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1.
J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr ; 2024(63): 20-29, 2024 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38836527

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Innovations in lung cancer control and care have started to transform the landscape of lung cancer outcomes, but lung cancer stigma and biases have been implicated as a deterrent to realizing the promise of these innovations. Research has documented lung cancer stigma among the general public and lung cancer survivors (self-blame), as well as clinicians across many disciplines. However, studies have not explored lung cancer stigma in health-care trainees. These data seek to address that gap and inform efforts to prevent the emergence or mitigate the presence of lung cancer stigma among future clinicians. METHODS: Using clinical vignettes and a 2x2 factorial design, this investigation evaluated the impact of a history of smoking (yes vs no) and cancer diagnosis (lung vs colorectal) on perceptions of the described patient among 2 groups of preclinical health-care trainees (medical = 94 and nursing = 138). A charitable giving paradigm also asked participants to donate provided funds to 1 of 2 cancer advocacy organizations: one serving the lung cancer community and one serving the colorectal cancer community. RESULTS: In study 1, results revealed a consistent pattern of statistically significant and medium to large effect size differences regarding stigmatized perceptions (eg, higher stigmatizing behavior, increased pity, greater anger, and less helping) for individuals with a history of smoking but no reliable differences regarding cancer diagnosis. Analysis of data from nursing trainees in study 2 showed a similar pattern of statistically significant and medium to large effects pertaining to stigma behavior and perceptions of individuals who had a history of smoking depicted in the vignettes. The charitable giving paradigm did not identify any reliable difference between the groups in either study. CONCLUSIONS: Findings revealed a consistent pattern of health-care trainee perceptions that varied by smoking status but much less evidence that the cancer diagnosis contributed to different perceptions. This suggests that efforts to integrate consideration of stigma and biases in health-care training needs to adopt an approach that seeks to mitigate or eliminate stigmatizing perceptions and behaviors toward individuals with a history of smoking.


Subject(s)
Lung Neoplasms , Social Stigma , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/psychology , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Male , Female , Adult , Attitude of Health Personnel , Health Personnel/psychology , Smoking/psychology , Smoking/epidemiology , Stereotyping , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
Int J Equity Health ; 23(1): 114, 2024 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38831276

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The intensive care unit presents structural complexities, and the prevailing power imbalance between patients and staff can lead to health disparities. Hence, unveiling the underlying factors that give rise to and reinforce these disparities can contribute to their prevention. This study aims to shed light on the stereotypes linked to ageism and lookism, which perpetuate health disparities within the intensive care unit setting in Iran. METHODS: This critical ethnographic study employed Carsepkan's approach and was carried out in intensive care units in the west of Iran from 2022 to 2023. The data collection and analysis were conducted through three interconnected stages. In the initial stage, more than 300 h of observations were made at the research site. In the subsequent stage, a horizon analysis was performed. Conversations with 14 informants were conducted in the final stage to enrich the dataset further. Then the analysis process was carried out as in the previous step to uncover an implicit culture of health disparity. To verify the validity and reliability of the study, credibility, conformability, dependability, and transferability were all taken into account. FINDINGS: The ageism and lookism stereotypes emerged from seven main themes; youth-centric; negative ageism; age-friendliness; age-related priority; centered care for pediatric patients and families; appearance-centeredness; and a contradiction between belief and behavior. CONCLUSION: This critical study showed that ageism and lookism stereotypes permeated the intensive care unit's culture. These stereotypes have the potential to influence equality dynamics, as well as to foster and support health disparity in the intensive care unit.


Subject(s)
Ageism , Anthropology, Cultural , Intensive Care Units , Stereotyping , Humans , Iran , Ageism/psychology , Male , Female , Adult , Healthcare Disparities , Middle Aged , Health Status Disparities
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13096, 2024 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849419

ABSTRACT

"Felt understanding" is a crucial determinant of positive interpersonal and intergroup relationships. However, the question of why felt understanding shapes intergroup relations has been neglected. In a pre-registered test of the process in intergroup relations with a sample from East Asia, we manipulated felt understanding (understood versus misunderstood by an outgroup) in an experimental study (N = 476). The results supported the expectation that felt understanding would lead to a more positive intergroup orientation and action intention. The results of parallel mediation analyses showed that felt understanding indirectly predicted intergroup outcomes through felt positive regard, intergroup overlap, and outgroup stereotypes. Furthermore, the results of post-hoc sequential mediation analyses indicated that felt understanding indirectly predicted intergroup outcomes sequentially through felt positive regard and intergroup overlap, followed by outgroup stereotypes.


