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1.
Eur J Cancer ; 204: 114074, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38691877

ABSTRACT

Cancers of the skin are the most commonly occurring cancers in humans. In fair-skinned populations, up to 95% of keratinocyte skin cancers and 70-95% of cutaneous melanomas are caused by ultraviolet radiation and are thus theoretically preventable. Currently, however, there is no comprehensive global advice on practical steps to be taken to reduce the toll of skin cancer. To address this gap, an expert working group comprising clinicians and researchers from Africa, America, Asia, Australia, and Europe, together with learned societies (European Association of Dermato-Oncology, Euromelanoma, Euroskin, European Union of Medical Specialists, and the Melanoma World Society) reviewed the extant evidence and issued the following evidence-based recommendations for photoprotection as a strategy to prevent skin cancer. Fair skinned people, especially children, should minimise their exposure to ultraviolet radiation, and are advised to use protective measures when the UV index is forecast to reach 3 or higher. Protective measures include a combination of seeking shade, physical protection (e.g. clothing, hat, sunglasses), and applying broad-spectrum, SPF 30 + sunscreens to uncovered skin. Intentional exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation for the purpose of sunbathing and tanning is considered an unhealthy behaviour and should be avoided. Similarly, use of solaria and other artificial sources of ultraviolet radiation to encourage tanning should be strongly discouraged, through regulation if necessary. Primary prevention of skin cancer has a positive return on investment. We encourage policymakers to communicate these messages to the general public and promote their wider implementation.


Subject(s)
Skin Neoplasms , Ultraviolet Rays , Humans , Skin Neoplasms/prevention & control , Skin Neoplasms/etiology , Skin Neoplasms/epidemiology , Ultraviolet Rays/adverse effects , Skin Pigmentation/radiation effects , Sunscreening Agents/therapeutic use , Melanoma/prevention & control , Melanoma/etiology , Melanoma/epidemiology , Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced/prevention & control , Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced/etiology , Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced/epidemiology , Risk Factors
2.
Chemosphere ; 358: 142218, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38704047

ABSTRACT

Human skin is the first line of photoprotection against UV radiation. However, despite having its defence mechanisms, the photoprotection that the skin exerts is not enough. To protect human skin, the inclusion of UV filters in the cosmetic industry has grown significantly as a photoprotection strategy. Octylmethoxycinnamate, also designated by octinoxate, or 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (CAS number: 5466-77-3) is one of the most widely used UV-B filter in the cosmetic industry. The toxic effects of OMC have alarmed the public, but there is still no consensus in the scientific community about its use. This article aims to provide an overview of the UV filters' photoprotection, emphasizing the OMC and the possible negative effects it may have on the public health. Moreover, the current legislation will be addressed. In summary, the recommendations should be rethought to assess their risk-benefit, since the existing literature warns us to endocrine-disrupting effects of OMC. Further studies should be focus on the toxicity of OMC alone, in mixture and should consider its degradation products, to improve the knowledge of its risk assessment as EDC.


Subject(s)
Cinnamates , Endocrine Disruptors , Sunscreening Agents , Ultraviolet Rays , Cinnamates/chemistry , Cinnamates/toxicity , Humans , Sunscreening Agents/toxicity , Endocrine Disruptors/toxicity , Risk Assessment , Skin/drug effects , Skin/radiation effects , Cosmetics/toxicity
3.
Chemosphere ; 358: 142235, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705416

ABSTRACT

Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a major contributor to skin aging, cancer, and other detrimental health effects. Sunscreens containing FDA-approved UV filters, like avobenzone, offer protection but suffer from photodegradation and potential phototoxicity. Encapsulation, antioxidants, and photostabilizers are strategies employed to combat these drawbacks. Octocrylene, an organic UV filter, utilizes nanotechnology to enhance sun protection factor (SPF). This review examines recent literature on octocrylene-enriched sunscreens, exploring the interplay between environmental impact, nanotechnological advancements, and clinical trial insights. A critical focus is placed on the environmental consequences of sunscreen use, particularly the potential hazards UV filters pose to marine ecosystems. Research in the Mediterranean Sea suggests bacterial sensitivity to these filters, raising concerns about their integration into the food chain. This review aims to guide researchers in developing effective strategies for photostabilization of UV filters. By combining encapsulation, photostabilizers, and antioxidants, researchers can potentially reduce phototoxic effects and contribute to developing more environmentally friendly sunscreens.


