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1.
Curr Allergy Asthma Rep ; 24(4): 221-232, 2024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568321

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review reflects on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the field of rheumatology, emphasizing resulting insights related to the risks of viral infections in immunosuppressed patients, vaccine immunogenicity in immunocompromised patients, and immune dysregulation in the setting of viral infection. RECENT FINDINGS: During the pandemic, global patient registries provided real-time insights into the risk factors associated with severe COVID-19 outcomes in rheumatology patients. Updated evidence-based recommendations from the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) guided rheumatology practice during a time of considerable uncertainty. Studies on COVID-19 vaccines in immunocompromised populations enhanced our understanding of specific immunosuppressive therapies on vaccine efficacy. The immune dysregulation seen in severe COVID-19 underscored a role for immunomodulation in this and other severe infections. Furthermore, novel post-infectious conditions, namely multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and Long COVID, reshaped our understanding of post-viral syndromes and revealed novel pathological mechanisms. Lessons from the COVID-19 pandemic demonstrate the power of collaborative research. The scientific revelations from this dreadful time will, nonetheless, benefit the practice of rheumatology for years to come.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Rheumatology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Child , Humans , United States , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Immunosuppression Therapy , Vaccination
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8337, 2024 04 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594459

ABSTRACT

Accessible SARS-CoV-2-specific immunoassays may inform clinical management in people with HIV, particularly in case of persisting immunodysfunction. We prospectively studied their application in vaccine recipients with HIV, purposely including participants with a history of advanced HIV infection. Participants received one (n = 250), two (n = 249) or three (n = 42) doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine. Adverse events were documented through questionnaires. Sample collection occurred pre-vaccination and a median of 4 weeks post-second dose and 14 weeks post-third dose. Anti-spike and anti-nucleocapsid antibodies were measured with the Roche Elecsys chemiluminescence immunoassays. Neutralising activity was evaluated using the GenScript cPass surrogate virus neutralisation test, following validation against a Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test. T-cell reactivity was assessed with the Roche SARS-CoV-2 IFNγ release assay. Primary vaccination (2 doses) was well tolerated and elicited measurable anti-spike antibodies in 202/206 (98.0%) participants. Anti-spike titres varied widely, influenced by previous SARS-CoV-2 exposure, ethnicity, intravenous drug use, CD4 counts and HIV viremia as independent predictors. A third vaccine dose significantly boosted anti-spike and neutralising responses, reducing variability. Anti-spike titres > 15 U/mL correlated with neutralising activity in 136/144 paired samples (94.4%). Three participants with detectable anti-S antibodies did not develop cPass neutralising responses post-third dose, yet displayed SARS-CoV-2 specific IFNγ responses. SARS-CoV-2 vaccination is well-tolerated and immunogenic in adults with HIV, with responses improving post-third dose. Anti-spike antibodies serve as a reliable indicator of neutralising activity. Discordances between anti-spike and neutralising responses were accompanied by detectable IFN-γ responses, underlining the complexity of the immune response in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Spiders , Adult , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunoassay , Antibodies , Vaccination , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8009, 2024 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580716

ABSTRACT

Understanding the factors that influence people's decisions regarding vaccination is essential to promote vaccination. We aimed to clarify the motivations for receiving booster vaccines. We conducted a paper-based questionnaire distributed during January-February 2022 involving students and faculty staff who received the first COVID-19 vaccination at the mass vaccination program during June-September 2021 at Keio University. A total of 1725 participants were enrolled, and all completed the survey. Among these, 64.9% reported a significant adverse event (AEs) affecting daily life after the second vaccine. "Fear of severe COVID-19 illness" (72.6%) was the most common reason for getting vaccinated, followed by "concern of infecting others" (68.4%) and "fear of COVID-19 infection itself" (68.3%). Television emerged as the most influential source of information (80%), followed by university information (50.2%) and social networking sites (42.8%). Multivariate analysis revealed "fear of severe COVID-19 illness", "fear of COVID-19 infection itself", and "trust in the efficacy and safety of the vaccines in general" were significantly correlated with willingness to receive paid vaccinations. The severity of AEs and source of information were not related to participants' willingness to receive booster vaccinations. Participants with positive reasons for vaccination were more likely to accept a third dose.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Motivation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Japan/epidemiology , Universities , Mass Vaccination , Students , Vaccination
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612407

