidade por câncer de pulmão e prevalência de tabagismo.


Introduction: Lung cancer is a serious disease, being the second leading cause of death worldwide. Moreover, in some developed countries, it has already become the leading cause of death. About 90% of lung cancer cases are caused by cigarette smoking. Objective: To correlate the prevalence of smoking and lung cancer morbidity and mortality in Brazilian states, and to demonstrate their association with sex and age group as well. Methods: An ecological study on the prevalence of smoking and lung cancer morbidity and mortality in Brazilian states between 2013 and 2019, divided by sex and age group. The data collection databases Tabnet and National Health Survey were used. Results: The highest rates of mortality and hospital admissions were among men, in 2013 with a rate of 2.7 and 10, respectively, and in 2019 with 3.3 and 11.9, respectively. In addition, the highest prevalence of smoking was found in men, but this rate has fallen, while the number of women smokers has increased. The South region showed higher mortality rates in both periods studied, with rates of 4.9 and 5.8 per 100,000 inhabitants, and hospital morbidity with 19.9 and 23.5 per 100,000 inhabitants. The North region had the lowest prevalence, where in 2013, it had a death rate from lung cancer of 1.0 and hospital morbidity of 3.5/100 thousand inhabitants, and where in 2019, it had a mortality rate of 4.6 and hospitalizations of 1.6/100 thousand inhabitants. The correlation coefficients for hospital morbidity and smoking prevalence were R2=0.0628, r=0.251 and p=0.042, while for mortality and smoking prevalence, these were R2=0.0337, r=0.183 and p=0.140. Conclusions: In the present study, it can be inferred that there was a positive association between hospital morbidity rate and prevalence of smoking, while it was not possible to observe a correlation between lung cancer mortality rate and prevalence of smoking.


Introducción: El cáncer de pulmón es una enfermedad grave, siendo la segunda causa de muerte en todo el mundo, sin embargo, en algunos países desarrollados, ya se ha convertido en la primera causa de muerte. Alrededor del 90% de los casos de neoplasias pulmonares están causados por la inhalación del humo del cigarrillo. Objetivo: Correlacionar la prevalencia de tabaquismo y la morbimortalidad por cáncer de pulmón en los estados brasileños, además de demostrar la asociación de estos con el género y el grupo de edad. Métodos: estudio ecológico sobre la prevalencia de tabaquismo y morbimortalidad por cáncer de pulmón en los estados brasileños, dentro de los períodos 2013 y 2019, divididos por sexo y grupo de edad. Se utilizaron bancos de recogida de datos como Tabnet y la Encuesta Nacional de Salud. Resultados: las mayores tasas de mortalidad e ingresos hospitalarios se dieron en el público masculino, en 2013 con una tasa de 2,7 y 10, respectivamente, y en 2019 con 3,3 y 11,9, respectivamente. Además, la mayor prevalencia del tabaquismo se encontró en los hombres, sin embargo, su tasa ha disminuido, mientras que la cantidad de mujeres fumadoras ha aumentado. La región Sur presentó cifras más altas de mortalidad en ambos periodos estudiados, con tasas de 4,9 y 5,8 por 100.000 habitantes, y de morbilidad hospitalaria con 19,9 y 23,5 por 100.000 habitantes. Mientras que la región Norte se configuró con las prevalencias más bajas, en 2013 presentó una tasa de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón de 1,0 y una morbilidad hospitalaria de 3,5/100.000 habitantes, en 2019 presentó una tasa de mortalidad de 4,6 y hospitalizaciones de 1,6/100.000 habitantes. Los coeficientes de correlación para la morbilidad hospitalaria y la prevalencia del tabaquismo fueron R2=0,0628, r=0,251 y p=0,042, mientras que para la mortalidad y la prevalencia del tabaquismo fueron R2=0,0337, r=0,183 y p=0,140. Conclusiones: En la presente investigación se puede inferir que existe una asociación positiva en la comparación entre la tasa de morbilidad hospitalaria y la prevalencia de tabagismo, en contrapartida, no fue posible observar una asociación positiva en la correlación de la tasa de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón y la prevalencia de tabagismo.