Subject(s)
East Asian People , Interpersonal Relations , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , China , Comprehension , East Asian People/psychology , Group Processes , Japan , Stereotyping
4.
Dev Psychol ; 60(6): 1109-1130, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38695824

ABSTRACT

Gender stereotypes about science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) are salient for children and adolescents and contribute to achievement-related disparities and inequalities in STEM participation. However, few studies have used a longitudinal design to examine changes in gender stereotypes across a range of STEM fields. In a large, preregistered study, we examined the developmental trajectories of two gender stereotypes (involving interest and ability) in four STEM fields across three time points within a calendar year, starting in Grades 2-8. The diverse sample included 803 students ages 7-15 years old at the start of the study (50% girls; 8.5% Asian, 6.0% Black, 25.5% Hispanic/Latinx, 43.7% White, and 16.3% other). Multilevel growth modeling was used to examine developmental trajectories in students' stereotypes for four STEM fields (math, science, computer science, and engineering) while considering both gender and grade level. We found that different STEM disciplines displayed different developmental patterns: Math ability and science interest stereotypes more strongly favored girls over the year among elementary school participants, whereas computer science stereotypes less strongly favored boys over time, and engineering stereotypes (which largely favored boys) were stable across time. The results highlight that the development of stereotypes is not the same for all STEM fields as well as the need to understand the complexity and specificity of developmental change across fields and types of stereotypes. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Engineering , Mathematics , Science , Stereotyping , Technology , Humans , Female , Child , Male , Adolescent , Longitudinal Studies , Child Development/physiology , Students/psychology , Sex Factors
5.
J Psychosom Res ; 181: 111689, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38704347

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Persistent somatic symptoms (PSS) describe recurrent or continuously occurring symptoms such as fatigue, dizziness, or pain that have persisted for at least several months. These include single symptoms such as chronic pain, combinations of symptoms, or functional disorders such as fibromyalgia or irritable bowel syndrome. While stigmatisation by healthcare professionals is regularly reported, there are limited measurement instruments demonstrating content validity. This study develops a new instrument to measure stigmatisation by healthcare professionals, the Persistent Somatic Symptom Stigma scale for Healthcare Professionals (PSSS-HCP). METHODS: Development was an iterative process consisting of research team review, item generation and cognitive interviewing. We generated a longlist of 60 items from previous reviews and qualitative research. We conducted 18 cognitive interviews with healthcare professionals in the United Kingdom (UK). We analysed the relevance, comprehensibility and comprehensiveness of items, including the potential for social desirability bias. RESULTS: After research team consensus and initial feedback, we retained 40 items for cognitive interviewing. After our first round of interviews (n = 11), we removed 20 items, added three items and amended five items. After our second round of interviews (n = 7), we removed four items and amended three items. No major problems with relevance, comprehensibility, comprehensiveness or social desirability were found in remaining items. CONCLUSIONS: The provisional version of the PSSS-HCP contains 19 items across three domains (stereotypes, prejudice, discrimination), demonstrating sufficient content validity. Our next step will be to perform a validation study to finalise item selection and explore the structure of the PSSS-HCP.


Subject(s)
Health Personnel , Medically Unexplained Symptoms , Social Stigma , Humans , Health Personnel/psychology , Female , Male , Adult , Surveys and Questionnaires , Stereotyping , Attitude of Health Personnel , United Kingdom , Middle Aged , Psychometrics/instrumentation , Reproducibility of Results
6.
Epilepsy Behav ; 156: 109847, 2024 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38788660

ABSTRACT

AIM: This study was conducted to examine the relationship between stigmatization and self-esteem of patients with epilepsy. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 216 patients at a university hospital in Van, a province in eastern Turkey. The researcher prepared the data collection tools, including a personal information form, Jacoby Stigma Scale and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale, in line with the literature. The Jacoby stigma scale was applied to assess stigma. Data analysis was performed using t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Tukey, LSD coefficient. RESULTS: The mean total stigmatization score of patients with epilepsy was 21.11 ± 10.00, while the mean total self-esteem score was 20.26 ± 5.16. The study found a significant negative correlation between stigmatization and self-esteem scores (r = -0.411; p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The research study revealed that patient with epilepsy have a high perception of stigma and low selfesteem levels.