ABSTRACT

A small fraction of people vaccinated with mRNA-lipid nanoparticle (mRNA-LNP)-based COVID-19 vaccines display acute or subacute inflammatory symptoms whose mechanism has not been clarified to date. To better understand the molecular mechanism of these adverse events (AEs), here, we analyzed in vitro the vaccine-induced induction and interrelations of the following two major inflammatory processes: complement (C) activation and release of proinflammatory cytokines. Incubation of Pfizer-BioNTech's Comirnaty and Moderna's Spikevax with 75% human serum led to significant increases in C5a, sC5b-9, and Bb but not C4d, indicating C activation mainly via the alternative pathway. Control PEGylated liposomes (Doxebo) also induced C activation, but, on a weight basis, it was ~5 times less effective than that of Comirnaty. Viral or synthetic naked mRNAs had no C-activating effects. In peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures supplemented with 20% autologous serum, besides C activation, Comirnaty induced the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in the following order: IL-1α < IFN-γ < IL-1ß < TNF-α < IL-6 < IL-8. Heat-inactivation of C in serum prevented a rise in IL-1α, IL-1ß, and TNF-α, suggesting C-dependence of these cytokines' induction, although the C5 blocker Soliris and C1 inhibitor Berinert, which effectively inhibited C activation in both systems, did not suppress the release of any cytokines. These findings suggest that the inflammatory AEs of mRNA-LNP vaccines are due, at least in part, to stimulation of both arms of the innate immune system, whereupon C activation may be causally involved in the induction of some, but not all, inflammatory cytokines. Thus, the pharmacological attenuation of inflammatory AEs may not be achieved via monotherapy with the tested C inhibitors; efficacy may require combination therapy with different C inhibitors and/or other anti-inflammatory agents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Complement Inactivating Agents , Nanoparticles , Humans , Liposomes , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Cytokines , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , BNT162 Vaccine , Complement Activation , Lipids
5.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8595, 2024 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615084

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly reshaped human life. The development of COVID-19 vaccines has offered a semblance of normalcy. However, obstacles to vaccination have led to substantial loss of life and economic burdens. In this study, we analyze data from a prominent health insurance provider in the United States to uncover the underlying reasons behind the inability, refusal, or hesitancy to receive vaccinations. Our research proposes a methodology for pinpointing affected population groups and suggests strategies to mitigate vaccination barriers and hesitations. Furthermore, we estimate potential cost savings resulting from the implementation of these strategies. To achieve our objectives, we employed Bayesian data mining methods to streamline data dimensions and identify significant variables (features) influencing vaccination decisions. Comparative analysis reveals that the Bayesian method outperforms cutting-edge alternatives, demonstrating superior performance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Pandemics , Data Mining , Vaccination
6.
J Nepal Health Res Counc ; 21(4): 651-658, 2024 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38616598

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination against COVID-19 for Nepalese was initiated in January 2021 for various age groups. People were anxious about receiving the vaccines and were concerned about the safety profile of the vaccine they received. In this study, we have tried to observe the Adverse Events Following Immunization of two different vaccines namely COVISHIELD (ChAdOx1 nCOV-19) and VERO CELL (CZ02 strain), used in different phases of vaccination by the government of Nepal. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among people who received COVID-19 vaccines in this study using a self-administered questionnaire.  Data was cleaned and then exported to IBM SPSS v.20 for analysis, Chi-square test was used to see the association between different variables and a p-value<0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Out of 303 respondents, all had received the first and 270 participants had received the second dose of the COVID-19 vaccine, among which, 133 (43.89%) reported at least one side effect after the first dose of vaccination while 58 (21.48%) had self-reported side effects after the second dose of vaccination. Seventeen percent of the respondents had COVID-19 infection within the past 3 months before receiving COVID-19 vaccine. Three percent of participants had re-infection with COVID-19 after receiving the first or the second dose of the COVID-19 vaccine. Among participants who experienced adverse events, 42% and 62.1% of participants experienced mild adverse events following the first dose and second dose of the vaccine, respectively.  Conclusions: The adverse events following immunization for both vaccines after both doses of vaccination were quite low, with 43.89% of participants reporting side effects after the first dose and 21.48% of participants reporting side effects after the second dose. Adverse events were most frequently reported within 24 hours of vaccination and were mostly mild. There was no statistical significance of adverse events between both vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Chlorocebus aethiops , Animals , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Vero Cells , Nepal/epidemiology , Immunization Programs
7.
Int J Biol Sci ; 20(6): 2111-2129, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38617529