2.
Hipertens. riesgo vasc ; 41(2): 135-138, abr.-jun2024. ilus
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-232399

ABSTRACT

Presentamos el caso de un paciente con antecedentes de hipertensión arterial vasculorrenal tratada un año antes, que acude a urgencias por emergencia hipertensiva (HTA) y disnea. Descartada primera sospecha de reestenosis de arteria renal con angiografía por tomografía computarizada (angioTC), se completa el estudio confirmándose diagnóstico de cáncer de pulmón mediante prueba de imagen y anatomía patológica. En el estudio de hipertensión se detecta elevación de hormona adrenocorticótropa (ACTH), hipercortisolismo y datos analíticos de hiperaldosteronismo. Con el diagnóstico final de síndrome de Cushing secundario a producción ectópica de ACTH se inicia tratamiento médico, sin llegar a recibir nada más por fallecimiento del paciente a los pocos días.(AU)


We present the case of a patient with a history of renal-vascular hypertension treated with stent one year previously, who attended the emergency room due to hypertensive emergency and dyspnea. Once the first suspicion of renal artery restenosis was ruled out with CT angiography, the study was completed, confirming the diagnosis of lung cancer through imaging and pathological anatomy. In the hormonal study, elevation of ACTH, hypercortisolism and analytical data of hyperaldosteronism were detected. With the final diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome secondary to ectopic production of ACTH, medical treatment was started, without being able to receive anything else due to the death of the patient after a few days.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cushing Syndrome , Hypertension , Carcinoma, Small Cell , Lung Neoplasms , Hyperaldosteronism , Alkalosis , Inpatients , Physical Examination , Cardiovascular Diseases , Nephrology
3.
Cancer Rep (Hoboken) ; 7(5): e2071, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38767531

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patient and public involvement and engagement (PPIE) in healthcare research is crucial for effectively addressing patients' needs and setting appropriate research priorities. However, there is a lack of awareness and adequate methods for practicing PPIE, especially for vulnerable groups like childhood cancer survivors. AIMS: This project aimed to develop and evaluate engagement methods to actively involve pediatric oncological patients, survivors, and their caregivers in developing relevant research questions and practical study designs. METHODS AND RESULTS: An interdisciplinary working group recruited n = 16 childhood cancer survivors and their caregivers to work through the entire process of developing a research question and a practicable study design. A systematic literature review was conducted to gather adequate PPIE methods which were then applied and evaluated in a series of three workshop modules, each lasting 1.5 days. The applied methods were continuously evaluated, while a monitoring group oversaw the project and continuously developed and adapted additional methods. The participants rated the different methods with varying scores. Over the workshop series, the participants successfully developed a research question, devised an intervention, and designed a study to evaluate their project. They also reported increased expertise in PPIE and research knowledge compared to the baseline. The project resulted in a practical toolbox for future research, encompassing the final workshop structure, evaluated methods and materials, guiding principles, and general recommendations. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that with a diverse set of effective methods and flexible support, actively involving patients, survivors, and caregivers can uncover patients' unmet disease-related needs and generate practical solutions apt for scientific evaluation. The resulting toolbox, filled with evaluated and adaptable methods (workbook, Supplement 1 and 2), equips future scientists with the necessary resources to successfully perform PPIE in the development of health care research projects that effectively integrate patients' perspectives and address actual cancer-related needs. This integration of PPIE practices has the potential to enhance the quality and relevance of health research and care, as well as to increase patient empowerment leading to sustainable improvements in patients' quality of life.


Subject(s)
Cancer Survivors , Neoplasms , Parents , Patient Participation , Humans , Cancer Survivors/psychology , Parents/psychology , Patient Participation/psychology , Neoplasms/psychology , Neoplasms/therapy , Child , Female , Male , Caregivers/psychology , Adult , Adolescent , Research Design
4.
Pharmacol Res ; 204: 107221, 2024 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38768669

ABSTRACT

Based on the concept of "Evolutionary Traps", targeting survival essential genes obtained during tumor drug resistance can effectively eliminate resistant cells. While, it still faces limitations. In this study, lapatinib-resistant cells were used to test the concept of "Evolutionary Traps" and no suitable target stand out because of the identified genes without accessible drug. However, a membrane protein PDPN, which is low or non-expressed in normal tissues, is identified as highly expressed in lapatinib-resistant tumor cells. PDPN CAR-T cells were developed and showed high cytotoxicity against lapatinib-resistant tumor cells in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that CAR-T may be a feasible route for overcoming drug resistance of tumor based on "Evolutionary Trap". To test whether this concept is cell line or drug dependent, we analyzed 21 drug-resistant tumor cell expression profiles reveal that JAG1, GPC3, and L1CAM, which are suitable targets for CAR-T treatment, are significantly upregulated in various drug-resistant tumor cells. Our findings shed light on the feasibility of utilizing CAR-T therapy to treat drug-resistant tumors and broaden the concept of the "Evolutionary Trap".

