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1.
Vaccine ; 2024 Jun 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839519

RESUMEN

The level of neutralizing antibodies required to confer protection against COVID-19 breakthrough infections (BIs) is unclear, and the ability to know the immune status of individuals against the rapidly changing endemic variants is limited. We assessed longitudinal serum anti-RBD antibody levels and neutralizing activities (NTs) against Omicron BA.5 and XBB.1.5 in healthcare workers following the fourth monovalent and fifth bivalent BA.4-5 vaccines. The occurrence of BIs was also followed, and pre-infection antibody levels were compared between patients who developed BI and those who did not. In addition, we collected whole blood samples on the same day as the sera and stored them on filter papers (nos. 545, 590, and 424) for up to two months, then measured their NTs using dried blood spots (DBS) eluates, and compared them with the NTs in paired sera. Pre-infection levels of NTs were lower in patients who developed BI than those who did not, but the anti-RBD antibody levels were not different between them. The NTs below 50 % using 200-fold diluted sera might be one of the indicators of high risk for COVID-19 BI. However, the NTs against XBB.1.5 at 6 months after the fifth dose of bivalent BA.4-5 vaccine were lower than this threshold in almost half of infection-naïve participants. NTs measured using DBS eluates were strongly correlated with those measured using paired sera, but the time and temperature stability varied with the type of filter paper; no. 545 filter paper was found to most suitable for NT evaluation.

2.
Ecohealth ; 2024 Jun 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844740

RESUMEN

The current pandemic produced by SARS-CoV-2 and its variants represent an example of the one health concept in which humans and animals are components of the same epidemiologic chain. Animal reservoirs of these viruses are thus the focus of surveillance programs, to monitor their circulation and evolution in potentially new hosts and reservoirs. In this work, we report the detection of the SARS-CoV-2 Gamma variant infection in four specimens of Chaetophractus villosus (big hairy armadillo/armadillo peludo) in Argentina. In addition to the finding of a new wildlife species susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection, the identification of the Gamma variant three months after its last detection in humans in Argentina is a noteworthy result, which can be due to alternative non-exclusive scenarios, such as unidentified viral reservoirs, unrecognized circulation in humans or species-specific variation in incubation periods.

3.
Indian J Public Health ; 68(1): 60-65, 2024 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38847635

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Analysis of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) surveillance system in the first wave indicated that the data-driven approach helped in resource allocation and public health interventions. OBJECTIVES: We described the epidemiology of COVID-19 cases in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, from February 2021 to February 2022. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the COVID-19 surveillance data from Chennai City, Tamil Nadu, India's Greater Chennai Corporation. We described the deidentified line list of COVID-19 cases and deaths by months, zones, age, and gender. We estimated the incidence of COVID-19 cases per million population, test positivity rate (TPR), and case fatality ratio (CFR). RESULTS: Of the 434,040 cases reported in Chennai from February 1, 2021, to February 28, 2022, 53% were male. The incidence per million peaked in May 2021 (19,210) and January 2022 (15,881). Age groups more than 60 years reported maximum incidence. Southern region zones reported higher incidence. Overall TPR was 5.8%, peaked in May 2021 (17.5%) and January 2022 (15.1%). Over half of the 4929 reported deaths were in May 2021 (56%). Almost half of the deaths were 61-80 years (52%), followed by 41-60 years (26%). Overall CFR was 1%, which peaked in June 2021 (4%). CONCLUSION: We conclude that Chennai city experienced a surge in COVID-19 due to delta and omicron variants. Understanding descriptive epidemiology is vital for planning the public health response, resource allocation, vaccination policies, and risk communication to the community.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , India/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/mortalidad , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Incidencia , Adulto , Anciano , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Adulto Joven , Lactante
4.
Brief Bioinform ; 25(4)2024 May 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38833323

