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1.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1352, 2024 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38769576

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Women living with HIV (WLWH) experience higher rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) compared to women without HIV, but there has been minimal research to date on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the lived experiences of WLWH who are IPV survivors. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of COVID-19 impact using baseline data from an ongoing, prospective, micro-longitudinal cohort study of HIV care engagement among WLWH who have experienced lifetime IPV. We measured the impact of COVID-19 along key domains (i.e., physical health, day-to-day life, sexual/relationship behavior, substance use, HIV care, mental health, financial status, and having conflict with partners). Using independent t-tests or Fisher's exact tests, and Pearson's chi-squared tests, we compared women with and without ongoing IPV across sociodemographic characteristics, psychiatric disorders, substance use, and COVID-19 impact domains. We then built separate multivariate linear regression models for each of the different COVID-19 impact domains; ongoing IPV exposure was the primary explanatory variable of interest. RESULTS: Enrolled participants (n = 84) comprised a group of women (mean age 53.6y; SD = 9.9) who were living with HIV for a mean 23.3 years (SD = 10), all of whom had experienced lifetime IPV. Among 49 women who were currently partnered, 79.6% (n = 39) reported ongoing IPV. There were no statistically significant differences between those experiencing ongoing IPV and those who were not (or not partnered) in terms of demographic characteristics, substance use, or mental health. In multivariate models, ongoing IPV exposure was not associated with any COVID-19 impact domain. Anxiety and depression, however, were associated with COVID-19-related physical health, HIV care, and relationship conflict. Hispanic ethnicity was significantly associated with COVID-19-related physical health. More severe cocaine and opioid use were also significantly associated with COVID-19-related impact on day-to-day life. CONCLUSIONS: Among this sample of WLWH who are all lifetime IPV-survivors, nearly half had ongoing IPV exposure. The COVID-19 public health emergency period affected WLWH in varied ways, but impacts were most profound for women experiencing concurrent mental health and substance use problems. Findings have important implications for future interventions to improve women's health and social outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Intimate Partner Violence , Humans , Female , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Intimate Partner Violence/statistics & numerical data , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , HIV Infections/psychology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Adult , Longitudinal Studies , Survivors/psychology , Survivors/statistics & numerical data , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology
2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(5): e2411088, 2024 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743422

ABSTRACT

Importance: Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are disproportionately used by sexual minority men, with the physical and mental health implications of AAS use incompletely understood. Objective: To understand the reasons for use and health care needs of gay, bisexual, and queer cisgender men using AAS. Design, Setting, and Participants: This qualitative study was conducted from November 2021 to May 2023 using self-administered questionnaires and semistructured interviews that were transcribed and coded using reflexive thematic analysis. Participants were recruited through convenience and snowball sampling from lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer clinical centers in New York, New York, as well as through online platforms. All patients self-identified as cisgender and gay, bisexual, or queer. Exposures: History of nonprescribed AAS use for a minimum of 8 consecutive weeks was required. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were reasons for and health implications of AAS use and interactions with health care practitioners, as determined through interviews. Interview transcripts were collected and analyzed. Results: Thematic saturation was reached after interviews with 12 male participants (mean [SD] age, 44 [11] years), with the majority of participants identifying as gay (10 participants [83%]), White non-Hispanic (9 participants [75%]), being in their 30s and 40s (9 participants [75%]), holding a bachelor's degree or higher (11 participants [92%]), and having used steroids for a mean (SD) of 7.5 (7.1) years. One participant (8%) self-identified as Black, and 2 (17%) identified as Hispanic. Seven men (58%) met the criteria for muscle dysmorphia on screening. Nine overarching themes were found, including internal and external motivators for initial use, continued use because of effectiveness or fear of losses, intensive personal research, physical and emotional harms experienced from use, using community-based harm reduction techniques, frustration with interactions with the medical community focused on AAS cessation, and concerns around the illegality of AAS. Conclusions and Relevance: In this qualitative study, AAS use among cisgender gay, bisexual, and queer men was found to be associated with multifactorial motivators, including a likely AAS use disorder and muscle dysmorphia. Despite all participants experiencing harms from use, men seeking medical help found insufficient support with practitioners insistent on AAS cessation and, thus, developed their own harm reduction techniques. Further research is needed to assess the utility of practitioner education efforts, the safety and efficacy of community-developed harm reduction methods, and the impact of AAS decriminalization on health care outcomes for this patient population.