5.
Life Sci ; 349: 122732, 2024 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38768775

ABSTRACT

Acetaminophen is a known antipyretic and non-opioid analgesic for mild pain and fever. Numerous studies uncover their hidden chemotherapeutics applications, including chronic cancer pain management. Acetaminophen also represents an anti-proliferative effect in some cancer cells. Few studies also suggest that the use of Acetaminophen can trigger apoptosis and impede cellular growth. However, Acetaminophen's molecular potential and precise mechanism against improper cellular proliferation and use as an effective anti-proliferative agent still need to be better understood. Here, our current findings show that Acetaminophen induces proteasomal dysfunctions, resulting in aberrant protein accumulation and mitochondrial abnormalities, and consequently induces cell apoptosis. We observed that the Acetaminophen treatment leads to improper aggregation of ubiquitylated expanded polyglutamine proteins, which may be due to the dysfunctions of proteasome activities. Our in-silico analysis suggests the interaction of Acetaminophen and proteasome. Furthermore, we demonstrated the accumulation of proteasome substrates and the depletion of proteasome activities after treating Acetaminophen in cells. Acetaminophen induces proteasome dysfunctions and mitochondrial abnormalities, leading to pro-apoptotic morphological changes and apoptosis successively. These results suggest that Acetaminophen can induce cell death and may retain a promising anti-proliferative effect. These observations can open new possible molecular strategies in the near future for developing and designing specific and effective proteasome inhibitors, which can be helpful in conjugation with other anti-tumor drugs for their better efficiency.

6.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 24(1): 195, 2024 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38769554

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The burden of breast cancer, the second leading cause of death worldwide, is increasing at an alarming rate. Cuscuta, used in traditional medicine for different ailments, including cancer, is known for containing phytochemicals that exhibit anticancer activity; however, the bioactivities of proteins from this plant remain unexplored. This study aimed to screen the cytotoxic potential of proteins from the crude herbal product of Cuscuta epithymum(L.) (CE) harvested from the host plants Alhagi maurorum and Medicago sativa. METHODS: The proteins from CE were extracted using a salting-out method, followed by fractionation with a gel filtration chromatography column. Gel-free shotgun proteomics was subsequently performed for protein characterization. The viability assay using MTT was applied to deduce the cytotoxic potential of proteins against MCF-7 breast cancer cells, with further exploration of the effect of treatment on the expression of the apoptotic mediator BCL2-associated X protein (BAX) and B-cell lymphoma protein 2 (BCL-2) proteins, using western blotting to strengthen the findings from the in vitro viability assay. RESULTS: The crude proteins (CP) of CE were separated into four protein peaks (P1, P2, P3, and P4) by gel filtration chromatography. The evaluation of potency showed a dose-dependent decline in the MCF-7 cell line after CP, P1, P2, and P3 treatment with the respective IC50 values of 33.8, 43.1, 34.5, and 28.6 µg/ml. The percent viability of the cells decreased significantly upon treatment with 50 µg/ml CP, P1, P2, and P3 (P < 0.001). Western-blot analysis revealed upregulation of proapoptotic protein BAX in the cells treated with CP, P3 (P < 0.01), and P2 (P < 0.05); however, the antiapoptotic protein, BCL-2 was downregulated in the cells treated with CP and P3 (P < 0.01), but no significant change was detected in P2 treated cells. The observed cytotoxic effects of proteins in the CP, P1, P2, and P3 from the in vitro viability assay and western blot depicted the bioactivity potential of CE proteins. The database search revealed the identities of functionally important proteins, including nonspecific lipid transfer protein, superoxide dismutase, carboxypeptidase, RNase H domain containing protein, and polyribonucleotide nucleotidyltransferase, which have been previously reported from other plants to exhibit anticancer activity. CONCLUSION: This study indicated the cytotoxic activity of Cuscuta proteins against breast cancer MCF-7 cells and will be utilized for future investigations on the mechanistic effect of active proteins. The survey of CE proteins provided substantial data to encourage further exploration of biological activities exhibited by proteins in Cuscuta.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Cuscuta , Plant Proteins , Proteomics , Humans , MCF-7 Cells , Plant Proteins/pharmacology , Cuscuta/chemistry , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Female , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Cell Survival/drug effects , Apoptosis/drug effects
7.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol ; 38(6): e23746, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38769694