RESUMEN

The emergence and rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 prompted the global community to identify innovative approaches to diagnose infection and sequence the viral genome because at several points in the pandemic positive case numbers exceeded the laboratory capacity to characterize sufficient samples to adequately respond to the spread of emerging variants. From week 10, 2020, to week 13, 2023, Slovenian routine complete genome sequencing (CGS) surveillance network yielded 41 537 complete genomes and revealed a typical molecular epidemiology with early lineages gradually being replaced by Alpha, Delta, and finally Omicron. We developed a targeted next-generation sequencing based variant surveillance strategy dubbed Spike Screen through sample pooling and selective SARS-CoV-2 spike gene amplification in conjunction with CGS of individual cases to increase throughput and cost-effectiveness. Spike Screen identifies variant of concern (VOC) and variant of interest (VOI) signature mutations, analyses their frequencies in sample pools, and calculates the number of VOCs/VOIs at the population level. The strategy was successfully applied for detection of specific VOC/VOI mutations prior to their confirmation by CGS. Spike Screen complemented CGS efforts with an additional 22 897 samples sequenced in two time periods: between week 42, 2020, and week 24, 2021, and between week 37, 2021, and week 2, 2022. The results showed that Spike Screen can be applied to monitor VOC/VOI mutations among large volumes of samples in settings with limited sequencing capacity through reliable and rapid detection of novel variants at the population level and can serve as a basis for public health policy planning.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento/métodos , COVID-19/virología , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiología , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/genética , Mutación , Genoma Viral , Eslovenia/epidemiología
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 559, 2024 Jun 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834974

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) are at an elevated risk of progressing to severe infections upon contracting COVID-19. We conducted a study on risk factors and multi-pathogen infections in KTRs with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant. METHODS: KTRs were subjected to a thorough etiological evaluation. Whenever feasible, they were also provided with bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage to enable metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS), ideally within a 48-hour window post-admission. We performed a retrospective analysis for pathogens and risk factors of KTRs with the COVID-19 virus variant Omicron. RESULTS: We included thirty patients in our study, with sixteen exhibiting single infection of COVID-19 and fourteen experiencing co-infections, predominantly with Pneumocystis jirovecii. Notably, patients with severe cases demonstrated significantly elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 compared to those with moderate cases (P < 0.05). Furthermore, individuals whose conditions progressed had markedly higher baseline serum creatinine levels than those without such progression (P < 0.05). The presence of heart failure, acute exacerbation of renal dysfunction, and a history of opportunistic infections were significantly associated with a higher likelihood of deterioration and hospital admission due to the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant, as compared to the control group (P < 0.05). In subsequent follow-up analysis, the all-cause rehospitalization rate was observed to be 21.4%, with Pneumocystis jirovecii infection accounting for half of these cases. CONCLUSION: Among KTRs, a significant coinfection rate of 47% was observed, with Pneumocystis jirovecii emerging as the predominant pathogen in these cases. The development of heart failure, acute exacerbation of chronic renal dysfunction, and a prior history of opportunistic infections have been identified as potential risk factors that may contribute to clinical deterioration in KTRs. Additionally, Pneumocystis jirovecii infection has been established as a critical factor influencing the rate of all-cause rehospitalization within this patient population.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfección , Trasplante de Riñón , SARS-CoV-2 , Receptores de Trasplantes , Humanos , Trasplante de Riñón/efectos adversos , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/virología , Masculino , Femenino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Persona de Mediana Edad , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto , Coinfección/microbiología , Coinfección/virología , Coinfección/epidemiología , Anciano , Pneumocystis carinii/genética , Pneumocystis carinii/aislamiento & purificación , Neumonía por Pneumocystis/virología , Neumonía por Pneumocystis/epidemiología
6.
Front Oncol ; 14: 1396913, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38835372

RESUMEN

Background: Impact of B-cell depletion following treatment with Bruton tyrosine kinase-inhibitors (BTKi) on the outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients remain controversial. We investigated the impact of BTKi on susceptibility and the severity of COVID-19 in Chinese patients with CLL during the first wave of COVID-19 (Omicron variant). Methods: CLL patients (n=171) visiting the Institute of Hematology, Peoples' Hospital, China (November 15, 2022- January 20, 2023) were included in the study. Seventeen patients receiving BTKi and venetoclax with or without obinutuzumab were excluded. Data from 117 patients receiving treatment with BTKi were collected using a standardized questionnaire through telephone interviews. Thirty-four patients without CLL-specific treatment served as controls. The data was analysed using IBM SPSS Software version 21 and a P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The median age of patients was 67 years and majority were males (n=100). Treatment with BTKi was not associated with higher incidence of COVID-19 (74% [95% Confidence Interval (CI) 60%, 92%]) versus 74% (CI 48%, 100%) without any treatment (P=0.92). Hypoxemia was reported by 45% (32%, 61%) and 16% (4%, 41%) (P=0.01). BTKi was the only independent risk factor of hypoxemia (Hazard Ratio [HR], 4.22 [1.32, 13.50]; P = 0.02). Five (5.7%) patients with COVID-19 under BTKi required ICU admission; 4 of them died. No ICU admissions/deaths were observed in the control group. Conclusion: In Chinese patients with CLL and treated with BTKi experienced more severe lung disease and ICU admissions due to COVID-19 than patients without CLL therapy. Frequency of infections with SARS-CoV-2, however, was not different in patients with or without BTKi treatment.