Subject(s)
Qualitative Research , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Humans , Male , Adult , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Sexual and Gender Minorities/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Anabolic Agents/adverse effects , Surveys and Questionnaires , Androgens/adverse effects , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , New York , Testosterone Congeners/adverse effects , Anabolic Androgenic Steroids
3.
Harm Reduct J ; 21(1): 96, 2024 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38755587

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Research regarding the contribution of specific psychoactive substances to suicidality has yielded equivocal results. The present study examined the prevalence and factors associated with suicidal thoughts and behaviors among a population-based sample of untreated illicit substance users. METHODS: A total of 616 illicit substance users who were recruited from high-risk areas of Shiraz using snowball sampling participated in the study. Eligible participants were individuals aged 18 years and older who regularly used one illicit psychoactive substance (e.g., opioids, heroin, cannabinoids, stimulants, hallucinogens) for at least one year and who had received no treatment for their drug use during the past year. Data were collected regarding socio-demographic characteristics, mental history, and substance use habits. Data regarding suicidal thoughts and behaviors were assessed using the Beck Suicidal Ideation Scale (BSIS) and self-reports of previous suicide attempts. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent variables associated with suicidality. RESULTS: Among the participants, 23.6% reported having had suicidal thoughts during the past week and 6.7% reported having attempted suicide during the past year. Methamphetamine was reported as the primary substance of use among approximately half of the participants who attempted suicide during past year (49.2%). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that current suicidal thoughts were independently associated with having no job, a history of mental health condition, previous suicidal attempts, concurrent use of more than one substance, and using methamphetamine and heroin as the primary substances. Suicidal thoughts were not associated with increased odds of regular opium and cannabis use. CONCLUSION: Both methamphetamine and heroin use are significantly associated with current suicidal thoughts. Evaluation of the risk of suicidality by physicians and mental health care professionals in both community and outpatient settings would be especially appropriate among those individuals using these psychoactive substances.


Subject(s)
Substance-Related Disorders , Suicidal Ideation , Suicide, Attempted , Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Suicide, Attempted/statistics & numerical data , Suicide, Attempted/psychology , Adolescent , Iran/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Illicit Drugs
4.
Addict Sci Clin Pract ; 19(1): 40, 2024 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38755676

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People with substance use disorders (SUDs) have restricted engagement with health-care facilities and describe repeated experiences of stigma, discrimination, and mistreatment when receiving care at health-care and public addiction treatment centers (PATCs). The purpose of the current study is to design practical cultural-based strategies to reduce addiction-related stigma and discrimination at PATCs. METHODS/DESIGN: The present study will use a mixed-methods design with an explanatory sequential approach. Phase 1 of the study will combine a cluster sampling technique combined with a cross-sectional survey of Patients with Substance Use Disorders (SUDs) in Mazandaran, Iran. A total of three hundred and sixty individuals with SUDs will be selected to assess their experiences of stigma and factors predicting stigma. Phase 2 will involve qualitative study aimed at exploring participants' perceptions regarding the aspects and determinants of their stigma experience. The participants will include two groups: people with SUDs and staff/health-care providers at PATCs. Participants for Phase 2 will be purposively sampled from those involved in Phase 1.Qualitative data will be collected using in-depth semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions and analyzed using content analysis with a conventional approach. Phase 3 will focus on the development of new strategies to reduce the experiences of stigma among people with SUDs at PATCs. These strategies will be formulated based on the findings derived from the qualitative and quantitative data obtained in Phases 1 and 2, a comprehensive review of the literature, and expert opinions gathered using the nominal group technique. DISCUSSION: This is one of the few studies conducted within the domain of stigma pertaining to individuals who use drugs within the context of Iranian culture employing a mixed-methods approach, this study aims to develop culturally sensitive strategies to reduce such problems from the perspective of Iranian people who use drugs. It is anticipated that the study will yield evidence-based insights and provide practical strategies to reduce the stigma and discrimination experienced by people who use drugs at PATCs. Such outcomes are important for informing policymaking and designing healthcare interventions tailored to the needs of individuals grappling with substance dependency.