ABSTRACT

To identify the role of enterotoxin-related genes in colorectal cancer (CRC) development and progression. Upregulated differentially expressed genes shared by three out of five Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) data sets were included to screen the key enterotoxin-induced oncogenes (EIOGs) according to criteria oncogene definition, enrichment, and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis, followed by prognosis survival, immune infiltration, and protential drugs analyses was performed via integration of RNA-sequencing data and The Cancer Genome Atlas-derived clinical profiles. We screened nine common key EIOGs from at least three GEO data sets. A Cox proportional hazards regression models verified that more alive cases, decreased overall survival, and highest 4-year survival prediction in CRC patients with high-risk score. Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type F polypeptide-interacting protein alpha-4 (PPFIA4), STY11, SCN3B, and SPTBN5 were shared in the same PPI network. Immune infiltration results showed that SCN3B and synaptotagmin 11 expression were obviously associated with B cell, macrophage, myeloid dendritic cell, neutrophils, and T cell CD4+ and CD8+ in both colon adenocarcinoma and rectal adenocarcinoma. CHIR-99021, MLN4924, and YK4-279 were identified as the potential drugs for treatment. Finally, upregulated EIOGs genes PPFIA4 and SCN3B were found in colon adenocarcinoma and PPFIA4 and SCN3B were proved to promote cell proliferation and migration in vitro. We demonstrated here that EIOGs promoting a malignancy phenotype was related with poor survival and prognosis in CRC, which might be served as novel therapeutic targets in CRC management.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms , Enterotoxins , Humans , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Disease Progression , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Protein Interaction Maps
8.
Front Oncol ; 14: 1347742, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38769948

ABSTRACT

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) represent first-line standard of care in unresectable EGFR mutation-positive (EGFRm+) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, 10-20% of patients with EGFRm+ NSCLC have uncommon EGFR variants, defined as mutations other than L858R substitutions or exon 19 deletions. NSCLC harboring uncommon EGFR mutations may demonstrate lower sensitivity to targeted agents than NSCLC with L858R or exon 19 deletion mutations. Prospective clinical trial data in patients with NSCLC uncommon EGFR mutations are lacking. Afatinib is a second-generation TKI and the only Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for some of the more prevalent uncommon EGFR mutations. We present a series of seven case reports describing clinical outcomes in afatinib-treated patients with NSCLC harboring a diverse range of extremely rare mutations with or without co-mutations affecting other genes. EGFR alterations included compound mutations, P-loop αC-helix compressing mutations, and novel substitution mutations. We also present a case with NSCLC harboring a novel EGFR::CCDC6 gene fusion. Overall, the patients responded well to afatinib, including radiologic partial responses in six patients during treatment. Responses were durable for three patients. The cases presented are in line with a growing body of clinical and preclinical evidence that indicating that NSCLC with various uncommon EGFR mutations, with or without co-mutations, may be sensitive to afatinib.