Subject(s)
Sunscreening Agents , Ultraviolet Rays , Sunscreening Agents/chemistry , Sunscreening Agents/toxicity , Humans , Acrylates/chemistry , Nanotechnology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Sun Protection Factor
4.
Chemosphere ; 358: 142184, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38697569

ABSTRACT

Pollution from personal care products, such as UV-filters like avobenzone and nano-zinc oxide (nZnO), poses a growing threat to marine ecosystems. To better understand this hazard, especially for lesser-studied sediment-dwelling marine organisms, we investigated the physiological impacts of simultaneous exposure to nZnO and avobenzone on the lugworm Arenicola marina. Lugworms were exposed to nZnO, avobenzone, or their combination for three weeks. We assessed pollutant-induced metabolic changes by measuring key metabolic intermediates in the body wall and coelomic fluid, and oxidative stress by analyzing antioxidant levels and oxidative lesions in proteins and lipids of the body wall. Exposure to UV filters resulted in shifts in the concentrations of Krebs' cycle and urea cycle intermediates, as well as alterations in certain amino acids in the body wall and coelomic fluid of the lugworms. Pathway enrichment analyses revealed that nZnO induced more pronounced metabolic shifts compared to avobenzone or their combination. Exposure to avobenzone or nZnO alone prompted an increase in tissue antioxidant capacity, indicating a compensatory response to restore redox balance, which effectively prevented oxidative damage to proteins or lipids. However, co-exposure to nZnO and avobenzone suppressed superoxide dismutase and lead to accumulation of lipid peroxides and methionine sulfoxide, indicating oxidative stress and damage to lipids and proteins. Our findings highlight oxidative stress as a significant mechanism of toxicity for both nZnO and avobenzone, especially when combined, and underscores the importance of further investigating the fitness implications of oxidative stress induced by these common UV filters in benthic marine organisms.


Subject(s)
Oxidative Stress , Polychaeta , Sunscreening Agents , Animals , Polychaeta/drug effects , Polychaeta/physiology , Polychaeta/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Sunscreening Agents/toxicity , Zinc Oxide/toxicity , Minerals , Antioxidants/metabolism , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity , Ultraviolet Rays
5.
Chemosphere ; 358: 142213, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38697570

ABSTRACT

The increasing use of ultraviolet filters has become an emerging contaminant on the coast, posing potential ecological risks. Rotifers are essential components of marine ecosystems, serving as an association between primary producers and higher-level consumers. These organisms frequently encounter ultraviolet filters in coastal waters. This study aimed to assess the comprehensive effects of organic ultraviolet filters, specifically 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC), and inorganic ultraviolet filters, namely, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs), on the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis. We exposed B. plicatilis to multiple combinations of different concentrations of EHMC and TiO2 NPs to observe changes in life history parameters and the expression of genes related to reproduction and antioxidant responses. Our findings indicated that increased EHMC concentrations significantly delayed the age at first reproduction, reduced the total offspring, and led to considerable alterations in the expression of genes associated with reproduction and stress. Exposure to TiO2 NPs resulted in earlier reproduction and decreased total offspring, although these changes were not synchronised in gene expression. The two ultraviolet filters had a significant interaction on the age at first reproduction and the total offspring of rotifer, with these interactions extending to the first generation. This research offers new insights into the comprehensive effects of different types of ultraviolet filters on rotifers by examining life history parameters and gene expression related to reproduction and stress, highlighting the importance of understanding the impacts of sunscreen products on zooplankton health.


Subject(s)
Reproduction , Rotifera , Titanium , Ultraviolet Rays , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Animals , Rotifera/genetics , Rotifera/drug effects , Titanium/toxicity , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity , Reproduction/drug effects , Cinnamates , Sunscreening Agents/toxicity , Gene Expression/drug effects , Nanoparticles/toxicity
6.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 23(5): 366-375, 2024 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709706