Subject(s)
Social Stigma , Substance Abuse Treatment Centers , Substance-Related Disorders , Humans , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Iran , Cross-Sectional Studies , Social Discrimination , Qualitative Research , Male , Female , Adult , Research Design , Focus Groups
5.
Ann Behav Med ; 58(6): 422-431, 2024 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38703112

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The past 15 years have seen increasing attention to relationship factors among sexual minority male (SMM) couples at high risk for HIV infection. Research has largely focused on HIV prevention outcomes. Outcomes relevant to SMM living with HIV have received relatively less attention. PURPOSE: This study evaluated associations between relational covariates (relationship status, sexual agreements, and seroconcordance) and HIV care cascade outcomes (having a current antiretroviral therapy [ART] prescription, ART adherence, viral load (VL) testing, and VL detectability) above and beyond cannabis and stimulant drug use. METHODS: Adult SMM (n = 36,874) living with HIV in the USA were recruited between November 1, 2017 and March 15, 2020 through social networking applications. They completed a cross-sectional survey online. RESULTS: Nonmonogamous SMM with serodiscordant partners were most likely to have an ART prescription. Those with seroconcordant partners (regardless of sexual agreements) were least likely to be adherent. While relational covariates were not associated with VL testing, SMM in nonmonogamous relationships with serodiscordant partners were significantly more likely to have an undetectable VL. Those in monogamous relationships with seroconcordant partners were significantly less likely to have an undetectable VL. CONCLUSIONS: SMM with seroconcordant partners and monogamous sexual agreements may experience diminished interpersonal motivation for HIV care engagement. HIV care cascade retention messages that emphasize the prevention of onward transmission may have limited relevance for these SMM. Novel intervention strategies are needed to enhance HIV care outcomes in this population, ideally ones that incorporate attention to drug use.


The majority of people living with HIV in the USA are sexual minority men (SMM). Whereas substantial work has examined HIV prevention in male couples, relatively little has examined relationship factors associated with HIV care outcomes. This study examined whether relationship status, main partner serostatus (seroconcordant vs. serodiscordant), and sexual agreements (monogamous vs. nonmonogamous) were associated with HIV care cascade outcomes (having a current antiretroviral therapy [ART] prescription, ART adherence, viral load testing, and viral load detectability) above and beyond cannabis and stimulant drug use. We surveyed adult SMM (n = 36,874) living with HIV in the USA between November 2017 and March 2020. Across outcomes where significant between-group differences were observed, results generally indicated partnered SMM with serodiscordant partners­particularly those in nonmonogamous relationships­were more likely to be retained in the HIV care cascade; meanwhile, SMM with seroconcordant partners­particularly those in monogamous relationships­were most vulnerable to attrition in the HIV care cascade. Given this pattern of findings, it is conceivable that efforts to motivate linkage and retention along the HIV care cascade have emphasized the prevention of onward transmission while failing to capitalize on or acknowledge health enhancement as an additional (and coequal) source of motivation.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Medication Adherence , Sexual Partners , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Humans , Male , Adult , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/psychology , Sexual Partners/psychology , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , United States , Cross-Sectional Studies , Middle Aged , Medication Adherence/psychology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Sexual Behavior/psychology , Young Adult , Viral Load , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Homosexuality, Male/psychology
6.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38791800

ABSTRACT

Depression is a pervasive issue among college students worldwide, yet there is a significant gap in the literature regarding its prevalence and coping strategies in the Ukrainian context. The present study aims to fill this gap by investigating how substance use and health-promoting behaviors relate to depressive symptoms among Ukrainian college students. Health-promoting behaviors are an important strategy to prevent depression, whereas substance use can contribute to depression or make it harder to manage. Given the substantial psychosocial problems and stressors related to the ongoing war in Ukraine and the limited availability of mental health services for college students, it is important to understand how we can encourage college students to keep themselves mentally healthy. A cross-sectional study was conducted among college students on 10 campuses in 2018. Almost 16% of participants met a cut-off for depression. Female students and those who were older reported significantly higher depressive symptoms. Participants were more likely to report depressive symptoms if they were more often involved with alcohol and cannabis use, were older, and engaged in fewer health-promoting behaviors. Tobacco use was not significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest a moderate prevalence of depressive symptoms in our study population. We recommend implementing balanced public health interventions that address risk factors (such as substance use) while also promoting protective behaviors and can be tailored to the specific cultural and environmental context of the region.