9.
Front Oncol ; 14: 1355353, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38769947

ABSTRACT

Aim: The overamplification of human epidermal growth factor (HER2) in breast cancer (BC) has been the subject of numerous research publications since its discovery in 1987. This is the first bibliometric analysis (BA) conducted on HER2-positive (HER2+) BC. The purpose of this BA is to analyze the published research on HER2+ BC from 1987 to 2024, highlighting the most significant scientific literature, as well as the main contributing authors and journals, and evaluating the impact of clinical and lab-based publications on HER2+ BC research. Methods: The Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC) was searched using the terms "Breast cancer" OR "Breast carcinoma" OR "Breast tumor" AND "HER2 positive" OR "HER2+". The search was limited by publication year (1987-2024) and only full English articles were included. WoS returned 7,469 relevant results, and from this dataset, a bibliometric analysis was conducted using the "analyze results" and "journal citation report" functions in WoS and the VOSviewer 1.6.16 software to generate bibliographic coupling and co-citation analysis of authors. Results: The analysis encompassed a total of 7,469 publications, revealing a notable increase in the annual number of publications, particularly in recent years. The United States, China, Italy, Germany, and Spain were the top five most prolific countries. The top five significant institutions that published HER2+ research were the University of Texas System, Unicancer, UTMD Anderson Cancer Center, Harvard University, and University of California System. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, Clinical Cancer Research, and Clinical Breast Cancer were the top three notable journals with the highest number of HER2+ BC publications. Dennis Slamon (Nc = 45,411, H-index = 51) and Jose Baselga (Nc = 32,592, H-index = 55) were the most prolific authors. Evolving research topics include anti-HER2 therapy in the neoadjuvant setting, treatment of metastatic HER2+ BC, and overcoming therapy resistance. Conclusion: This study provides an overview of HER2+ BC research published over the past three decades. It provides insight into the most cited papers and authors, and the core journals, and identifies new trends. These manuscripts have had the highest impact in the field and reflect the continued evolution of HER2 as a therapeutic target in BC.

10.
Int J Womens Health ; 16: 831-842, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38769949

ABSTRACT

Objective: In this study, we investigated the value of molecular typing combined with integrated positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) semi-quantitative indices in endometrial cancer risk stratification. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 86 patients who were pathologically diagnosed with endometrial cancer and underwent surgical treatment after curettage at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University between January 2017 and March 2023. Prior to surgery, each patient underwent integrated PET/MRI examination. The postoperative samples were subjected to pathological diagnosis, immunohistochemistry, and POLE gene sequencing. The differences in clinicopathological features between the four molecular subtypes and the differences in integrated PET/MRI semi-quantitative indexes (SUV max, ADC min) between the four molecular subtypes were analyzed. The cutoff value of molecular typing combined with integrated PET/MRI semi-quantitative indices for endometrial cancer risk stratification was determined. Results: There were statistically significant differences in pathological types and tumor grades among the four molecular subtypes of endometrial cancer. The values of the four integrated PET/MRI semi-quantitative indices (SUV max and ADC min) of the molecular subtypes were statistically different. The SUV max was greater in the p53abn mutation group than in the POLE mutation group (P < 0.05). The ADC minimum of the POLE mutation group and the MMR-d group was lower than the NSMP group (P < 0.05). Molecular typing combined with the integrated PET/MRI semi-quantitative SUV max index can predict the low/medium risk group of endometrial cancer and the medium-high/high risk group, and the cut-off value of SUV max for predicting the risk of early endometrial cancer was 14.72 (sensitivity 66.7%, specificity 68.7%). Conclusion: Molecular typing combined with integrated PET/MRI semi-quantitative indicators is useful to achieve risk stratification in patients diagnosed with endometrial cancer and guide individualized treatment.