ABSTRACT

Gaucher disease (GD), a rare hereditary lysosomal storage disorder, occurs due to a deficiency in the enzyme ß-glucocerebrosidase (GCase). This deficiency leads to the buildup of substrate glucosylceramide (GlcCer) in macrophages, eventually resulting in various complications. Among its three types, GD2 is particularly severe with neurological involvements. Current treatments, such as enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), are not effective for GD2 and GD3 due to their inability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Other treatment approaches, such as gene or chaperone therapies are still in experimental stages. Additionally, GD treatments are costly and can have certain side effects. The successful use of messenger RNA (mRNA)-based vaccines for COVID-19 in 2020 has sparked interest in nucleic acid-based therapies. Remarkably, mRNA technology also offers a novel approach for protein replacement purposes. Additionally, self-amplifying RNA (saRNA) technology shows promise, potentially producing more protein at lower doses. This review aims to explore the potential of a cost-effective mRNA/saRNA-based approach for GD therapy. The use of GCase-mRNA/saRNA as a protein replacement therapy could offer a new and promising direction for improving the quality of life and extending the lifespan of individuals with GD.


Subject(s)
Gaucher Disease , Glucosylceramidase , Humans , Glucosylceramidase/genetics , Gaucher Disease/genetics , Gaucher Disease/therapy , RNA, Messenger/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines , Quality of Life
9.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 18: e66, 2024 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38618867

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To contain the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), several vaccines have been developed. This study is intended to elucidate the level of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 immunoglobulin G (anti-SARS-CoV-2-IgG) antibodies for COVID-19 vaccines (Pfizer BioNTech [BNT162b2], Oxford/AstraZeneca [ChAdOx1], and Sinopharm [BBIBP-CorV]) among health staff from health facilities in Duhok province, and it explored the immediate adverse reactions of COVID-19 vaccines among participants. METHODS: A longitudinal study was conducted from June 1, 2021, to June 30, 2022, and 300 participants were included through simple random sampling. RESULTS: The immune response 1 mo after the second dose was significantly higher than the sustained immune after 5 and 9 mo as results revealed that, in 100% of study samples who had (ChAdOx1) vaccine, their antibody titers exceeded the positivity threshold of 1 AU/m, while 96% for (BNT162b2) and 90% for (BBIBP-CorV) for the first test after 1 mo from the second dose of the COVID-19 vaccine, and these rates were reduced to 94.6% for (ChAdOx1), 97.8% for (BNT162b2), and 81.9% for (BBIBP-CorV) at 5 mo after the second dose, while simultaneously the seropositivity rates were more reduced at 9 mo to 46.5% for (ChAdOx1), 67.5% for (BNT162b2), and 9.20% for (BBIBP-CorV). In terms of adverse reactionsss, fever was reported as the most prevalent after the first dose in 58% for ChAdOx1, 43% for BNT162b2, and 23% for BBIBP-CorV, followed by muscle pain, joint pain, and shoulder pain for both doses. CONCLUSIONS: The implications of the findings from this study are that higher and potentially longer antibody responses can be obtained if the BNT162b2 is given as compared with the other 2 vaccines. Moreover, the booster doses of the COVID-19 vaccine are highly recommended because more than 50% of the participants either have become anti-spike protein negative or have a deficient level of anti-spike protein against COVD-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , BNT162 Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2 , Longitudinal Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunoglobulin G
11.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8421, 2024 04 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38600166

ABSTRACT

Despite the high efficacy and safety demonstrated in clinical trials, COVID-19 booster vaccination rates in Malaysia remain below 50% among the general public. This study explores the factors influencing public acceptance of the COVID-19 booster vaccine among the Malaysian population. The questionnaire included variables on sociodemographics, knowledge, and the Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs. Based on the Chi-squared test of contingencies, a t-test and multivariate logistic regression analysis on 411 collected responses, the findings revealed that older participants, individuals of Chinese ethnicity, and those with higher education levels and incomes were more willing to accept booster vaccinations. The analysis further identified perceived susceptibility, perceived severity and perceived barriers as significant predictors influencing booster vaccination acceptance rates. Healthcare policymakers may consider targeting interventions to diminish the obstacles associated with booster vaccinations. These intervention strategies include implementing health intervention programmes, such as public health awareness initiatives, to raise awareness of the risks and severity of COVID-19, ultimately encouraging higher uptake of booster vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Malaysia/epidemiology , Asian People , Vaccination
12.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1001, 2024 Apr 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38600540