Subject(s)
Depression , Health Behavior , Students , Substance-Related Disorders , Humans , Female , Students/psychology , Students/statistics & numerical data , Male , Depression/epidemiology , Ukraine/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Young Adult , Universities , Cross-Sectional Studies , Adolescent , Adult , Prevalence
7.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 259: 111314, 2024 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38696932

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Substance use disorders are highly prevalent in people within the criminal justice system. Psychological programs are the most common type of treatment available and have been shown to decrease recidivism, but dropping out of treatment is common. Risk factors associated with treatment dropout remain unclear in this setting, and whether the risk factors differ by treatment form (group-based vs. individual). METHODS: Outcome (treatment dropout) was defined as not finishing the program due to client's own wish, misbehavior, no-shows, or because program leader found client to be unsuitable. Predictors of treatment dropout included a comprehensive set of individual-level clinical, socioeconomic, and crime-related pre-treatment characteristics. Multivariable regression models were used to estimate the associations between predictors and dropout. FINDINGS: The study cohort included 5239 criminal justice clients who participated in a psychological treatment program (group-based or individual). Multivariable logistic regression models showed that female sex (OR=1.64, 95% CI 1.20-2.25), age (0.99, [0.97-1.00]), sentence length (0.98, [0.97-0.98]), higher education (0.54, [0.28-1.00]), number of violent offenses (1.03, [1.01-1.05]), and anxiety disorders (1.32, [1.01-1.72]) were associated with dropout from the individual treatment program. For the group-based program, age (OR=0.98, 95% CI 0.96-1.00), sentence length (OR=0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.98), stimulant use disorder (OR=1.48, 95%, 1.00-2.19), and self-harm (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.00-2.34) were associated with dropout. CONCLUSIONS: We identified certain sociodemographic, crime-related, and clinical characteristics that were particularly important in predicting dropout from psychological treatment. Further, we find that there are similarities and differences in predictors of dropout from group-based and individual treatment forms.


Subject(s)
Criminal Law , Patient Dropouts , Substance-Related Disorders , Humans , Male , Female , Patient Dropouts/psychology , Adult , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Risk Factors , Middle Aged , Cohort Studies , Young Adult , Crime/psychology
8.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 95(6): 313-320, 2024 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38790122

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: An Australasian Airline's Alcohol and Other Drug (AOD) Program demonstrates abstinence rates that exceed those of general AOD programs. The reasons for this are unclear. The purpose of this research was to develop a theory as to why this program is successful.METHODS: A qualitative examination following grounded theory methodology was undertaken. AOD program patients and healthcare professionals were interviewed until content saturation was reached. Data analysis followed grounded theory to identify the key concepts associated with the program's success.RESULTS: The core theory that emerged highlighted the pivotal roles of a strong employee-company relationship, shared values, and a safety-focused culture in explicating the program's success. This moves beyond the "carrot and stick" model of motivation, where belonging to this organization and safety consciousness serve as powerful drivers for abstinence. Challenges and barriers highlighted some unique challenges to the program in managing the coronavirus pandemic and the difference in approach to substance use in community spaces versus safety-critical employment.DISCUSSION: This research expands the understanding of this AOD program's success in a safety-critical industry, emphasizing the elements of a working relationship that are beyond positive or negative reinforcement. Future research should work to quantify and test the generalizability of these findings.Nairn J, Bell E, Myers J, Higgins M, Johnston B, Newton-Howes G. A grounded theory exploration of addictions treatment within a commercial airline setting. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2024; 95(6):313-320.