7.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 11: 1383252, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38835792

RESUMEN

Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics and risk factors of patients with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant infection complicated with cardiovascular diseases. Methods: A retrospective analysis of general clinical data was conducted on patients with SARS-CoV-2 omicron infection complicated with hypertension, coronary heart disease, and heart failure admitted to one hospital in Guangdong Province from December 1, 2022, to February 28, 2023. Clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, imaging examinations, treatment, and clinical outcomes were collected. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the risk factors for mortality in patients with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant infection complicated with cardiovascular diseases. ROC curves were drawn to evaluate the predictive value of CRP, D-dimer, and CK-MB in predicting the risk of death. Results: A total of 364 confirmed cases were included, divided into the asymptomatic group, mild to moderate group, and severe to critically ill group based on the symptoms of COVID-19. There were 216 males (59.34%) and 148 females (40.66%), with a median age of 75 years. The differences between the three groups in terms of sex and age were statistically significant (p < 0.05). The top three underlying diseases were hypertension (288 cases, 79.12%), coronary heart disease (100 cases, 27.47%), and diabetes (84 cases, 23.08%). The differences in unvaccinated and triple-vaccinated patients among the three groups were statistically significant (p < 0.05). The common respiratory symptoms were cough in 237 cases (65.11%) and sputum production in 199 cases (54.67%). In terms of laboratory tests, there were statistically significant differences in neutrophils, lymphocytes, red blood cells, C-reactive protein, D-dimer, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatinine among the three groups (p < 0.05). In imaging examinations, there were statistically significant differences among the three groups in terms of unilateral pulmonary inflammation, bilateral pulmonary inflammation, and bilateral pleural effusion (p < 0.05). There were statistically significant differences among the three groups in terms of antibiotic treatment, steroid treatment, oxygen therapy, nasal cannula oxygen inhalation therapy, non-invasive ventilation, and tracheal intubation ventilation (p < 0.05). Regarding clinical outcomes, there were statistically significant differences among the three groups in terms of mortality (p < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that CRP (OR = 1.012, 95% CI = 1.004-1.019) and D-dimer (OR = 1.117, 95% CI = 1.021-1.224) were independent risk factors for patient mortality. The predictive value of CRP, D-dimer, and CK-MB for the risk of death was assessed. D-dimer had the highest sensitivity (95.8%) in predicting patient mortality risk, while CRP had the highest specificity (84.4%). Conclusion: For patients with COVID-19 and concomitant cardiovascular diseases without contraindications, early administration of COVID-19 vaccines and booster shots can effectively reduce the mortality rate of severe cases. Monitoring biomarkers such as CRP, D-dimer, and CK-MB and promptly providing appropriate care can help mitigate the risk of mortality in patients.

8.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 18(6): e13312, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38837866