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence has shown that the risk of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is much higher in prisons than in the community. The release of the COVID-19 vaccine and the recommendation by WHO to include prisons among priority settings have led to the inclusion of prisons in national COVID-19 vaccination strategies. Evidence on prison health and healthcare services provision is limited and often focuses on a single country or institution due to the multiple challenges of conducting research in prison settings. The present study was done in the framework of the EU-founded project RISE-Vac. It aimed to analyse the best practices and challenges applied in implementing COVID-19 universal vaccination services during the pandemic to support future expansion of routine life course vaccination services for people living in prison (PLP). METHODS: Two online cross-sectional surveys were designed and piloted: survey1 on prison characteristics and (non-COVID-19) immunisation practices; survey2 on the implementation and coverage of COVID-19 vaccination with open-ended questions for thematic analysis. Each RISE-Vac project partner distributed the questionnaire to one or two prisons in their country. Answers were collected from eight European prisons' directors or medical directors between November 2021-May 2022. RESULTS: According to our findings, the implementation modalities of COVID-19 vaccination services in the surveyed prisons were effective in improving PLP vaccination coverage. Strategies for optimal management of the vaccination campaign included: periodic time slot for PLP vaccination; new staff recruitment and task shifting; distribution of informational material both to PLP and prison staff. Key challenges included continuity of care after release, immunisation information system, and vaccine hesitancy. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study describing the implementation of COVID-19 vaccination services in European prisons, suggesting that the expansion of vaccination provision in prison is possible. There is no unique solution that will fit every country but commonalities likely to be important in the design and implementation of future vaccination campaigns targeting PLP emerged. Increased availability of vaccination services in prison is not only possible, but feasible and highly desirable, and can contribute to the reduction of health inequalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prisoners , Humans , Prisons , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Life Change Events , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
13.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1287504, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566991

ABSTRACT

Introduction: We sought to determine pre-infection correlates of protection against SARS-CoV-2 post-vaccine inzfections (PVI) acquired during the first Omicron wave in the United States. Methods: Serum and saliva samples from 176 vaccinated adults were collected from October to December of 2021, immediately before the Omicron wave, and assessed for SARS-CoV-2 Spike-specific IgG and IgA binding antibodies (bAb). Sera were also assessed for bAb using commercial assays, and for neutralization activity against several SARS-CoV-2 variants. PVI duration and severity, as well as risk and precautionary behaviors, were assessed by questionnaires. Results: Serum anti-Spike IgG levels assessed by research assay, neutralization titers against Omicron subvariants, and low home risk scores correlated with protection against PVIs after multivariable regression analysis. Commercial assays did not perform as well as research assay, likely due to their lower dynamic range. Discussion: In the 32 participants that developed PVI, anti-Spike IgG bAbs correlated with lower disease severity and shorter duration of illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , Immunoglobulin G
14.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 28(6): 2584-2592, 2024 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38567617

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines in children using a meta-analysis approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Relevant studies on the use of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines in children were identified through computerized searches. VE-related indicators were extracted, and data analysis was performed using the R software with the meta-package. RESULTS: This study included a total of 12 relevant articles involving 9,963,732 participants from multiple centers in different countries, including the United States, Canada, Singapore, Israel, South Korea, and Qatar. The administered vaccine types included BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273. Participants were categorized into partially immunized (one dose of vaccine) and fully immunized (two doses of vaccine). Four articles reported VE after one dose of vaccine, while 12 reported VE after two doses. Heterogeneity analysis indicated significant heterogeneity among the studies, warranting the use of a random-effects model for analysis. Meta-analysis results revealed that the VE of partial immunization ranged from 16.61 (95% CI: 6.32-25.77) to 34.30 (95% CI: 24.21-43.04), with a pooled VE of 22.80 (95% CI: 15.68-29.32). The VE after full immunization ranged from 16.14 (95% CI: 14.42-17.83) to 90.47 (95% CI: 67.42-97.21), with a pooled VE of 56.17 (95% CI: 41.12-67.37). Meta-regression analysis showed no statistically significant correlation between VE and time (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Both partial and full immunization of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine provide benefits in reducing infection rates. VE varies over time and is closely associated with viral mutations and waning immunity. The specific mechanisms require further investigation.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Child , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Vaccine Efficacy , RNA, Messenger
15.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8089, 2024 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582940