Subject(s)
Grounded Theory , Substance-Related Disorders , Humans , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Male , Qualitative Research , Adult , Female , COVID-19 , Australia , Middle Aged
9.
Ann Epidemiol ; 94: 113-119, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734191

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Transgender youth (those whose gender identity differs from their sex assigned at birth) experience stigma and discrimination that can place them at increased risk for poor health outcomes compared with cisgender youth (those whose gender identity aligns with their sex assigned at birth). Limited population-based data exist on disparities among transgender and cisgender youth. METHODS: We examined differences in experiences of violence, substance use, mental health, suicide, sexual behavior, unstable housing, parental monitoring, and school connectedness among 98,174 transgender and cisgender high school students using data from 18 states that included an item to assess transgender identity on their 2021 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. RESULTS: Overall, 2.9% of students identified as transgender and 2.6% questioned whether they were transgender. Among transgender students, 71.5% reported that their mental health was not good, 32.3% had attempted suicide, and 29.0% experienced sexual violence. Transgender students were more likely than cisgender students to report experiences of violence, substance use, poor mental health, suicide risk, some sexual risk behaviors, and unstable housing, and were less likely to report feeling connected to others at school. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions that can address the causes of these adverse outcomes and promote the health and wellbeing of transgender youths are warranted.


Subject(s)
Sexual Behavior , Students , Substance-Related Disorders , Transgender Persons , Humans , Male , Adolescent , Female , Transgender Persons/psychology , Transgender Persons/statistics & numerical data , Students/psychology , Students/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology , Sexual Behavior/psychology , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Risk-Taking , Adolescent Behavior/psychology , Social Stigma , Schools , Violence/psychology , Violence/statistics & numerical data , Health Status Disparities
10.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303439, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38739626

ABSTRACT

Young adults experiencing homelessness (YAEH) are faced with instabilities in many areas of their lives, including their living situation, employment, and income. Little is known about how the experience of instability in these different domains might be associated with substance use. Leveraging data collected on 276 YAEH in Los Angeles County, regression analyses examine associations between three distinct types of instability (housing, employment, income) and participants' self-reported alcohol use, alcohol consequences, non-cannabis drug use, and substance use symptoms. Results indicated that recent instability in income, employment, and secure housing for those with access to it (but not housing in general or non-secure housing) were significantly associated with greater alcohol/drug use or substance use symptoms. Depression was also found to moderate the association between employment instability and alcohol use. Our findings suggest that efforts to reduce instability in income, employment, and secure housing may have positive benefits for substance using YAEH, especially those with depressive symptoms.


Subject(s)
Employment , Housing , Ill-Housed Persons , Income , Substance-Related Disorders , Humans , Ill-Housed Persons/statistics & numerical data , Ill-Housed Persons/psychology , Male , Female , Employment/statistics & numerical data , Income/statistics & numerical data , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Young Adult , Adult , Depression/epidemiology , Los Angeles/epidemiology , Adolescent
11.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0300848, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38776315

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted lives on a massive scale. While the pandemic appeared to worsen mental health outcomes broadly, its effects on alcohol/substance use and recovery are unclear. Many studies convolved the sociopolitical unrest beginning in May 2020 with the pandemic. We assessed pandemic-related changes in substance use, recovery involvement, and quality of life among US adults at two specified time periods that isolated pandemic effects from potentially confounding sociopolitical factors. OBJECTIVES: We tested the following hypotheses: the pandemic and consequent policies (1) increased use of alcohol and illicit substances in active users; (2) increased use of alcohol/substances among people in early recovery; (3) reduced participation in recovery activities among those in early recovery, and that (4) use amount and use events correlated with impulsivity in both groups and that (5) substance use and abstinence correlated with resilience. METHODS: We recruited 1,685 participants through Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk). We assessed demographics, quality of life, alcohol/substance use, recovery activities, and measures of impulsivity and resilience at two time points, pre-pandemic and (early) during-pandemic. Only n = 45 (Active Users; males n = 32) and n = 34 (Recovery; males n = 20) passed data quality checks and were included in the primary analyses. RESULTS: Among Active Users, weekly alcohol consumption and days spent using alcohol and illicit substances decreased during the pandemic. Resilience negatively correlated with pandemic-related substance use in early recovering participants. Significant reduction in the quality of life was coincident with a trend of lower recovery activity participation (31% decline) during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: The reduced alcohol/substance use and participation in recovery activities might be expected from conditions that promote social isolation. The high prevalence of low-quality data from MTurk cautions for careful use of online data sourcing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Substance-Related Disorders , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Male , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Adult , Female , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Resilience, Psychological , Young Adult , Mental Health , Impulsive Behavior
12.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10195, 2024 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702496