11.
Front Pharmacol ; 15: 1352224, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38769999

ABSTRACT

Background: The CDK 4/6 inhibitors, including palbociclib and ribociclib, are the standard first-line treatment for hormone receptor-positive (HR+) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-) metastatic breast cancer. Proton pump inhibitors are one of the most globally prescribed types of medications as part of the treatment for gastroesophageal reflux and heartburn complaints. Medication interactions have been demonstrated, leading to a decrease in the effectiveness of chemotherapy drugs such as capecitabine and pazopanib. However, their role and interaction with targeted therapies such as CDK inhibitors are still poorly understood. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase and Web of Science databases for studies that investigated the use of PPI with CDK 4/6 inhibitors versus CDK4/6 alone for advanced or metastatic breast cancer. We systematically searched for the currently available CDK inhibitors: palbociclib, ribociclib and abemaciclib. We computed hazard ratios (HRs), with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used DerSimonian and Laird random-effect models for all endpoints. Heterogeneity was assessed using I2 statistics. R, version 4.2.3, was used for statistical analyses. Results: A total of 2,737 patients with advanced breast cancer in 9 studies were included, with six studies described the status menopausal as 217 (7.9%) pre-menopause and 1851 (67.6%) post-menopause, for endocrine sensitivity only five studies described1489 (54.4%) patients were endocrine-sensitive and 498 (182%) endocrine-resistent, 910 (33.2%) patients used PPIs. The overall Progression-Free Survival was in favor of the PPI non-users (HR 2.0901; 95% CI 1.410-2.9498; p < 0.001). As well as the subgroup taking palbociclib, revealing statistical relevance for the PPI non-users (HR 2.2539; 95% CI 1.3213-3.8446; p = 0.003) and ribociclib subgroup with a slight decrease in hazard ratio (HR 1.74 95% CI 1.02-2.97; p = 0.04; I2 = 40%). In the multivariate analysis, there was no statistical signifance with ECOG (HR 0.9081; 95% CI 0.4978-16566; p 0.753) and Age (HR 1.2772; 95% CI 0.8790-1.8559; p = 0.199). Either, the univariate analysis did not show statistical significance. Conclusion: Women with HR+ and HER2-advanced metastatic breast undergoing treatment with targeted therapies, specifically CDK 4/6 inhibitors, should be monitored for the use of proton pump inhibitors. Therefore, the use of PPIs should be discussed, weighing the advantages and disadvantages for specific cases. It should be individualized based on the necessity in clinical practice for these cases. Systematic Review Registration: identifier CRD42023484755.

12.
Gastroenterol Rep (Oxf) ; 12: goae047, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38770016

ABSTRACT

Background: Traditional right hemicolectomy (TRH) is the standard treatment for patients with nonmetastatic right colon cancer. However, the ileocecum, a vital organ with mechanical and immune functions, is removed in these patients regardless of the tumor location. This study aimed to evaluate the technical and oncological safety of laparoscopic ileocecal-sparing right hemicolectomy (LISH). Method: Patients who underwent LISH at two tertiary medical centers were matched 1:2 with patients who underwent TRH by propensity score matching based on sex, age, body mass index, tumor location, and disease stage. Data on surgical and perioperative outcomes were collected. Oncological safety was evaluated in a specimen-oriented manner. Lymph nodes (LNs) near the ileocolic artery (ICA) were examined independently in the LISH group. Disease outcomes were recorded for patients who completed one year of follow-up. Results: In all, 34 patients in the LISH group and 68 patients in the TRH group were matched. LISH added 8 minutes to the dissection of LNs around the ileocolic vessels (groups 201/201d, 202, and 203 LNs), without affecting the total operation time, blood loss, or perioperative adverse event rate. Compared with TRH, LISH had a comparable lymphadenectomy quality, specimen quality, and safety margin while preserving a more functional bowel. The LISH group had no cases of LN metastasis near the ICA. No difference was detected in the recurrence rate at the 1-year follow-up time point between the two groups. Conclusion: In this dual-center study, LISH presented comparable surgical and oncological safety for patients with hepatic flexure or proximal transverse colon cancer.

13.
PEC Innov ; 4: 100286, 2024 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38770044

ABSTRACT

Objective: Investigators should return study results to patients and families facing cancer to honor their research contributions. We created a found poem from transcripts of sexual and gender minority (SGM) couples facing cancer and returned it to study participants. Methods: Participants were randomized to receive the found poem in text, text and audio, audio, or video format, completed dissemination preferences and emotion questionnaires, and open-ended questions about their experience receiving the poem. Results: Participants preferred the format they received (n = 15, 75.0%), with text-only and combined text and audio formats evoking the greatest number of emotions (n = 13 each). The following categories and subcategories were identified: dyadic experiences (support, strength, depth, durability); dissemination preferences (timing, method); emotion (positive, negative); utility of the found poem (affirming; fostering reflection; not useful or inaccurate, and sense of community). SGM participants utilized positive emotion, affirming, and a sense of community with greater frequency than non-SGM participants. Conclusion: Innovative approaches to dissemination are acceptable; providing choices in how and when participants receive results may increase engagement; and SGM versus non-SGM groups may describe dyadic experiences differently. Innovation: Returning study results via found poetry is an innovative way to honor research participants facing cancer.