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:   This study aimed to investigate the ultraviolet (UV) protection/repair benefits of a patented Amino Acid Complex (AAComplex). METHODS: I) AAComplex was incubated with dermal fibroblasts, with/without UVA, and collagen I was measured with a GlasBoxPlus device. II) A lotion, with/without AAComplex (1%) was applied topically to skin explants, following UVA irradiation, and quantified for health-related biomarkers (TNFalpha, histamine, and MMP-1). III) A broad spectrum sunscreen with SPF 46 and a skincare serum containing AAComplex (2%) were assessed using epidermal equivalents, in the presence of UV irradiation, for effects on IL-1alpha, thymine dimers, Ki-67, filaggrin and Nrf2. RESULTS: I) Collagen I synthesis in dermal fibroblasts was significantly decreased after UVA compared to without UV. The presence of AAComplex prevented this decrease. II) UVA irradiation of skin explants increased histamine, TNFα, and MMP-1. Hydrocortisone aceponate cream significantly decreases all 3 biomarkers. AAComplex contained lotion also significantly decreased all 3 biomarkers, the no AAComplex control lotion only reduced histamine. III) With the regimen of sunscreen + AAComplex contained skincare serum, the significant reduction in IL-1alpha was observed along with a complete recovery of Ki-67 and stimulation of filaggrin and Nrf2T. No thymine dimer positive cell was observed indicating the most positive skin impact from the regiment.  Conclusion: This research using different human skin models demonstrated that AAComplex can provide protection and damage repair caused by UV, at the ingredient level also when formulated in a serum or lotion formula. Skin may be best protected from UV damage when the regimen is used.   J Drugs Dermatol. 2024;23(5):366-375. doi:10.36849/JDD.7916.


Subject(s)
Fibroblasts , Filaggrin Proteins , Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Ultraviolet Rays , Humans , Ultraviolet Rays/adverse effects , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Fibroblasts/radiation effects , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 1/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Skin/radiation effects , Skin/drug effects , Skin/metabolism , Sunscreening Agents/administration & dosage , Sunscreening Agents/chemistry , Sunscreening Agents/pharmacology , Amino Acids/administration & dosage , Amino Acids/pharmacology , Amino Acids/chemistry , Interleukin-1alpha/metabolism , Histamine/blood , Skin Cream/administration & dosage , Biomarkers/metabolism , Collagen Type I , Intermediate Filament Proteins/metabolism , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Pyrimidine Dimers , Cells, Cultured
7.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 23(5): 353-359, 2024 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709701

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Medical aesthetic procedures for facial antiaging with laser and energy-based devices (EBDs) are rapidly increasing, but standards integrating skincare before, during, and after these treatments are lacking. The algorithm for integrated skin care for facial antiaging treatment with EBDs aims to stimulate healing, reduce downtime, and improve comfort and treatment outcomes. METHODS: A panel of 8 global physicians employed a modified Delphi method and reached a consensus on the algorithm integrating skincare based on the best available evidence, the panel's clinical experience, and opinions. RESULTS: The algorithm has a pretreatment (starts 2 - 4 weeks before the procedure) and treatment (day of treatment) section, followed by care after the procedure (0 - 7 days) and follow-up care (1 - 4 weeks after the procedure or ongoing). Applying a broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF 50 or higher, combined with protective measures such as wearing a wide-brimmed hat and sunglasses, is recommended to protect the face from sun exposure. Dyschromia is a significant concern for those with skin of color (SOC). Clinicians may recommend skincare using a gentle cleanser and moisturizer containing vitamins C and E, retinoid, or other ingredients such as niacinamide, kojic acid, licorice root extract, azelaic acid, and tranexamic acid, depending on the patient's facial skin condition. CONCLUSION: Medical aesthetic procedures for facial antiaging with EBDs integrating skincare or topical treatments may improve outcomes and patient satisfaction. Topical antioxidants and free radical quenchers can combat photodamage and may offer a safe alternative to topical hydroquinone.  J Drugs Dermatol. 2024;23(5):353-359.     doi:10.36849/JDD.8092.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Patient Satisfaction , Skin Aging , Skin Care , Humans , Skin Aging/drug effects , Skin Care/methods , Delphi Technique , Treatment Outcome , Face , Laser Therapy/methods , Sunscreening Agents/administration & dosage
8.
Arch Dermatol Res ; 316(5): 189, 2024 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38775848