ABSTRACT

Interest in psychedelics is increasing due to the potential for improved mental health and quality of life. However, adverse effects on mental health are still a concern. Personality traits have been suggested to both influence the psychedelic experience and mental health, and even be changed by psychedelic use. The present study describes for the first time a national sample of Swedish psychedelic users (n = 400) compared to a sex and age-matched control-group of non-users (n = 400) regarding mental health variables (depression, insomnia, problematic alcohol and drug use, and dissociation) and personality (Big Five). Data was collected in an online survey including individuals from 16 years of age who had at least one psychedelic experience. The main results reported psychedelic users as less depressed (Patient Health Questionnaire-9; PHQ-9) (d = - 0.29) and having more use of drugs (Drug Use Disorders Identification Test; DUDIT) (d = 1.27). In the Big Five personality traits, openness differed notably (d = 1.72), and the between-group effects in PHQ-9 were explained by lower neuroticism. Our findings reveal that psychedelic users report less depression and higher drug use, and this is partly due to personality traits. These results have implications on how we view psychedelic users and the use of psychedelic drugs.


Subject(s)
Depression , Hallucinogens , Personality , Humans , Male , Female , Hallucinogens/adverse effects , Adult , Personality/drug effects , Depression/drug therapy , Depression/chemically induced , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Adolescent , Sweden , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Quality of Life , Mental Health
14.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 24(1): 103, 2024 May 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38698315

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Use of participatory research methods is increasing in research trials. Once partnerships are established with end-users, there is less guidance about processes research teams can use to successfully incorporate end-user feedback. The current study describes the use of a brief reflections process to systematically examine and evaluate the impact of end-user feedback on study conduct. METHODS: The Comparative Effectiveness of Trauma-Focused and Non-Trauma- Focused Treatment Strategies for PTSD among those with Co-Occurring SUD (COMPASS) study was a randomized controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of trauma-focused psychotherapy versus non-trauma-focused psychotherapy for Veterans with co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder and substance use disorder who were entering substance use treatment within the Department of Veterans Affairs. We developed and paired a process of "brief reflections" with our end-user engagement methods as part of a supplemental evaluation of the COMPASS study engagement plan. Brief reflections were 30-minute semi-structured discussions with the COMPASS Team following meetings with three study engagement panels about feedback received regarding study issues. To evaluate the impact of panel feedback, 16 reflections were audio-recorded, transcribed, rapidly analyzed, and integrated with other study data sources. RESULTS: Brief reflections revealed that the engagement panels made recommended changes in eight areas: enhancing recruitment; study assessment completion; creating uniformity across Study Coordinators; building Study Coordinator connection to Veteran participants; mismatch between study procedures and clinical practice; therapist skill with patients with active substance use; therapist burnout; and dissemination of study findings. Some recommendations positively impact study conduct while others had mixed impact. Reflections were iterative and led to emergent processes that included revisiting previously discussed topics, cross-pollination of ideas across panels, and sparking solutions amongst the Team when the panels did not make any recommendations or recommendations were not feasible. CONCLUSIONS: When paired with end-user engagement methods, brief reflections can facilitate systematic examination of end-user input, particularly when the engagement strategy is robust. Reflections offer a forum of accountability for researchers to give careful thought to end-user recommendations and make timely improvements to the study conduct. Reflections can also facilitate evaluation of these recommendations and reveal end-user-driven strategies that can effectively improve study conduct. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04581434) on October 9, 2020; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT04581434?term=NCT04581434&draw=2&rank=1 .