ABSTRACT

Current global COVID-19 booster scheduling strategies mainly focus on vaccinating high-risk populations at predetermined intervals. However, these strategies overlook key data: the direct insights into individual immunity levels from active serological testing and the indirect information available either through sample-based sero-surveillance, or vital demographic, location, and epidemiological factors. Our research, employing an age-, risk-, and region-structured mathematical model of disease transmission-based on COVID-19 incidence and vaccination data from Israel between 15 May 2020 and 25 October 2021-reveals that a more comprehensive strategy integrating these elements can significantly reduce COVID-19 hospitalizations without increasing existing booster coverage. Notably, the effective use of indirect information alone can considerably decrease COVID-19 cases and hospitalizations, without the need for additional vaccine doses. This approach may also be applicable in optimizing vaccination strategies for other infectious diseases, including influenza.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Vaccination , Hospitalization
16.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 20(1): 2324527, 2024 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584120

ABSTRACT

Although COVID-19 vaccination has been widely considered as an important remedy to confront COVID-19, people remain hesitant to take it. The objective of this study was to assess the moderation effects of demographic characteristics on the relationship between forms of misinformation and COVID-19 vaccine uptake hesitancy among frontline workers in Dar es Salaam and Dodoma, Tanzania. Using a sample of 200 respondents, it assessed the differences in ratings on misinformation regarding COVID-19 vaccine based on respondents' demographics. The study used a Five-point Likert scale questionnaire distributed through snowball sampling to frontline workers from Dar es Salaam and Dodoma regions. Data was analyzed using binary logistic regression. It was found that the forms of misinformation revealed were manipulated imposters, satire, fabricated contents and false contents with their connection, which they influenced COVID-19 hesitancy significantly. With exception of age, that significantly moderated hesitancy, this study uncovers that, sex and education level moderated insignificantly in predicting those who are misinformed; misinformed individuals are not any less educated or not based on one's sex, different than individuals who are informed. The study informs policy makers on devising appropriate strategies to promote COVID-19 vaccination uptake among the different contextual demographic variables. Promotion of information, media and health literacy to the general public should be considered to deter spreading of vaccine-related misinformation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Tanzania , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Educational Status , Vaccination , Demography
17.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 20(1): 2333104, 2024 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584118

ABSTRACT

Various COVID-19 vaccines can affect the immune system. Discrepancies have been noted in immune system characteristics, such as T-lymphocyte levels, between vaccinated and non-vaccinated individuals. This study investigates the variations in immune responses among the four administered COVID-19 vaccines, influencing factors, and clinical outcomes in Jordan. A total of 350 adults, who were at least two doses vaccinated, were interviewed and blood samples were collected for subsequent laboratory analyses. The study involved the quantification of T-cells specifically targeting anti-SARS CoV-2 using Flow cytometry analysis. BNT162b2 (Pfizer) recipients displayed significantly higher CD3+/CD4+ T-helper cell responses (90.84%, 87.46% - 94.22%) compared to non-Pfizer-BioNTech recipients {BBIBP-CorV (Sinopharm) and Sputnik V (Gamaleya Research Institute), then ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AstraZeneca)} (83.62%, 77.91% - 89.33%). The CD3+/CD8+ (T cytotoxic) level was notably elevated in non-Pfizer-BioNTech recipients {Sinopharm and Sputnik V then ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 AstraZeneca (73.94%, 69.38% - 78.49%) compared to BNT162b2 (Pfizer) recipients (58.26%, 53.07% - 63.44%). The CD3+ (T-cells) level showed no significant difference between BNT162b2 recipients (73.74%) and non-Pfizer-BioNTech recipients (77.83%), with both types generating T-cells. Comparing two doses of non-Pfizer-BioNTech vaccines with the third dose of BNT162b2 recipients (Pfizer), no difference in the type of immune reaction was observed, with non-Pfizer-BioNTech recipients still stimulating endogenous pathways like cell-mediated cytotoxic effects for cells. All COVID-19 vaccines administered in Jordan were effective, with respect to the total number of T cells. Non-Pfizer-BioNTech had higher in toxic T-cells and Pfizer-BioNTech was higher in helper T-cells that stimulate plasma cells to produce antibodies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , mRNA Vaccines , BNT162 Vaccine , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Jordan , COVID-19/prevention & control
18.
Ren Fail ; 46(1): 2337291, 2024 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584142