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To inform future response planning we aimed to assess SARS-CoV-2 trends in infection- and/or vaccine-induced immunity, including breakthrough infections, among (sub)groups, professions and regions in the Dutch population during the Variant of Concern (VOC)-era. METHODS: In this prospective population-based cohort, randomly selected participants (n = 9985) aged 1-92 years (recruited early-2020) donated home-collected fingerstick-blood samples at six timepoints in 2021/2022, covering waves dominated by Alpha, Delta, and multiple Omicron (sub-)variants. IgG antibody assessment against Spike-S1 and Nucleoprotein was combined with vaccination- and testing data to estimate infection-induced (inf) and total (infection- and vaccination-induced) seroprevalence. RESULTS: Nationwide inf-seroprevalence rose modestly from 12% (95% CI 11-13) since Alpha to 26% (95% CI 24-28) amidst Delta, while total seroprevalence increased rapidly to 87% (95% CI 85-88), particularly in elderly and those with comorbidities (i.e., vulnerable groups). Interestingly, highest infection rates were noticeable among low/middle educated elderly, non-Western, those in contact professions, adolescents and young adults, and in low-vaccination coverage regions. Following Omicron emergence, inf-seroprevalence elevated sharply to 62% (95% CI 59-65) and further to 86% (95% CI 83-90) in late-2022, with frequent breakthrough infections and decreasing seroprevalence dissimilarities between most groups. Whereas > 90% of < 60-year-olds had been infected at least once, 30% of vaccinated vulnerable individuals had still not acquired hybrid immunity. CONCLUSIONS: Groups identified to have been infected disproportionally during the acute phase of the pandemic require specific attention in evaluation of control measures and future response planning worldwide. Furthermore, ongoing tailored vaccination efforts and (sero-)monitoring of vulnerable groups may remain important.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/inmunología , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Países Bajos/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , Preescolar , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Adulto Joven , Masculino , Femenino , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Lactante , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Estudios Prospectivos , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/inmunología , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/administración & dosificación , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos
9.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 18(6): e13332, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38838093

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mozambique was one of many African countries with limited testing capacity for SARS-CoV-2. Serosurveys, an alternative to estimate the real exposure to understand the epidemiology and transmission dynamics, have been scarce in Mozambique. Herein, we aimed to estimate the age-specific seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in the general population of the Manhiça District, at four time points, for evaluating dynamics of exposure and the impact of vaccination. METHODS: We conducted four community-based seroepidemiological surveys separated by 3 months between May 2021 and June 2022 to assess the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. An age-stratified (0-19, 20-39, 40-59, and ≥ 60 years) sample of 4810 individuals was randomly selected from demographic surveillance database, and their blood samples were analyzed using WANTAI SARS-CoV-2 IgG + IgM ELISA. Nasopharyngeal swabs from a subsample of 2209 participants were also assessed for active infection by RT-qPCR. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence increased from 27.6% in the first survey (May 2021) to 63.6%, 91.2%, and 91.1% in the second (October 2021), third (January 2022), and fourth (May 2022) surveys, respectively. Seroprevalence in individuals < 18 years, who were not eligible for vaccination, increased from 23.1% in the first survey to 87.1% in the fourth. The prevalence of active infection was below 10.1% in all surveys. CONCLUSIONS: A high seroprevalence to SARS-CoV-2 was observed in the study population, including individuals not eligible for vaccination at that time, particularly after circulation of the highly transmissible Delta variant. These data are important to inform decision making on the vaccination strategies in the context of pandemic slowdown in Mozambique.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales , COVID-19 , Población Rural , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Mozambique/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/transmisión , COVID-19/prevención & control , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Adulto , Adolescente , Preescolar , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven , Niño , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Femenino , Masculino , Lactante , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Recién Nacido , Anciano , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Inmunoglobulina M/sangre
10.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1356314, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38840924

RESUMEN

Introduction: Outbreaks of coronaviruses and especially the recent COVID-19 pandemic emphasize the importance of immunological research in this area to mitigate the effect of future incidents. Bioinformatics approaches are capable of providing multisided insights from virus sequencing data, although currently available software options are not entirely suitable for a specific task of mutation surveillance within immunogenic epitopes of SARS-CoV-2. Method: Here, we describe the development of a mutation tracker, EpitopeScan, a Python3 package with command line and graphical user interface tools facilitating the investigation of the mutation dynamics in SARS-CoV-2 epitopes via analysis of multiple-sequence alignments of genomes over time. We provide an application case by examining three Spike protein-derived immunodominant CD4+ T-cell epitopes restricted by HLA-DRB1*04:01, an allele strongly associated with susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Mutations in these peptides are relevant for immune monitoring of CD4+ T-cell responses against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in patients with RA. The analysis focused on 2.3 million SARS-CoV-2 genomes sampled in England. Results: We detail cases of epitope conservation over time, partial loss of conservation, and complete divergence from the wild type following the emergence of the N969K Omicron-specific mutation in November 2021. The wild type and the mutated peptide represent potential candidates to monitor variant-specific CD4+ T-cell responses. EpitopeScan is available via GitHub repository https://github.com/Aleksandr-biochem/EpitopeScan.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Epítopos de Linfocito T , Mutación , SARS-CoV-2 , Programas Informáticos , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Humanos , COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/virología , Epítopos de Linfocito T/inmunología , Epítopos de Linfocito T/genética , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/inmunología , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/genética , Linfocitos T CD4-Positivos/inmunología , Biología Computacional/métodos , Epítopos Inmunodominantes/inmunología , Epítopos Inmunodominantes/genética , Artritis Reumatoide/inmunología , Artritis Reumatoide/genética , Cadenas HLA-DRB1/genética , Cadenas HLA-DRB1/inmunología
11.
Int J Cancer ; 2024 Jun 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38837354