ABSTRACT

Many individuals with vitiligo are uncertain about their skin cancer risk, phototherapy risks, and recommended sun protective practices. This study examined the perceived skin cancer risk and sun protective practices among individuals living with vitiligo. A secondary objective was to understand where participants obtain this information. This was a prospective cross-sectional study. An online survey was distributed to vitiligo support group leaders globally who shared the survey with their members. Individuals over the age of 18 and with vitiligo were included. There were 209 survey respondents, the majority were between the ages 35-54 (45.5%, n = 95), female (70.8%, n = 148), White (66.0%, n = 138). Nearly half of respondents believed they were at increased risk of skin cancer because of their vitiligo (45.5%, n = 95) and nearly a quarter (22.5%, n = 47) believed that phototherapy increased their risk of skin cancer. Having vitiligo affected sun protective practices with less than a quarter (24.4%, n = 51) of respondents using sunscreen daily or often prior to their vitiligo diagnosis in comparison to the majority of respondents (60.3%, n = 126) using it after their vitiligo diagnosis. The three most common sources where patients obtained information were the internet and social media (46.4%, n = 97), vitiligo support groups (23.4%, n = 49), and dermatologists (20.6%, n = 43). Despite evidence indicating a decreased risk of skin cancer in individuals with vitiligo and supporting the safety of narrowband ultraviolet B phototherapy, many participants believed they were at an increased risk of skin cancer. Findings were sub-stratified and showed differences in sunscreen usage based on gender, skin color, and percent depigmentation. This study also found nearly half of respondents obtained information related to vitiligo from the internet and social media. The number of participants may limit the generalizability of the findings. Survey questionnaires are also subject to response bias. The findings from this study highlight demographic variations in sunscreen usage which may help guide the development of targeted interventions to improve sun protective behaviors among diverse populations with vitiligo. In addition, this study suggests certain sun protective practices and skin cancer risk perceptions may vary based on extent of depigmentation. Lastly, this study also demonstrates the internet and social media as a popular source for obtaining information, emphasizing the need for dermatologists to leverage various online communication channels to help disseminate accurate information.


Subject(s)
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Skin Neoplasms , Sunscreening Agents , Vitiligo , Humans , Vitiligo/prevention & control , Female , Cross-Sectional Studies , Male , Skin Neoplasms/prevention & control , Adult , Prospective Studies , Middle Aged , Sunscreening Agents/administration & dosage , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult , Aged , Sunburn/prevention & control , Risk Factors , Sunlight/adverse effects
9.
Adv Skin Wound Care ; 37(6): 1-6, 2024 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38767427

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of parents toward protecting their children against skin cancer and the sun. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed in Turkey from March through October 2022. The authors used a questionnaire investigating the parents' and children's characteristics, attitudes, and practices toward sun protection and the Skin Cancer and Sun Knowledge (SCSK) scale to collect data. RESULTS: Of 465 parents, 60.2% were women, 83.2% were light-skinned, 20.2% perceived their children as risk-free, 43.8% perceived their children as low risk in terms of skin cancer, 14.6% examined their children from head to foot, 62.3% applied sunscreen to their children, 9.7% made them wear long-sleeved clothing, 60.0% made them wear headgear, 61.1% made them remain in the shade or under a sunshade, and 32.3% made them wear sunglasses. The mean parental SCSK scale score was 14.3 ± 4.1. Scale scores were higher among those who perceived their children as being at high risk for skin cancer (P = .000), whose children had not experienced red or painful sunburn in the previous year (P = .000), and who informed their children about sun protection (P = .000). CONCLUSIONS: Although knowledge of skin cancer and solar protection was high, parental perception of the risk of skin cancer was very low, and attitudes toward skin examination were also very relaxed.


Subject(s)
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Parents , Skin Neoplasms , Sunburn , Sunscreening Agents , Humans , Female , Male , Cross-Sectional Studies , Parents/psychology , Turkey , Sunscreening Agents/therapeutic use , Sunscreening Agents/administration & dosage , Child , Skin Neoplasms/prevention & control , Adult , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sunburn/prevention & control , Protective Clothing/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Child, Preschool , Adolescent
10.
Skin Res Technol ; 30(5): e13744, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38771547

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence from animal models suggests a role for the organic ultraviolet filter benzophenone-3's (BP-3) on white blood cells (WBCs). However, BP-3's effect on WBCs in humans is unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2003 to 2016. We included participants >6 years with data on urinary BP-3, urinary creatinine, and WBC count. Quintiles of urinary creatinine-normalized BP-3 (CnBP-3) levels were used in linear regression models adjusting for age, gender, race, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, education level, family income to poverty threshold ratio, survey cycle, and season. RESULTS: Of the 16 959 participants, 8564 (50.5%) were females, 6602 (38.9%) were White, and 3870 (22.8%) were Black. The mean (standard deviation) age was 37.6 (22.7) years, BMI was 26.8 (7.40) kg/m2, WBC count was 7.22 (2.53) × 109/L, neutrophil count was 4.15 (1.86) × 109/L, and lymphocyte count was 2.25 (1.33) × 109/L and median (interquartile range) of CnBP-3 was 12.1 (44.9) µg/gm. The highest quintile of CnBP-3 was associated with significantly lower WBC and neutrophil counts compared to the lowest quintile of CnBP-3 (Δ quintiles = -137 × 106/L, 95% CI: -249 to -24, p = 0.02 and = -177 × 106/L, 95% CI: -323 to -30, p = 0.02, respectively). In contrast, we did not observe a difference in lymphocyte count between the lowest and highest quintiles of CnBP-3 in unadjusted or adjusted analyses. CONCLUSION: We found an inverse relationship between BP-3 levels and WBC and neutrophil counts, and not with lymphocyte count. Further research is needed to confirm our findings.