Subject(s)
Epilepsy , Self Concept , Humans , Epilepsy/psychology , Male , Female , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Turkey/epidemiology , Social Stigma , Adolescent , Stereotyping , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302594, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753698

ABSTRACT

The present contribution provides ratings for a database of gender stereotypically congruent, stereotypically incongruent, semantically correct, and semantically incorrect sentences in Polish and English. A total of 942 volunteers rated 480 sentences (120 per condition) in each language in terms of their meaningfulness, probability of use, and stereotypicality. The stimuli were highly controlled for their length and critical words, which were shared across the conditions. The results of the ratings revealed that stereotypically incongruent sentences were consciously evaluated as both less meaningful and probable to use relative to sentences that adhere to stereotype-driven expectations regarding males and females, indicating that stereotype violations communicated through language exert influence on language perception. Furthermore, the results yielded a stronger internalization of gender stereotypes among sex-typed individuals, thus pointing to the crucial role of gender schema in the sensitivity to gender stereotypical attributes. The ratings reported in the present article aim to broaden researchers' stimulus choices and allow for consistency across different laboratories and research projects on gender stereotype processing. The adaptation of this database to other languages or cultures could also enable a cross-cultural comparison of empirical findings on stereotype processing.


Subject(s)
Language , Semantics , Stereotyping , Humans , Female , Male , Adult , Poland , Young Adult , Gender Identity , Adolescent
8.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10022, 2024 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38693278

ABSTRACT

Analyze the gender stereotypes present in the leaders of the Hospital Physiotherapy Units, determine the level of acceptance of female leadership and identify which factors influence these perceptions. Observational, descriptive, exploratory and cross-sectional study. The study subjects are the census of leaders of the Physiotherapy Units of public hospitals. The measurement instruments used are the Acceptance of Female Leadership Questionnaire (ACT-LM), and the sociodemographic and job-related variables. Most of the leaders of the hospital physiotherapy units were women (69.4%) physiotherapists. Gender stereotypes emerge in the dimension of Instrumental Characteristics, with respondents not fully agreeing that women were sufficiently competitive (18.7%) or ambitious (20.8%) to be successful in the world of work. These data were influenced by gender, showing that men have a higher regard for female leadership abilities than women themselves. In the dimension of Acceptance of Female Leadership, 17.4% of those surveyed did not fully agree that women can rise to the same extent as men. Most of the leaders of the physiotherapy units in public hospitals in Spain are women, this is reversed in favor of men in highly complex hospitals. The stereotype persists, especially among women, that they do not have enough ambition and competitiveness to succeed in the world of work.


Subject(s)
Leadership , Humans , Female , Male , Cross-Sectional Studies , Adult , Surveys and Questionnaires , Middle Aged , Physical Therapists/psychology , Hospitals, Public , Spain , Stereotyping , Sex Factors
9.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11052, 2024 05 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744879