RESUMEN

A significant Omicron wave emerged in China in December 2022. To explore the duration of humoral and cellular response postinfection and the efficacy of hybrid immunity in preventing Omicron reinfection in patients with lung cancer, a total of 447 patients were included in the longitudinal study after the Omicron wave from March 2023 to August 2023. Humoral responses were measured at pre-Omicron wave, 3 months and 7 months postinfection. The detected severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) specific antibodies including total antibodies, anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) specific IgG, and neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 wild type (WT) and BA.4/5 variant. T cell responses against SARS-CoV-2 WT and Omicron variant were evaluated in 101 patients by ELISpot at 3 months postinfection. The results showed that Omicron-infected symptoms were mild, while fatigue (30.2%), shortness of breath (34.0%) and persistent cough (23.6%) were long-lasting, and vaccines showed efficacy against fever in lung cancer patients. Humoral responses were higher in full or booster vaccinated patients than those unvaccinated (p < .05 for all four antibodies), and the enhanced response persisted for at least 7 months. T cell response to Omicron was higher than WT peptides (21.3 vs. 16.0 SFUs/106 PBMCs, p = .0093). Moreover, 38 (9.74%) patients were reinfected, which had lower antibody responses than non-reinfected patients (all p < .05), and those patients of unvaccinated at late stage receiving anti-cancer immunotherapy alone were at high risk of reinfection. Collectively, these data demonstrate the Omicron infection induces a high and durable immune response in vaccinated patients with lung cancer, which protects vaccinated patients from reinfection.

12.
Cancer Med ; 13(11): e7304, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38826094

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The surge in omicron variants has caused nationwide breakthrough infections in mainland China since the December 2022. In this study, we report the neutralization profiles of serum samples from the patients with breast cancer and the patients with liver cancer who had contracted subvariant breakthrough infections. METHODS: In this real-world study, we enrolled 143 COVID-19-vaccinated (81 and 62 patients with breast and liver cancers) and 105 unvaccinated patients with cancer (58 and 47 patients with breast and liver cancers) after omicron infection. Anti-spike receptor binding domain (RBD) IgGs and 50% pseudovirus neutralization titer (pVNT50) for the preceding (wild type), circulating omicron (BA.4-BA.5, and BF.7), and new subvariants (XBB.1.5) were comprehensively analyzed. RESULTS: Patients with liver cancer receiving booster doses had higher levels of anti-spike RBD IgG against circulating omicron (BA.4-BA.5, and BF.7) and a novel subvariant (XBB.1.5) compared to patients with breast cancer after breakthrough infection. Additionally, all vaccinated patients produced higher neutralizing antibody titers against circulating omicron (BA.4-BA.5, and BF.7) compared to unvaccinated patients. However, the unvaccinated patients produced higher neutralizing antibody against XBB.1.5 than vaccinated patients after Omicron infection, with this trend being more pronounced in breast cancer than in liver cancer patients. Moreover, we found that there was no correlation between anti-spike RBD IgG against wildtype virus and the neutralizing antibody titer, but a positive correlation between anti-spike RBD IgG and the neutralizing antibody against XBB.1.5 was found in unvaccinated patients. CONCLUSION: Our study found that there may be differences in vaccine response and protective effect against COVID-19 infection in patients with liver and breast cancer. Therefore, we recommend that COVID-19 vaccine strategies should be optimized based on vaccine components and immunology profiles of different patients with cancer.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Neutralizantes , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Neoplasias de la Mama , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Neoplasias Hepáticas , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Femenino , COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , COVID-19/virología , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virología , Neoplasias Hepáticas/inmunología , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiología , Neoplasias de la Mama/inmunología , Neoplasias de la Mama/epidemiología , Neoplasias de la Mama/virología , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/sangre , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/inmunología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , China/epidemiología , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/inmunología , Adulto , Anciano , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/inmunología , Masculino , Brotes de Enfermedades , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Inmunoglobulina G/inmunología
13.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12713, 2024 06 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38830928