Subject(s)
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Substance-Related Disorders , Veterans , Humans , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/therapy , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Veterans/psychology , Veterans/statistics & numerical data , United States Department of Veterans Affairs/statistics & numerical data , Psychotherapy/methods , United States , Patient Participation/methods , Patient Participation/statistics & numerical data , Patient Participation/psychology , Research Design
15.
Soins Psychiatr ; 45(352): 32-35, 2024.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38719358

ABSTRACT

Imagine a dream where ocean waves become allies for the caregiver. This vision took shape in a project begun in 2020 at the Clinique de l'Odet, the addictology department of the public mental health establishment in South Finistère: surf therapy as a tool for addictology care, the ocean as an ecological framework for rehabilitation. In this exceptional adventure, the dream of a care team to support patients' recovery through surfing has become a reality, where every wave is a step towards freedom; every take-off a victory on the road to recovery.


Subject(s)
Substance-Related Disorders , Humans , Substance-Related Disorders/nursing , Substance-Related Disorders/rehabilitation , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , France , Negotiating/psychology
16.
Soc Sci Med ; 349: 116896, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38653185

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The United States is responsible for the highest incarceration rate globally. This study aimed to explore the impact of partner incarceration on maternal substance use and whether social support mediates the relationship between partner incarceration and maternal substance use. METHODS: Using data from the Future of Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a longitudinal cohort following new parents and children, this analysis quantifies the relationship between paternal incarceration and maternal substance use (N = 2823). We analyzed maternal responses in years 3 (2001-2003), 5 (2003-2006), 9 (2007-2010), and 15 (2014-2017). We explored the role of financial support and emergency social support as potential mediators. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was employed to construct support-related mediators. We modeled the impact of partner incarceration and maternal substance use using generalized estimating equations (GEE) to account for repeated measures, adjusting for appropriate confounders (age of mother at child's birth, race, education, employment, and history of intimate partner violence). RESULTS: Nearly half (44.2%, N = 1247) of participants reported partner incarceration. Among mothers who experienced partner incarceration, the odds of reporting substance use were 110% greater than those who reported no partner incarceration (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR]: 2.10; 95% Confidence Interval (CI):1.67-2.63). Financial support at year 5 accounted for 19.5% (95% CI: 6.03-33.06%) of the association between partner incarceration at year 3 and substance use at year 9; emergency social support at year 5 accounted for 6.4% (95% CI: 0.51-12.25%) of the association between partner incarceration and substance use at year 9. Neither financial nor emergency social support at year 9 were significant mediators between partner incarceration at year 3 and substance use at year 15. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that partner incarceration impacts maternal substance use. Financial and emergency support may partially mediate this relationship in the short term, which has important implications for families disrupted by mass incarceration.


Subject(s)
Prisoners , Social Support , Substance-Related Disorders , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Female , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Adult , Prisoners/psychology , Prisoners/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology , Mothers/psychology , Mothers/statistics & numerical data , Male , Intimate Partner Violence/statistics & numerical data , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Child , Adolescent , Incarceration
17.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav ; 239: 173766, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604456

ABSTRACT

Although substance use is widespread across the lifespan from early adolescence to older adulthood, the prevalence of substance use disorder (SUD) differs between age groups. These age differences in SUD rates necessitate an investigation into how age moderates reward sensitivity, and consequently influences the risks and consequences related to substance use. This theoretical review integrates evidence from the literature to address the dynamic interplay between age and reward in the context of substance use. Overall, increasing evidence demonstrates that age moderates reward sensitivity and underlying reward system neurobiology. Reward sensitivity undergoes a non-linear trajectory across the lifespan. Low levels of reward sensitivity are associated with childhood and late adulthood. In contrast, high levels are associated with early to late adolescence, followed by a decline in the twenties. These fluctuations in reward sensitivity across the lifespan contribute to complex associations with substance use. This lends support to adolescence and young adulthood as vulnerable periods for the risk of subsequent SUD. More empirical research is needed to investigate reward sensitivity during SUD maintenance and recovery. Future research should also involve larger sample sizes and encompass a broader range of age groups, including older adults.