ABSTRACT

Pelvic floor dysfunctions (PFD) are highly prevalent among females who do athletics, a sport requiring jumping, strength, and running. Although educational approaches are useful options, the educational need for this particular population remains unknown. The objective of the present study was to describe the level of knowledge regarding PFD and its relationship with symptomatology and gender stereotypes in female athletes in Spain. A total of 255 female athletes completed an anonymous online survey to explore their knowledge regarding urinary incontinence (UI), pelvic organ prolapse (POP), anal incontinence (AI), and sexual dysfunction (SexD), as well as their PFD symptoms and gender stereotyped beliefs related to sport. Educational level and sports characteristics (training volume, experience, and athletic modality) were also explored. Participants demonstrated a low level of knowledge in terms of POP (52.5%), AI (64.0%), and SexD (40%), but not for UI (70.8%). The proportion of PFD complaints was 63.5% for dyspareunia, 51.8% for urine leakage, 42.4% for pelvic pain, 17.3% for AI, and 9.0% for POP, with no associations with knowledge (p > 0.05). Lower knowledge about UI and SexD was related to greater gender stereotypes (p < 0.05) and rejection of professional healthcare (p = 0.010). As a conclusion, the level of knowledge about PFD was low in female athletes who train and compete in athletics in Spain, mainly with regard to sexual dysfunction. Although 63.5% of athletes had dyspareunia and 51.8% urinary leakages, symptomatology was not associated with level of knowledge. However, a lower level of knowledge was associated with more stereotyped beliefs and rejection of professional healthcare for PFD. These findings confirm the need to design appropriate educational interventions to disseminate information on all the types of PFD, particularly sexual contents. The potential influence of gender stereotypes makes it appropriate to include the gender perspective in these interventions.


Subject(s)
Athletes , Stereotyping , Humans , Female , Athletes/psychology , Adult , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Young Adult , Surveys and Questionnaires , Spain/epidemiology , Pelvic Floor Disorders/epidemiology , Pelvic Floor Disorders/psychology , Urinary Incontinence/epidemiology , Urinary Incontinence/psychology , Pelvic Floor/physiopathology , Middle Aged , Adolescent
10.
Obes Rev ; 25(7): e13750, 2024 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38685680

ABSTRACT

Perceptions and biases influence how we interact with and experience the world, including in professional roles as researchers. Weight bias, defined as negative attitudes or perceptions towards people that have large bodies, can contribute to weight stigma and discrimination leading to negative health and social consequences. Weight bias is experienced by people living with obesity in media, health care, education, employment and social settings. In research settings, there is potential for weight bias to impact various aspects of qualitative research including the participant-researcher dynamic in interviews. However, evidence-based strategies to reduce weight bias in qualitative research interviews have yet to be identified. We discuss how weight bias may influence research interviews and identify several considerations and strategies for researchers to minimize the impact of weight bias. Strategies include practicing reflexivity, planning and conducting interviews in ways that support rapport building, using inclusive language, and considering participatory methods.


Subject(s)
Obesity , Qualitative Research , Social Stigma , Weight Prejudice , Humans , Obesity/psychology , Interviews as Topic , Research Personnel/psychology , Research Design , Stereotyping
11.
OTJR (Thorofare N J) ; 44(3): 500-510, 2024 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38654665

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Stigma permeates disability experiences and compounds disability-related challenges. OBJECTIVE: Identify individual and environmental factors of stigmatizing experiences of college students with learning disabilities (LDs) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODOLOGY: A qualitative descriptive design was used with a thematic analysis of 30 transcripts from group discussions among four cohorts of undergraduates with LD/ADHD (N = 52). The Person-Environment-Occupation-Performance Model was used in interpreting the stigmatizing experiences. FINDINGS: The themes Perceived Misconceptions and Stigmatizing Actions describe key social-environmental factors. The theme Overcoming Stigmatizing Experiences elucidates key skills and processes for developing stigma resilience. These skills and processes were anchored in self-awareness and personally contextualized understanding of disability-related challenges and strengths, which were fostered during positive interactions with supportive others, such as instructors and mentors. IMPLICATIONS: Findings illustrate the biopsychosocial nature of stigma and highlight the role of individual and social-environmental factors in building stigma resilience among young adults with LD/ADHD.


Understanding Stigma and Resilience Among College Students with Learning Disabilities and ADHDWe studied how college students with learning disabilities (LDs) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience stigma, which means feeling judged or treated unfairly because of their disabilities. We talked to 52 undergraduates in four groups to understand their experiences and found three main things related to stigma. First, students feel like others have wrong ideas about them and their disabilities. Second, they experience actions from others that make them feel stigmatized. Third, they develop ways to overcome these experiences. Students became more resilient to stigma when they understood themselves better and had support from others like teachers and mentors. Stigma is not just a personal thing for students with LD/ADHD; but it is also influenced by the people around them and how they see themselves.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Qualitative Research , Social Stigma , Students , Humans , Male , Female , Students/psychology , Young Adult , Universities , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/psychology , Learning Disabilities/psychology , Resilience, Psychological , Social Environment , Adult , Adolescent , Stereotyping
12.
JAMA Intern Med ; 184(6): 704-706, 2024 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38619826

ABSTRACT

This cohort study assesses the association between stigmatizing language, demographic characteristics, and errors in the diagnostic process among hospitalized adults.