RESUMEN

Despite high vaccination rates globally, countries are still grappling with new COVID infections, and patients diagnosed as mild dying at home during outpatient treatment. Hence, this study aim to identify, then validate, biomarkers that could predict if newly infected COVID-19 patients would subsequently require hospitalization or could recover safely with medication as outpatients. Serum cytokine/chemokine data from 129 COVID-19 patients within 7 days after the onset of symptoms in Bangladesh were used as training data. The majority of patients were infected with the Omicron variant and over 88% were vaccinated. Patients were divided into those with mild symptoms who recovered, and those who deteriorated to moderate or severe illness. Using the Lasso method, 15 predictive markers were identified and used to classify patients into these two groups. The biomarkers were then validated in a cohort of 194 Covid patients in Japan with a predictive accuracy that exceeded 80% for patients infected with Delta and Omicron variants, and 70% for Wuhan and Alpha variants. In an environment of widespread vaccination, these biomarkers could help medical practitioners determine if newly infected COVID-19 patients will improve and can be managed on an out-patient basis, or if they will deteriorate and require hospitalization.


Asunto(s)
Biomarcadores , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/sangre , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/virología , Bangladesh/epidemiología , Biomarcadores/sangre , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pronóstico , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , Adulto , Japón/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Anciano , Citocinas/sangre , Hospitalización , Pueblos del Este de Asia
14.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1481, 2024 Jun 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38831260

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This hemodialysis center experienced the pandemic from December 2022 to January 2023. Therefore, we sought to describe the clinical characteristics and mortality outcomes in hemodialysis patients during this Omicron surge. METHODS: According to whether they are infected, they are divided into two groups: SARS-CoV-2-positive and SARS-CoV-2-negative. The SARS-CoV-2-positive group was divided into a survival group and a non-survival group for comparison. RESULTS: 366 of 457 hemodialysis patients were infected with SARS-CoV-2. The most common symptoms observed were fever (43.2%) and cough (29.8%), Followed by diarrhea (1.4%). Hemodialysis patients with hypertension were more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. The lymphocyte count, serum creatinine, serum potassium, and serum phosphorus in the SARS-CoV-2-positive group were significantly lower than those in the SARS-CoV-2-negative group. The all-cause mortality rate for infection with SARS-CoV-2 was 5.2%. Only 7 of 366 SARS-CoV-2-positive patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, but 6 of them died. Intensive care unit hospitalization rates were significantly higher in the non-survival group compared with the survival group. White blood cells count, neutrophil count, C-reactive protein, AST, and D-dimer in the non-survival group were higher than those in the survival group. The lymphocyte count, hemoglobin concentration, serum creatinine, serum albumin, serum phosphorus and parathyroid hormone in the non-survival group were lower than those in the survival group. Age > 65 years, elevated C-reactive protein and AST are independent risk factors for death. Finally, no significant difference in vaccination status was found between the SARS-CoV-2-positive group and the negative group. CONCLUSIONS: Hemodialysis patients are at high risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Ensuring the adequacy of hemodialysis treatment and maintaining good physical condition of patients are the top priorities.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Diálisis Renal , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/mortalidad , COVID-19/terapia , COVID-19/epidemiología , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Adulto , Fallo Renal Crónico/terapia , Fallo Renal Crónico/mortalidad , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos
15.
MSMR ; 31(5): 16-23, 2024 May 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38857490