Subject(s)
Reward , Substance-Related Disorders , Humans , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Adolescent , Age Factors , Adult , Young Adult , Child , Aging/psychology , Male , Female , Aged
18.
J Affect Disord ; 358: 138-149, 2024 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38663555

ABSTRACT

Identifying mechanisms of childhood abuse-adulthood psychopathology relations could facilitate preventive efforts, but most prior studies used cross-sectional or two-wave designs and did not test the effects of childhood maternal and paternal abuse separately. Our 18-year three-wave study thus determined if Wave 2 daily stress reactivity and risk appraisal severity mediated Wave 1 retrospectively-reported childhood maternal and paternal abuse on Wave 3 generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), major depressive disorder (MDD), panic disorder (PD), alcohol (AUD), and substance use disorder (SUD) self-rated symptom severity. Longitudinal structural equation modeling was employed, adjusting for Wave 1 psychopathology severity. Higher childhood maternal and paternal abuse consistently predicted greater future daily stress reactivity and risk appraisal, and these mediators subsequently predicted increased GAD, MDD, and PD, but not AUD and SUD severity. Daily stress reactivity and risk appraisal consistently mediated the pathways between childhood maternal and paternal abuse predicting heightened adulthood GAD, MDD, and PD (Cohen's d = 0.333-0.888) but not AUD and SUD severity. Mediation effect sizes were stronger for childhood maternal (24.5-83.0%) than paternal (19.5-56.0%) abuse as the predictor. The latent interaction between Wave 1 childhood maternal and paternal abuse did not moderate the effect of Wave 1 maternal or paternal abuse on any Wave 3 adulthood psychopathology severity through Wave 2 daily stress reactivity and risk appraisal. Our research emphasizes the urgent requirement for continuous evaluation and intervention initiatives in trauma-informed care, both in inpatient and outpatient treatment settings.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders , Depressive Disorder, Major , Stress, Psychological , Substance-Related Disorders , Humans , Female , Male , Adult , Longitudinal Studies , Depressive Disorder, Major/psychology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Panic Disorder/psychology , Mediation Analysis , Alcoholism/psychology , Adult Survivors of Child Abuse/psychology , Adult Survivors of Child Abuse/statistics & numerical data , Severity of Illness Index , Adolescent , Child Abuse/psychology , Child Abuse/statistics & numerical data , Child , Adverse Childhood Experiences/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult , Risk Factors , Middle Aged
19.
Math Biosci ; 372: 109184, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582296

ABSTRACT

More than 60% of individuals recovering from substance use disorder relapse within one year. Some will resume drug consumption even after decades of abstinence. The cognitive and psychological mechanisms that lead to relapse are not completely understood, but stressful life experiences and external stimuli that are associated with past drug-taking are known to play a primary role. Stressors and cues elicit memories of drug-induced euphoria and the expectation of relief from current anxiety, igniting an intense craving to use again; positive experiences and supportive environments may mitigate relapse. We present a mathematical model of relapse in drug addiction that draws on known psychiatric concepts such as the "positive activation; negative activation" paradigm and the "peak-end" rule to construct a relapse rate that depends on external factors (intensity and timing of life events) and individual traits (mental responses to these events). We analyze which combinations and ordering of stressors, cues, and positive events lead to the largest relapse probability and propose interventions to minimize the likelihood of relapse. We find that the best protective factor is exposure to a mild, yet continuous, source of contentment, rather than large, episodic jolts of happiness.


Subject(s)
Recurrence , Substance-Related Disorders , Humans , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Models, Statistical
20.
J Pers Disord ; 38(2): 138-156, 2024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592911

ABSTRACT

Two studies examined the consistency of associations between specific components of psychopathy and two indices of drug use: (a) abstinence and (b) severity (i.e., counts) of lifetime substance use disorder (SUD) symptoms. Participants were 418 male county jail inmates in Illinois (Study One) and 354 male state prison inmates in New Mexico (Study Two). Across samples, lifestyle and antisocial trait ratings were associated with a reduced likelihood of abstinence from most substances. Lifestyle traits were also uniquely associated with severity of substance dependence ratings. Consistent with prior research, interpersonal traits were uniquely related to cocaine indices in both samples. Furthermore, analyses revealed negative associations between the affective features of psychopathy and alcohol dependence in one sample (Study Two), and illicit substance use across samples. These findings demonstrate the robustness of the associations between the interpersonal and affective features of psychopathy and specific aspects of substance (mis)use.


Subject(s)
Prisoners , Substance-Related Disorders , Humans , Male , Antisocial Personality Disorder/diagnosis , Antisocial Personality Disorder/psychology , Prisoners/psychology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology
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