Subject(s)
Diagnostic Errors , Language , Humans , Male , Diagnostic Errors/prevention & control , Female , Stereotyping , Middle Aged , Adult
13.
Burns ; 50(6): 1662-1670, 2024 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38637258

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the moderating role of gender in the relationship between burn severity, perceived stigmatization and depressive symptoms at multiple time points postburn. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This multi-center study included data from two cohorts. Cohort 1 consisted of 215 burn survivors, participating in a longitudinal study with measures at 3 and 12 months postburn. Cohort 2 consisted of 180 burn survivors cross-sectionally assessed at 5 - 7 years postburn. Both cohorts completed self-reported measures of perceived stigmatization and depressive symptoms. The number of acute surgeries (i.e., no surgery, 1 surgery or 2 or more surgeries) was used as indicator of burn severity. Relations between number of surgeries, depressive symptoms, and perceived stigmatization, including possible indirect effects, were evaluated with gender-specific path models. RESULTS: In both men and women, number of surgical operations was related to higher levels of depressive symptoms and perceived stigmatization at 3 months after burn. In women, number of operations was still directly related to both constructs at 12 months after burn, which was cross-sectionally confirmed in the 5-7 years after burn cohort. In men, from 3 to 12 months after burn, depressive symptoms and perceived stigmatization were bidirectionally related, and, through these effects, number of surgeries was indirectly related to both outcomes. In the cross-sectional 5-7 years after burn cohort, number of operations was related to stigma but not to depressive symptoms of men. CONCLUSION: Number of operations had a different effect on psychosocial adaptation of male and female burn survivors. In women, a persistent direct link from number of operations to both depressive symptoms and perceived stigmatization was found over time. In men, the effect of number of operations was most evident in the short-term, after which perceived stigmatization and depressive symptoms became interrelated. This indicates that burn severity remains a factor of significance in psychological adjustment in women, whereas in men, this significance seems to decrease over time.


Subject(s)
Burns , Depression , Stereotyping , Humans , Burns/psychology , Burns/surgery , Female , Male , Depression/psychology , Adult , Sex Factors , Middle Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Survivors/psychology , Social Stigma , Young Adult , Aged , Surgical Procedures, Operative/psychology
14.
Horm Behav ; 162: 105540, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38652981

ABSTRACT

Sex/gender differences in personality associated with gender stereotyped behavior are widely studied in psychology yet remain a subject of ongoing debate. Exposure to testosterone during developmental periods is considered to be a primary mediator of many sex/gender differences in behavior. Extensions of this research has led to both lay beliefs and initial research about individual differences in basal testosterone in adulthood relating to "masculine" personality. In this study, we explored the relationships between testosterone, gender identity, and gender stereotyped personality attributes in a sample of over 400 university students (65 % female assigned at birth). Participants provided ratings of their self-perceived masculinity and femininity, resulting in a continuous measure of gender identity, and a set of agentic and communal personality attributes. A saliva sample was also provided for assay of basal testosterone. Results showed no compelling evidence that basal testosterone correlates with gender-stereotyped personality attributes or explains the relationship between sex/gender identity and these attributes, across, within, or covarying out sex assigned at birth. Contributing to a more gender diverse approach to assessing sex/gender relationships with personality and testosterone, our continuous measure of self-perceived masculinity and femininity predicted additional variance in personality beyond binary sex and showed some preliminary but weak relationships with testosterone. Results from this study cast doubt on the activational testosterone-masculinity hypothesis for explaining sex differences in gender stereotyped traits and within-sex/gender variation in attributes associated with agency and communality.