RESUMEN

The Department of Defense Global Respiratory Pathogen Surveillance Program conducts continuous surveillance for influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and other respiratory pathogens at 104 sentinel sites across the globe. These sites submitted 65,475 respiratory specimens for clinical diagnostic testing during the 2021-2022 surveillance season. The predominant influenza strain was influenza A(H3N2) (n=777), of which 99.9% of strains were in clade 3C.2a1b.2a2. A total of 21,466 SARSCoV-2-positive specimens were identified, and 12,225 of the associated viruses were successfully sequenced. The Delta variant predominated at the start of the season, until December 2021, when Omicron became dominant. Most circulating SARS-CoV-2 viruses were subsequently held by Omicron sublineages BA.1, BA.2, and BA.5 during the season. Clinical manifestation, obtained through a self-reported questionnaire, found that cough, sinus congestion, and runny nose complaints were the most common symptoms presenting among all pathogens. Sentinel surveillance can provide useful epidemiological data to supplement other disease monitoring activities, and has become increasingly useful with increasing numbers of individuals utilizing COVID-19 rapid self-test kits and reductions in outpatient visits for routine respiratory testing.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio , SARS-CoV-2 , Vigilancia de Guardia , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Masculino , Femenino , COVID-19/epidemiología , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Niño , Anciano , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Preescolar , Lactante , Personal Militar/estadística & datos numéricos , Estaciones del Año , Familia Militar/estadística & datos numéricos , Recién Nacido , Subtipo H3N2 del Virus de la Influenza A/aislamiento & purificación , Servicios de Salud Militares/estadística & datos numéricos
16.
J Mol Model ; 30(7): 203, 2024 Jun 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38858279

RESUMEN

CONTEXT: The Omicron, Kappa, and Delta variants are different strains of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) represent a burgeoning class of oxygen-enriched, zero-dimensional materials characterized by their sub-20-nm dimensions. Exhibiting pronounced quantum confinement and edge effects, GOQDs manifest exceptional physical-chemical attributes. This study delves into the potential of graphene oxide quantum dots, elucidating their inherent properties pertinent to the surface structures of SARS-CoV-2, employing an integrated computational approach for the repositioning of inhibitory agents. METHODS: Following rigorous adjustment tests, a spectrum of divergent bonding conformations emerged, with particular emphasis placed on identifying the conformation exhibiting optimal adjustment scores and interactions. The investigation employed molecular docking simulations integrating affinity energy evaluations, electrostatic potential clouds, molecular dynamics encompassing average square root calculations, and the computation of Gibbs-free energy. These values quantify the strength of interaction between GOQDs and SARS-CoV-2 spike protein variants. The receptor structures were optimized using the CHARM-GUI server employing force field AMBERFF14SB. The algorithm embedded in CHARMM offers an efficient interpolation scheme and automatic step size selection, enhancing the efficiency of the optimization process. The 3D structures of the ligands are constructed and optimized with density functional theory (DFT) method based on the most stable conformer of each binder. Autodock Vina Software (ADV) was utilized, where essential parameters were specified. Electrostatic potential maps (MEPs) provide a visual depiction of molecules' charge distributions and related properties. After this, molecular dynamics simulations employing the CHARM36 force field in Gromacs 2022.2 were conducted to investigate GOs' interactions with surface macromolecules of SARS-CoV-2 in an explicit aqueous environment. Furthermore, our investigation suggests that lower values indicate stronger binding. Notably, GO-E consistently showed the most negative values across interactions with different variants, suggesting a higher affinity compared to other GOQDs (GO-A to GO-D).


Asunto(s)
Grafito , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Simulación de Dinámica Molecular , Puntos Cuánticos , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus , Grafito/química , SARS-CoV-2/química , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/química , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/metabolismo , Puntos Cuánticos/química , Humanos , Unión Proteica , Electricidad Estática , COVID-19/virología
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38860591