Subject(s)
Benzophenones , Nutrition Surveys , Sunscreening Agents , Humans , Female , Male , Leukocyte Count , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Creatinine/blood , Creatinine/urine , Adolescent
11.
BMJ Open ; 14(5): e082045, 2024 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38754877

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Reunion Island, a French overseas department, is located in the southern hemisphere, close to the Capricorn tropic. This island has a multicultural and multiethnic population of 860 000 inhabitants, a quarter of whom are at high risk of developing skin cancer due to intense ultraviolet radiation. Melanoma is responsible for the majority of skin cancer deaths. The early prevention of melanoma is based on sun protection in childhood, but French regulations are not adapted to the environmental conditions of this tropical region.The main objective of our study is to evaluate the effectiveness of three sun protection programs conducted in Reunionese primary schools through a pupil knowledge questionnaire. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: PRESOLRE is an interventional, open-label, cluster-randomised controlled trial, in four parallel arms, that is being conducted throughout 2022-2023 on Reunion Island. The trial design assumes an escalation interventional effect using: first, a control arm without proposed intervention (arm 1); second, an arm whose classes are encouraged to use the validated educational programme 'Living With the Sun' (LWS) (arm 2); third, an arm whose classes are encouraged to use both 'LWS' combined with 'Mission Soleil Réunion's sun protection awareness programme (arm 3); fourth, an arm benefiting from an intervention similar to arm 3, combined with the distribution of hats, sunglasses and sun creams (arm 4). In all, 1780 pupils from 18 classes of 20 pupils, on average, will be included. Randomisation applies to the classes of pupils (so defined as clusters). The primary outcome is based on the proportion of correct answers to the knowledge questions after the awareness programme, compared between the four arms using a linear mixed model with random intercept. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study obtained ethics approval in 2022 (ID: 2022-A00350-43). Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT05367180.


Subject(s)
Schools , Skin Neoplasms , Humans , Skin Neoplasms/prevention & control , Reunion , Child , Sunscreening Agents/therapeutic use , Sunscreening Agents/administration & dosage , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Melanoma/prevention & control , Sunlight/adverse effects , Female , Sunburn/prevention & control , Male , School Health Services , Health Education/methods
12.
Eur J Dermatol ; 34(1): 26-30, 2024 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557455

ABSTRACT

Gel manicures have become part of a popular personal care service in the last two decades due to increased longevity of the polish and the added strength to the nail plate. Prolonged exposure to nail ultraviolet (UV) lamps is required to cure the gel polish. Despite the increased use of UV nail lamps, there is limited consensus in the literature on the risk of skin malignancy associated with UV nail lamps. The objective of this article was to provide a systematic review of the risk of skin malignancy associated with the use of UV nail lamps and to synthesize evidence-based recommendations on their safe usage. A systematic review of the literature was conducted on the databases, Medline and Embase, in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. The search yielded 2,331 non-duplicate articles. Nine were ultimately included, of which three were case reports, one was a cross-sectional study, and five were experimental studies. The risk of bias per the Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines was high or unclear, likely due to the number of case reports included. Prolonged and repeated exposure to UV nail lamps may pose a low risk of skin cancer. It is important to note that the available evidence is weak, and patients should be informed about the limited data to make their own decisions. Dermatologists and other healthcare providers should be updated with the latest evidence to address patients' concerns about gel manicures and suggest practices which can effectively reduce the risk of cutaneous malignancy associated with gel manicures, such as the use of UV-blocking gloves or properly applied sunscreens.