Subject(s)
Gender Identity , Personality , Testosterone , Humans , Male , Female , Personality/physiology , Young Adult , Adult , Stereotyping , Adolescent , Masculinity , Saliva/chemistry , Saliva/metabolism , Femininity , Self Concept , Sex Characteristics
15.
Arch Sex Behav ; 53(5): 1609-1620, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38647830

ABSTRACT

Negative attitudes and stigmatization toward sexual minorities is a cause of minority stress of non-heterosexual persons on an individual level and has a negative impact on democratic coexistence in postmodern, plural society on a societal level. Derived from clinical research, we developed a short metacognitive training (MCT) intended to induce doubt toward inaccurate beliefs about LGBTIQ+ persons. We expected this MCT to reduce homonegativity, threat perceptions of LGBTIQ+ persons, and to foster extended outgroup tolerance compared to an education and a no-treatment control condition. We tested this hypothesis in U.S. Republican leaners who represent a social group that is likely to hold homonegative attitudes. We randomly assigned 490 U.S. Republican leaners to an MCT condition comprising 16 questions and respective answers (n = 166) vs. an education control condition (n = 164) vs. a no-treatment control condition (n = 160). We found that Republican leaners after receiving MCT (1) had a significant reduction of homonegativity (ds ≥ 0.28), (2) significantly perceived LGBTIQ+ persons as less threatening (ds ≥ 0.30), and (3) were significantly more tolerant of various outgroups such as LGBTIQ+ persons, feminists, liberals, and climate activists (ds ≥ 0.23) relative to both control conditions. The small effects of this short intervention and the possibility of systematically applying MCT in social discourse to reduce homonegativity with its potential significance for LGBTIQ+ individuals' mental health are discussed. Furthermore, we highlight this pilot study's significance toward intervention possibilities regarding political division and polarization in postmodern, democratic societies.


Subject(s)
Metacognition , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Humans , Pilot Projects , Female , Male , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Adult , United States , Middle Aged , Stereotyping , Homophobia/psychology
16.
S Afr J Commun Disord ; 71(1): e1-e11, 2024 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572902

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:  A few studies have explored the life experiences of people who stutter. Research has shown that stuttering affects a significant number of people in the population. OBJECTIVES:  The study was designed to explore the experiences of people who stutter and the perception of stuttering in South Africa. METHOD:  Four people who identified as South Africans who stutter participated in this study. The primary investigator conducted semi-structured interviews with each of the participants. In addition, a questionnaire was administered to 20 acquaintances of all the participants. Transcriptions of interviews and results of questionnaires were analysed for major and minor themes. RESULTS:  Results of this study suggest different perceptions by those who stutter and those acquainted with them. The findings of the study show that people who stutter experience communication barriers, so they adopt certain strategies to manage and cope with their speech disorder. The findings showed that stuttering has a pervasive impact on the lives of people who stutter and how they view themselves, considering negative societal views. CONCLUSION:  Evaluation of the results from the study reveals that although stuttering is a common speech disorder, many people who are less informed about it harbour various stereotypes and myths that stigmatise stuttering. This study concludes by outlining recommendations for creating awareness of stuttering. It suggests vigorous campaigns aiming at promoting a multilevel approach that extends beyond the mere social and professional understanding of stuttering but addresses the inherent perceptions, myths, and stereotypes around stuttering.Contribution: Experiences of people who stutter and perceptions towards stuttering can help to better understand the speech disorder and overcome myths and stereotyping of stuttering.


Subject(s)
Stuttering , Humans , Stuttering/therapy , South Africa , Stereotyping , Communication , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 25(4): 1223-1229, 2024 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38679981