14.
Noncoding RNA Res ; 9(3): 970-994, 2024 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38770106

ABSTRACT

Cancer cells exhibit altered metabolic pathways, prominently featuring enhanced glycolytic activity to sustain their rapid growth and proliferation. Dysregulation of glycolysis is a well-established hallmark of cancer and contributes to tumor progression and resistance to therapy. Increased glycolysis supplies the energy necessary for increased proliferation and creates an acidic milieu, which in turn encourages tumor cells' infiltration, metastasis, and chemoresistance. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have emerged as pivotal players in diverse biological processes, including cancer development and metabolic reprogramming. The interplay between circRNAs and glycolysis is explored, illuminating how circRNAs regulate key glycolysis-associated genes and enzymes, thereby influencing tumor metabolic profiles. In this overview, we highlight the mechanisms by which circRNAs regulate glycolytic enzymes and modulate glycolysis. In addition, we discuss the clinical implications of dysregulated circRNAs in cancer glycolysis, including their potential use as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. All in all, in this overview, we provide the most recent findings on how circRNAs operate at the molecular level to control glycolysis in various types of cancer, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), prostate cancer (PCa), colorectal cancer (CRC), cervical cancer (CC), glioma, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), breast cancer, and gastric cancer (GC). In conclusion, this review provides a comprehensive overview of the significance of circRNAs in cancer glycolysis, shedding light on their intricate roles in tumor development and presenting innovative therapeutic avenues.

15.
Mechanobiol Med ; 2(1)2024 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38770108

ABSTRACT

The mechanical constraints in the overcrowding glioblastoma (GBM) microenvironment have been implicated in the regulation of tumor heterogeneity and disease progression. Especially, such mechanical cues can alter cellular DNA transcription and give rise to a subpopulation of tumor cells called cancer stem cells (CSCs). These CSCs with stem-like properties are critical drivers of tumorigenesis, metastasis, and treatment resistance. Yet, the biophysical and molecular machinery underlying the emergence of CSCs in tumor remained unexplored. This work employed a two-dimensional micropatterned multicellular model to examine the impact of mechanical constraints arisen from geometric confinement on the emergence and spatial patterning of CSCs in GBM tumor. Our study identified distinct spatial distributions of GBM CSCs in different geometric patterns, where CSCs mostly emerged in the peripheral regions. The spatial pattern of CSCs was found to correspond to the gradients of mechanical stresses resulted from the interplay between the cell-ECM and cell-cell interactions within the confined environment. Further mechanistic study highlighted a Piezo1-RhoA-focal adhesion signaling axis in regulating GBM cell mechanosensing and the subsequent CSC phenotypic transformation. These findings provide new insights into the biophysical origin of the unique spatial pattern of CSCs in GBM tumor and offer potential avenues for targeted therapeutic interventions.

16.
iScience ; 27(6): 109829, 2024 Jun 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38770133

ABSTRACT

Homoharringtonine (HHT), an alkaloid isolated from Cephalotaxus, is an effective anti-leukemia agent and exhibits inhibitory effects in various solid tumors. However, the impacts of HHT treatment on thyroid cancer (TC) remain unclear. Our findings demonstrated that HHT exhibited remarkable anti-TC activity that involved inhibiting cell proliferation, invasion, and migration, as well as inducing apoptosis. Proteomics analysis revealed that the expression of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1) was downregulated in TC cells after HHT treatment. TIMP1 overexpression promoted TC progression and partially reversed the anti-TC effects of HHT, while TIMP1 downregulation inhibited TC progression and enhanced the anti-TC effects of HHT. Furthermore, TIMP1 re-expression attenuated the enhancement of anti-TC effects of HHT induced by TIMP1 knockdown. Mechanistically, HHT exerted anti-TC effects by downregulating TIMP1 expression and then inactivating the FAK/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Taken together, our study demonstrated that HHT could inhibit TC progression by inhibiting the TIMP1/FAK/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.