Subject(s)
Beauty , Skin Neoplasms , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Skin Neoplasms/epidemiology , Skin Neoplasms/etiology , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Nails/pathology , Sunscreening Agents , Ultraviolet Rays/adverse effects
13.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301727, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593171

ABSTRACT

Benzophenones (BPs) are substances used in the production of sunscreens, cosmetics, and personal care products. However, there is a lack of knowledge of BPs in wild animals. Therefore, the study aimed to assess the concentration of selected BPs commonly used in the cosmetic industry in guano samples collected from 4 colonies of greater mouse-eared bats (Myotis myotis). Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to determine guano concentrations of benzophenone 1 (BP-1), benzophenone 2 (BP-2), benzophenone 3 (BP-3) and benzophenone 8 (BP-8). BP-1 levels above the method quantification limit (MQL) were noted in 97.5% of samples and fluctuated from <0.1 ng/g to 259 ng/g (mean 41.50 ng/g, median 34.8). The second most common was BP-3, which fluctuated from <0.1 ng/g to 19 ng/g (mean 6.67 ng/g, median 5.05), and its levels higher than MQL were observed in 40% of samples. BP-2 and BP-8 concentrations did not exceed the method detection limit (0.04 ng/g) in any analyzed sample. There were visible differences in the BP-1 and BP-3 levels among the studied bat colonies. Mean BP-1 concentration fluctuated from 11.23±13.13 ng/g to 76.71±65.51 ng/g and differed significantly between the colonies. Mean BP-3 concentration fluctuated from 5.03±6.03 ng/g to 9.18±7.65 mg/g, but it did not differ significantly between the colonies. The results show that guano is a suitable matrix for the assessment of wildlife exposure to BPs. This could be particularly advantageous in protected species, where not disturbing and stressing the animals are crucial.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera , Cosmetics , Animals , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Biological Monitoring , Poland , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Benzophenones/analysis , Sunscreening Agents/analysis , Cosmetics/analysis
14.
J Hazard Mater ; 470: 134077, 2024 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574654

ABSTRACT

In this study, we analyzed the occurrence and distribution of 11 benzophenone-type ultraviolet filters (BPs) in 893 food samples spanning 7 food categories in Taiwan. We conducted a Monte Carlo simulation to determine the carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic risks of BPs. The results indicated that cornflakes had the highest mean level of BPs (103 ng/g), followed by bread (101 ng/g) and pastries (59 ng/g). BP was the most prevalent category, followed by 4-methylbenzophenone (4-MBP), 2-hydroxybenzophenone, and benzophenone-3. Estimation of the lifetime cancer risk (LTCR) of BP (average life expectancy of 80 years) placed them in the 50th and 97.5th percentiles [P50 (P97.5)] LTCR of 1.9 × 10-7 (5.7 × 10-6), indicating that BP in food poses a low renal hazard to the Taiwanese population. The noncarcinogenic risk of BPs was evaluated using a hazard quotient and combined margin of exposure (MOET), revealing a P50 (P97.5) hazard index of < 1 for BP, 4-MBP, and methyl-2-benzoylbenzoate. Although the P50 MOET values for all age groups were within the moderate range of concern, with a more conservative extreme (P2.5), the MOET values for the 0-3, 3-6, and 6-12 age groups fell below 100, indicating a high concern for renal degeneration and hyperplasia.


Subject(s)
Benzophenones , Food Contamination , Benzophenones/analysis , Benzophenones/toxicity , Taiwan , Humans , Risk Assessment , Food Contamination/analysis , Sunscreening Agents/analysis , Sunscreening Agents/toxicity , Monte Carlo Method , Food Analysis
15.
Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed ; 40(3): e12967, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38616500

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Nowadays, there are emerging trends in customized and personalized photoprotection, focusing on the innovative approaches to enhance sun protection efficacy tailored to individual needs. METHODS: We conducted an electronic search of the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Skin Register, and TESEO. Specific search terms related to personalized photoprotection and the variables of age, genetic predisposition, skin phototype, photodermatosis, and physiological conditions such as pregnancy, as well as lifestyle habits were used. RESULTS/CONCLUSION: The article highlights the challenges and opportunities in adopting personalized photoprotection strategies, aiming to promote skin health and prevent the harmful effects of UV radiation in the era of precision medicine.