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cancer is widely considered as one of the most stigmatized diseases globally, despite scientific advances in the medicine. While most existing literatures focuses on cancer stigma as perceived by patients, there has been limited research on  stigma towards cancer among the non-cancer population. In 2014, Marlow et al developed and validated the "Cancer Stigma Scale" (CASS) specifically for the non-Cancer population. This study aims to quantitatively evaluate cancer stigma within the non-patient population in Oman. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study conducted in Oman. The Cancer Stigma Scale (CASS) has been used to evaluate the cancer-related stigma among the non-cancer patient population in Oman. RESULTS: A total of 510 participants completed the survey of whom 57.6% were male. The personal responsibility section had the highest mean score, followed by the avoidance and financial discrimination. The lowest mean scores were observed in the danger and policy opposition sections. Female participants showed ore disagreement  with cancer stigma statements compared to males. Participants who knew someone with cancer expressed more disagreement with stigma statements than those  who did not know anyone with cancer. CONCLUSION: This study provides a baseline measurement of  cancer-related stigma among non-cancer patients in Oman, tilizing the CASS in a representative sample of the population. The results indicate generally low levels of stigma, though certain aspects are more pronounced, varying according to the participants' gender, age, and personal connections to someone with cancer.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms , Social Stigma , Humans , Male , Female , Cross-Sectional Studies , Neoplasms/psychology , Oman/epidemiology , Adult , Surveys and Questionnaires , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Follow-Up Studies , Prognosis , Adolescent , Aged , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Stereotyping
18.
Issues Ment Health Nurs ; 45(5): 498-505, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564780

ABSTRACT

This content analysis seeks to extend what is already known in nursing and public health about the stigma attached to mental illness, and further understand the following evaluation question: How do members of communities targeted by Make It OK, a community initiative to reduce mental illness stigma, describe that stigma? The analysis of responses to open-ended questions included in a community-based survey followed deductive and inductive coding based on published frameworks and survey responses. The domains of stigma were categorized as actions toward people living with mental illness, beliefs about mental illness, and beliefs about people living with mental illness. These identified constructs build on the existing literature base of mental illness stigma in nursing and public health, illuminate the nuance of stigma, and can help tailor anti-stigma efforts.


Subject(s)
Mental Disorders , Social Stigma , Humans , Mental Disorders/psychology , Female , Male , Adult , Surveys and Questionnaires , Stereotyping
19.
Psychol Sci ; 35(6): 613-622, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38652675

ABSTRACT

People perceive out-groups, minorities, and novel groups more negatively than in-groups, majorities, and familiar groups. Previous research has argued that such intergroup biases may be caused by the order in which people typically encounter social groups. Groups that are relatively novel to perceivers (e.g., out-groups, minorities) are primarily associated with distinct attributes that differentiate them from familiar groups. Because distinct attributes are typically negative, attitudes toward novel groups are negatively biased. Five experiments (N = 2,615 adults) confirmed the generalizability of the novel groups' disadvantage to different aspects of attitude formation (i.e., evaluations, memory, stereotyping), to cases with more than two groups, and to cases in which groups were majority/minority or in-groups/out-groups. Our findings revealed a remarkably robust influence of learning order in the formation of group attitudes, and they imply that people often perceive novel groups more negatively than they actually are.


Subject(s)
Attitude , Social Perception , Stereotyping , Humans , Adult , Male , Female , Young Adult , Prejudice/psychology , Group Processes , Middle Aged , Adolescent
20.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0296061, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574001

ABSTRACT

Obesity is found to have a significant impact on body image perception and overall well-being. This study examines the impact of body image and perceived stigmatization on the psychological wellbeing of obese women in Kumasi metropolis, Ghana. A sample of 231 obese women was selected from health shops and some fitness centers using snowballing technique (purposive, snowballing technique and convenience). The study employed the descriptive survey design and made use of both descriptive and inferential data analysis approaches. The body shape questionnaire BSQ-34, the inventory of the Stigmatization Situation (SSI) and finally, the psychological well-being tools were used. Also, frequency distributions mean, and standard deviation, Pearson correlation coefficient and simple linear regression analysis were employed using SPSS version 23. Our findings indicated that obese women in the Kumasi metropolis were significantly satisfied with their body image. This is a true reflection of their higher self-esteem and standard of living. The body image and perceived stigmatization on the psychological wellbeing of the obese do have some counselling implications. Counselors, nutritionists, and clinical psychologists address specific schemes such as binge eating, dieting, and exercising to build the self-esteem of obese women.


Subject(s)
Body Image , Stereotyping , Humans , Female , Ghana , Obesity/psychology , Self Concept , Surveys and Questionnaires
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