ABSTRACT

In the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic, the ongoing necessity for preventive measures such as mask-wearing and vaccination remains particularly critical for organ transplant recipients, a group highly susceptible to infections due to immunosuppressive therapy. Given that many individuals nowadays increasingly utilize Artificial Intelligence (AI), understanding AI perspectives is important. Thus, this study utilizes AI, specifically ChatGPT 4.0, to assess its perspectives in offering precise health recommendations for mask-wearing and COVID-19 vaccination tailored to this vulnerable population. Through a series of scenarios reflecting diverse environmental settings and health statuses in December 2023, we evaluated the AI's responses to gauge its precision, adaptability, and potential biases in advising high-risk patient groups. Our findings reveal that ChatGPT 4.0 consistently recommends mask-wearing in crowded and indoor environments for transplant recipients, underscoring their elevated risk. In contrast, for settings with fewer transmission risks, such as outdoor areas where social distancing is possible, the AI suggests that mask-wearing might be less imperative. Regarding vaccination guidance, the AI strongly advocates for the COVID-19 vaccine across most scenarios for kidney transplant recipients. However, it recommends a personalized consultation with healthcare providers in cases where patients express concerns about vaccine-related side effects, demonstrating an ability to adapt recommendations based on individual health considerations. While this study provides valuable insights into the current AI perspective on these important topics, it is crucial to note that the findings do not directly reflect or influence health policy. Nevertheless, given the increasing utilization of AI in various domains, understanding AI's viewpoints on such critical matters is essential for informed decision-making and future research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Transplant Recipients , Artificial Intelligence , Pandemics/prevention & control , Vaccination
19.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1327944, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584927

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic, affecting adults and children equally, has caused significant disruption to countries worldwide, including Saudi Arabia. In Saudi Arabia, the fast preventative measures and mass vaccine enrollment were vital to contain the devastating impact of the pandemic. However, vaccine hesitancy, especially among parents toward vaccinating their children, was a significant obstacle to vaccine uptake. Methods: This systematic review followed PRISMA guidelines to assess parental willingness to vaccinate their children against COVID-19, determine the key determinants influencing such intention and attitudes, and underline the significant concerns and misconceptions regarding the vaccine among parents. The Joanne Briggs Institute (JBI) checklist for prevalence studies was used to assess included studies for risk of bias. Results: Twenty-three studies were included in this systematic review, representing a total of 20,926 participants, with over 66% of them were female. Over 37% of the participants were willing to vaccinate their children against COVID-19. Parents' age, gender, level of education, and income were the main determinants of their intention to vaccinate their children. The parents' main concerns were the potential vaccine side effects, safety, and efficacy. Major misconceptions about the COVID-19 vaccine included it being dangerous to children and that children are at lower risk of severe infection; hence, vaccines were not needed. Discussion: This seminal review provides insights to public health policymakers, which should be considered and taken together in light of other studies addressing parental vaccine hesitancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Intention , Vaccination , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Male , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Pandemics , Saudi Arabia , Vaccination Hesitancy , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Vaccination/psychology , Parents/psychology
20.
PeerJ ; 12: e17083, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38590705

ABSTRACT

Studies focusing on the safety and common side effects of vaccines play a crucial role in enhancing public acceptance of vaccination. Research is scarce regarding the usage of COVID-19 vaccines and the side effects experienced by health professions students in India and other countries. This study aimed to document self-reported side effects associated with COVID-19 vaccination among medical and dental students of six medical and dental colleges and teaching hospitals in four states (Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, and West Bengal) of India. A cross-sectional survey using purposive sampling of medical and dental students was conducted from 26 April to 26 May 2021. Data was collected using a Google Forms questionnaire capturing information regarding receiving COVID-19 vaccines, side effects and symptoms, onset and duration of symptoms, use of treatment to alleviate symptoms, awareness of haematologic risks associated with vaccination, and side effects from previous (non-COVID-19) vaccinations. The majority (94.5%) of participants received both doses of the Covishield/AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine. Among participants (n = 492), 45.3% (n = 223) reported one or more side effects. The most frequently reported side effects were soreness of the injected arm (80.3%), tiredness (78.5%), fever (71.3%), headache (64.1%), and hypersomnia (58.7%). The two most common severe symptoms were fever (14.8%) and headache (13%). Most side effects appeared on the day of vaccination: soreness of the injection site (57%), fever (43.1%), and tiredness (42.6%). Most reported symptoms persisted for one to three days-soreness of the injection site (53%), fever (47.1%), and headache (42.6%). Logistic regression showed that women were almost 85% less likely to report side effects. The study's findings corroborate the safety of the Covishield/AstraZeneca vaccine's first dose, evidenced by the relatively minor and transient nature of the side effects. However, the study underscores the necessity for ongoing research to assess the long-term impacts of COVID-19 vaccines, especially in the context of booster doses, thereby contributing to the global understanding of vaccine safety and efficacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Health Occupations , Humans , Female , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Self Report , India/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Headache , Pain , Fatigue , Fever , Health Occupations
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