Subject(s)
Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Sunscreening Agents , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Sunscreening Agents/therapeutic use , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Habits , Life Style
16.
J Hazard Mater ; 471: 134338, 2024 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38643577

ABSTRACT

The occurrence, environmental risks and contribution of organic UV filters to detected (anti-)progestogenic activities were examined in samples of wastewater treatment plant influents and effluents, various surface waters and fish from the Czech Republic. Of the 20 targeted UV filters, 15 were detected in the WWTP influent samples, 11 in the effluents, and 13 in the surface water samples. Benzophenone-3, benzophenone-4, and phenyl benzimidazole sulfonic acid (PBSA) were found in all water samples. Octocrylene, UV-327 and 4-methylbenzylidene camphor exceeded the risk quotient of 1 at some sites. In the anti-progestogenic CALUX assay, 10 out of the 20 targeted UV filters were active. Anti-progestogenic activities reaching up to 7.7 ng/L, 3.8 ng/L, and 4.5 ng/L mifepristone equivalents were detected in influents, effluents, and surface waters, respectively. UV filters were responsible for up to 37 % of anti-progestogenic activities in influents. Anti-progestogenic activities were also measured in fish tissues from the control pond and Podrouzek (pond with the highest number of detected UV filters) and ranged from 2.2 to 9.5 and 1.9 to 8.6 ng/g dw mifepristone equivalents, respectively. However, only benzophenone was found in fish, but it does not display anti-progestogenic activity and thus could not explain the observed activities.


Subject(s)
Fishes , Sunscreening Agents , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Animals , Sunscreening Agents/analysis , Sunscreening Agents/toxicity , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity , Czech Republic , Fishes/metabolism , Environmental Monitoring , Wastewater , Risk Assessment , Progestins/analysis , Ultraviolet Rays
17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 267(Pt 2): 131462, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38614163

ABSTRACT

The rapid development of the industry has led to the destruction of the earth's ozone layer, resulting in an increasingly serious problem of excessive ultraviolet radiation. Exploring effective measures to address these problems has become a hot topic. Lignin shows promise in the design and preparation of anti-ultraviolet products due to its inherent properties. However, it is important to investigate way to enhance the reactivity of lignin and determine its application form in related products. In this study, phenolic reactions with tea polyphenols were conducted through acid-catalyzed conversion, utilizing organic solvent lignin as the primary material. The phenolic hydroxyl content of the original lignin increased significantly by 218.8 %, resulting in notable improvements in UV resistance and oxidation resistance for phenolic lignin. Additionally, micro-nanocapsule emulsions were formed using phenolic lignin particles as surfactants through ultrasonic cavitation with small-molecule sunscreens. A bio-based sunscreen was prepared with phenolated lignin micro-nanocapsules as the active ingredient, achieving an SPF 100.2 and demonstrating excellent stability. The sunscreen also exhibited strong antioxidant properties and impermeability, ensuring user safety. This research offers a current solution for improving the application of lignin in sunscreens while also broadening the potential uses of plant-based materials in advanced functional products.


Subject(s)
Lignin , Oxidation-Reduction , Polyphenols , Sunscreening Agents , Tea , Ultraviolet Rays , Lignin/chemistry , Polyphenols/chemistry , Catalysis , Tea/chemistry , Sunscreening Agents/chemistry , Sunscreening Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Acids/chemistry
18.
J Dtsch Dermatol Ges ; 22(5): 665-673, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38528320

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Outdoor workers are at increased risk of developing non-melanoma skin cancer. We aimed to address the lack of validated German-language measurement instruments for outdoor workers' sun safety behavior and knowledge by compiling and validating two questionnaires. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: By expert consensus, items for the assessment of protective behavior (OccuSun) were compiled based on existing instruments. For knowledge, a translation of the Skin Cancer and Sun Knowledge (SCSK) scale was selected. After a pre-test, a validation study including 68 outdoor workers (62% female) was conducted in 2020. RESULTS: The retest reliability was r = 0.93 (95% confidence interval: 0.86-0.96) for the protection score and rs = 0.78 (0.67-0.86) for the knowledge score. Protective behaviors were correlated with respective diary data (0.38 ≤ rs ≤ 0.74, p < 0.001) and skin pigmentation changes (-0.23 ≥ rs ≥ -0.42, 0.007 ≤ p ≤ 0.165) but not with self-reported sunburn frequency (0.21 ≥ rs ≥ -0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Among German outdoor workers, two questionnaires for the assessment of sun protection behavior (OccuSun) and knowledge (SCSK) demonstrated good reliability. The OccuSun had generally good validity. Both instruments are fit for subsequent validation to determine their sensitivity to change.