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: With the future epidemiology and evolution of SARS-CoV-2 uncertain, use of safe and effective COVID-19 vaccines in pediatric populations remains important. METHODS: We report data from two open-label substudies of an ongoing phase 1/2/3 master study (NCT05543616) investigating safety and immunogenicity of a variant-adapted bivalent COVID-19 vaccine encoding ancestral and Omicron BA.4/BA.5 spike proteins (bivalent BNT162b2). The open-label groups presented here evaluate dose 4 with bivalent BNT162b2 in 6-month-<12-year-olds who previously received three original (monovalent) BNT162b2 doses. In 6-month-<5-year-olds, primary immunogenicity objectives were to demonstrate superiority (neutralizing titer) and noninferiority (seroresponse rate) to Omicron BA.4/BA.5 and noninferiority (neutralizing titer and seroresponse rate) to SARS-CoV-2 ancestral strains in participants who received bivalent BNT162b2 dose 4 compared with a matched group who received three doses of original BNT162b2 in the pivotal pediatric study (NCT04816643). In 5-<12-year-olds, primary immunogenicity comparisons were descriptive. Reactogenicity and safety following vaccination were evaluated. RESULTS: In 6-month-<5-year-olds, dose 4 with bivalent BNT162b2 met predefined immunogenicity superiority and noninferiority criteria against Omicron BA.4/BA.5 and ancestral strains when compared with dose 3 of original BNT162b2. In 5-<12-year-olds, bivalent BNT162b2 induced robust Omicron BA.4/BA.5 and ancestral strain neutralizing titers comparable to dose 3 of original BNT162b2. The safety profile for dose 4 of bivalent BNT162b2 given as dose 4 was consistent with that of original BNT162b2 in 6 month-<12-year-olds. Reactogenicity events were generally mild-to-moderate. No adverse events led to discontinuation. CONCLUSIONS: These safety and immunogenicity data support a favorable benefit-risk profile for a variant-adapted BNT162b2 in children <12 years old.

19.
Am J Cancer Res ; 14(5): 2555-2569, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38859869

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused hundreds million cases and millions death as well as continues to infect human life in the world since late of 2019. The breakthrough infection caused from mutation of SARS-CoV-2 is rising even the vaccinated population has been increasing. Currently, the severe threat posed by SARS-CoV-2 has been alleviated worldwide, and the situation has transitioned to coexisting with the virus. The dietary food with antiviral activities may improve to prevent virus infection for living with COVID-19 pandemic. Teas containing enriched phenolic ingredients such as tannins have been reported to be antitumor agents as well as be good inhibitors for coronavirus. This study developed a highly sensitive and selective ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometric method for quantification of tannic acids, a hydrolysable tannin, and proanthocyanidins, a condense tannin, in teas with different levels of fermentation. The in vitro pseudoviral particles (Vpp) infection assay was used to evaluate the inhibition activities of various teas. The results of current research demonstrate that the tannins in teas are effective inhibitors against infection of SARS-CoV-2 and its variants.

20.
Euro Surveill ; 29(23)2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38847119

RESUMEN

BackgroundThe COVID-19 pandemic was largely driven by genetic mutations of SARS-CoV-2, leading in some instances to enhanced infectiousness of the virus or its capacity to evade the host immune system. To closely monitor SARS-CoV-2 evolution and resulting variants at genomic-level, an innovative pipeline termed SARSeq was developed in Austria.AimWe discuss technical aspects of the SARSeq pipeline, describe its performance and present noteworthy results it enabled during the pandemic in Austria.MethodsThe SARSeq pipeline was set up as a collaboration between private and public clinical diagnostic laboratories, a public health agency, and an academic institution. Representative SARS-CoV-2 positive specimens from each of the nine Austrian provinces were obtained from SARS-CoV-2 testing laboratories and processed centrally in an academic setting for S-gene sequencing and analysis.ResultsSARS-CoV-2 sequences from up to 2,880 cases weekly resulted in 222,784 characterised case samples in January 2021-March 2023. Consequently, Austria delivered the fourth densest genomic surveillance worldwide in a very resource-efficient manner. While most SARS-CoV-2 variants during the study showed comparable kinetic behaviour in all of Austria, some, like Beta, had a more focused spread. This highlighted multifaceted aspects of local population-level acquired immunity. The nationwide surveillance system enabled reliable nowcasting. Measured early growth kinetics of variants were predictive of later incidence peaks.ConclusionWith low automation, labour, and cost requirements, SARSeq is adaptable to monitor other pathogens and advantageous even for resource-limited countries. This multiplexed genomic surveillance system has potential as a rapid response tool for future emerging threats.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Genoma Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Austria/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2/genética , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/virología , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Mutación , Genómica/métodos , Pandemias , Evolución Molecular , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma/métodos
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