17.
iScience ; 27(6): 109821, 2024 Jun 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38770131

ABSTRACT

The cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB)-regulated transcription coactivator 2 (CRTC2) is a crucial regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism and gluconeogenesis and correlates with tumorigenesis. However, the mechanism through which CRTC2 regulates hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression is largely unknown. Here, we found that increased CRTC2 expression predicted advanced tumor grade and stage, as well as worse prognosis in patients with HCC. DNA promoter hypomethylation led to higher CRTC2 expression in HCC. Functionally, CRTC2 contributed to HCC malignant phenotypes through the activated Wnt/ß-catenin pathway, which could be abrogated by the small-molecular inhibitor XAV-939. Moreover, Crtc2 facilitated tumor growth while concurrently downregulating the PD-L1/PD-1 axis, resulting in primary resistance to immunotherapy. In immunocompetent mice models of HCC, targeting Crtc2 in combination with anti-PD-1 therapy prominently suppressed tumor growth by synergistically enhancing responsiveness to immunotherapy. Collectively, targeting CRTC2 might be a promising therapeutic strategy to sensitize immunotherapy in HCC.

18.
iScience ; 27(6): 109864, 2024 Jun 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38770136

ABSTRACT

Hippo was first identified in a genetic screen as a protein that suppressed proliferation and cell growth. Subsequently, it was shown that hippo acted in a so-called canonical cascade to suppress Yorkie, the Drosophila equivalent of Yes-activated protein (YAP), a mechanosensitive transcriptional cofactor that enhances the activity of the TEAD family of transcription factors. YAP promotes fibrosis, activation of cancer-associated fibroblasts, angiogenesis and cancer cell invasion. YAP activates the expression of the matricellular proteins CCN1 (cyr61) and CCN2 (ctgf), themselves mediators of fibrogenesis and oncogenesis, and coordination of matrix deposition and angiogenesis. This review discusses how therapeutically targeting YAP through YAP inhibitors verteporfin and celastrol and its downstream mediators CCN1 and CCN2 might be useful in treating melanoma.

19.
iScience ; 27(6): 109817, 2024 Jun 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38770139

ABSTRACT

Although glutamine addiction in cancer cells is extensively reported, there is controversy on the impact of glutamine metabolism on the immune cells within the tumor microenvironment (TME). To address the role of extracellular glutamine, we enzymatically depleted circulating glutamine using PEGylated Helicobacter pylori gamma-glutamyl transferase (PEG-GGT) in syngeneic mouse models of breast and colon cancers. PEG-GGT treatment inhibits growth of cancer cells in vitro, but in vivo it increases myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and has no significant impact on tumor growth. By deriving a glutamine depletion signature, we analyze diverse human cancers within the TCGA and illustrate that glutamine depletion is not associated with favorable clinical outcomes and correlates with accumulation of MDSC. Broadly, our results help clarify the integrated impact of glutamine depletion within the TME and advance PEG-GGT as an enzymatic tool for the systemic and selective depletion (no asparaginase activity) of circulating glutamine in live animals.

20.
Front Surg ; 11: 1382039, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38770165

ABSTRACT

Background: The impact of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (nCTX) on survival and tumor response in patients with esophagogastric signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) is still controversial. Methods: Two independent reviewers performed a systematic literature search in Medline, CENTRAL, and Web of Science including prospective and retrospective two-arm non-randomized and randomized controlled studies (RCTs). Data was extracted on overall survival (OS) and tumor regression in resected esophagogastric SRCC patients with or without nCTX. Survival data was analyzed using published hazard ratios (HR) if available or determined it from other survival data or survival curves. OS and histopathological response rates by type of tumor (SRCC vs. non-SRCC) were also investigated. Results: Out of 559 studies, ten (1 RCT, 9 non-RCTs) were included in this meta-analysis (PROSPERO CRD42022298743) investigating 3,653 patients in total. The four studies investigating survival in SRCC patients treated with nCTX + surgery vs. surgery alone showed no survival benefit for neither intervention, but heterogeneity was considerable (HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.61-1.67; p = 0.98; I2 = 89%). In patients treated by nCTX + surgery SRCC patients showed worse survival (HR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.21-1.74; p < 0.01) and lower rate of major histopathological response than non-SRCC patients (OR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.78-3.44; p < 0.01). Conclusion: The current meta-analysis could not demonstrate beneficial effects of nCTX for SRCC patients. Histopathological response to and survival benefits of non-taxane-based nCTX seem to be lower in comparison to non-SRC esophagogastric cancer. However, certainty of evidence is low due to the scarcity of high-quality trials. Further research is necessary to determine optimal treatment for SRCC patients. Systematic Review Registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/, PROSPERO (CRD42022298743).

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