Subject(s)
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Skin Neoplasms , Sunburn , Sunscreening Agents , Humans , Female , Surveys and Questionnaires , Male , Reproducibility of Results , Skin Neoplasms/prevention & control , Adult , Sunburn/prevention & control , Sunscreening Agents/therapeutic use , Health Behavior , Germany , Middle Aged , Sunlight/adverse effects , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control
19.
Arch Toxicol ; 98(5): 1383-1398, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38485782

ABSTRACT

Homosalate (HMS) is a UV filter used in sunscreens and personal care products as a mixture of cis- and trans-isomers. Systemic absorption after sunscreen use has been demonstrated in humans, and concerns have been raised about possible endocrine activity of HMS, making a general population exposure assessment desirable. In a previous study, it was shown that the oral bioavailability of cis-HMS (cHMS) is lower than that of trans-HMS (tHMS) by a factor of 10, calling for a separate evaluation of both isomers in exposure and risk assessment. The aim of the current study is the investigation of HMS toxicokinetics after dermal exposure. Four volunteers applied a commercial sunscreen containing 10% HMS to their whole body under regular-use conditions (18-40 mg HMS (kg bw)-1). Parent HMS isomers and hydroxylated and carboxylic acid metabolites were quantified using authentic standards and isotope dilution analysis. Further metabolites were investigated semi-quantitatively. Elimination was delayed and slower compared to the oral route, and terminal elimination half-times were around 24 h. After dermal exposure, the bioavailability of cHMS was a factor of 2 lower than that of tHMS. However, metabolite ratios in relation to the respective parent isomer were very similar to the oral route, supporting the applicability of the oral-route urinary excretion fractions for dermal-route exposure assessments. Exemplary calculations of intake doses showed margins of safety between 11 and 92 (depending on the approach) after single whole-body sunscreen application. Human biomonitoring can reliably quantify oral and dermal HMS exposures and support the monitoring of exposure reduction measures.


Subject(s)
Biological Monitoring , Salicylates , Sunscreening Agents , Humans , Administration, Cutaneous , Toxicokinetics
20.
BMJ ; 384: e078538, 2024 03 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38508682

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of safeguards to prevent large language models (LLMs) from being misused to generate health disinformation, and to evaluate the transparency of artificial intelligence (AI) developers regarding their risk mitigation processes against observed vulnerabilities. DESIGN: Repeated cross sectional analysis. SETTING: Publicly accessible LLMs. METHODS: In a repeated cross sectional analysis, four LLMs (via chatbots/assistant interfaces) were evaluated: OpenAI's GPT-4 (via ChatGPT and Microsoft's Copilot), Google's PaLM 2 and newly released Gemini Pro (via Bard), Anthropic's Claude 2 (via Poe), and Meta's Llama 2 (via HuggingChat). In September 2023, these LLMs were prompted to generate health disinformation on two topics: sunscreen as a cause of skin cancer and the alkaline diet as a cancer cure. Jailbreaking techniques (ie, attempts to bypass safeguards) were evaluated if required. For LLMs with observed safeguarding vulnerabilities, the processes for reporting outputs of concern were audited. 12 weeks after initial investigations, the disinformation generation capabilities of the LLMs were re-evaluated to assess any subsequent improvements in safeguards. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome measures were whether safeguards prevented the generation of health disinformation, and the transparency of risk mitigation processes against health disinformation. RESULTS: Claude 2 (via Poe) declined 130 prompts submitted across the two study timepoints requesting the generation of content claiming that sunscreen causes skin cancer or that the alkaline diet is a cure for cancer, even with jailbreaking attempts. GPT-4 (via Copilot) initially refused to generate health disinformation, even with jailbreaking attempts-although this was not the case at 12 weeks. In contrast, GPT-4 (via ChatGPT), PaLM 2/Gemini Pro (via Bard), and Llama 2 (via HuggingChat) consistently generated health disinformation blogs. In September 2023 evaluations, these LLMs facilitated the generation of 113 unique cancer disinformation blogs, totalling more than 40 000 words, without requiring jailbreaking attempts. The refusal rate across the evaluation timepoints for these LLMs was only 5% (7 of 150), and as prompted the LLM generated blogs incorporated attention grabbing titles, authentic looking (fake or fictional) references, fabricated testimonials from patients and clinicians, and they targeted diverse demographic groups. Although each LLM evaluated had mechanisms to report observed outputs of concern, the developers did not respond when observations of vulnerabilities were reported. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that although effective safeguards are feasible to prevent LLMs from being misused to generate health disinformation, they were inconsistently implemented. Furthermore, effective processes for reporting safeguard problems were lacking. Enhanced regulation, transparency, and routine auditing are required to help prevent LLMs from contributing to the mass generation of health disinformation.


Subject(s)
Camelids, New World , Skin Neoplasms , Humans , Animals , Disinformation , Artificial Intelligence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sunscreening Agents , Language
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