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1.
Infect Drug Resist ; 10: 109-114, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28435302

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Chronic coronary artery disease has been associated, as a consequence of the local inflammatory reaction with previous or persistent infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae, which led to the investigation of the association of cardiovascular disease and previous infection with C. trachomatis and the role of cytokine profile (in situ) markers in the vascular system tissues. METHODS: Sixty-nine biopsies were collected for immunohistochemical analysis for the presence of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IFN-γ, TGF-ß, and IL-10, in 16 fragments from atheromatous plaques, 32 aorta fragments, and 21 valve fragments, using a tissue microarray technique for paraffin embedded tissues. RESULTS: Most patients undergoing revascularization surgery were men >50 years, while those undergoing valve replacement were mostly women <50 years. TNF-α was the most prevalent marker, detected in 91.7% (55/60) of the samples. The mean percent area stained was greater in patients infected with C. pneumoniae (3.81% vs 1.92%; p=0.0115) and specifically in the aorta (4.83% vs 2.25%; p=0.0025); C. trachomatis infection was higher in valves, and C. pneumoniae in plaques, both without statistical significance. There was no significant difference in the cytokine staining profile between patients previously infected with both species and uninfected patients. CONCLUSION: Although there was no difference in the cytokine profile between patients previously infected with both species of Chlamydia, and uninfected patients, the presence of the bacteria antigens in the three biological specimens indicates it is important to focus on the role of C. trachomatis. It is necessary to improve the understanding of the natural history of chronic coronary artery disease and the clinical history of the patients and cytokine dynamics in cardiac disease in the presence or absence of infectious agents.

2.
Viruses ; 8(1)2015 Dec 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26712781

RESUMEN

Human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) infection is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). Tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (PET/HAM) is involved in the development of autoimmune diseases including Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), and Sjögren's Syndrome (SS). The development of HTLV-1-driven autoimmunity is hypothesized to rely on molecular mimicry, because virus-like particles can trigger an inflammatory response. However, HTLV-1 modifies the behavior of CD4⁺ T cells on infection and alters their cytokine production. A previous study showed that in patients infected with HTLV-1, the activity of regulatory CD4⁺ T cells and their consequent expression of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines are altered. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms underlying changes in cytokine release leading to the loss of tolerance and development of autoimmunity.


Asunto(s)
Autoinmunidad , Infecciones por HTLV-I/inmunología , Virus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/inmunología , Animales , Infecciones por HTLV-I/virología , Virus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/genética , Virus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/fisiología , Humanos
3.
Microb Pathog ; 78: 29-36, 2015 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25450888

RESUMEN

Jorge Lobo's disease is a rare mycosis characterized by chronic inflammation, which causes skin lesions in the absence of visceral dissemination. The disease occurs mainly in hot and humid climates and most cases have been registered in the Brazilian Amazon region. This study investigated possible microvascular alterations in skin lesions caused by infection with Lacazia loboi which may interfere with the clinical progression of the disease. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the density of blood and lymphatic vessels, as well as expression of the cell adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin. The results showed a reduced number of blood (62.66 ± 20.30 vessels/mm(2)) and lymphatic vessels (3.55 ± 5.84 vessels/mm(2)) in Jorge Lobo's disease when compared to control skin (169.66 ± 66.38 blood vessels/mm(2) and 8 ± 2.17 lymphatic vessels/mm(2)). There were a larger number of vessels expressing ICAM-1 (27.58 ± 15.32 vessels/mm(2)) and VCAM-1 (7.55 ± 6.2 vessels/mm(2)). No difference was observed in the expression of E-selectin (4.66 ± 11 vessels/mm(2)). Taken together, the results indicate changes in the local microvasculature which may interfere with the development of an efficient cell-mediated immune response and may explain restriction of the fungus to the site of injury.


Asunto(s)
Células Endoteliales/patología , Lacazia/fisiología , Lobomicosis/patología , Microvasos/patología , Piel/irrigación sanguínea , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Brasil , Selectina E/genética , Selectina E/metabolismo , Células Endoteliales/metabolismo , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunohistoquímica , Molécula 1 de Adhesión Intercelular/genética , Molécula 1 de Adhesión Intercelular/metabolismo , Lobomicosis/genética , Lobomicosis/metabolismo , Lobomicosis/microbiología , Masculino , Microvasos/metabolismo , Microvasos/microbiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Piel/metabolismo , Piel/patología , Molécula 1 de Adhesión Celular Vascular/genética , Molécula 1 de Adhesión Celular Vascular/metabolismo , Adulto Joven
4.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 66(1): 77-82, 2011.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21437440

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To analyze cytokine gene expression in keratinocytes from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). INTRODUCTION: Keratinocytes represent 95% of epidermal cells and can secrete several cytokines. METHODS: Keratinocytes were obtained by laser microdissection from 21 patients with SLE (10 discoid and 11 acute lesions) at involved and uninvolved sites. All patients were receiving a low/moderate prednisone dose and 18 were receiving chloroquine diphosphate. IL-2, IL-5, TNF-α and IFN-γ gene expression was evaluated by real-time PCR and expressed as the ratio (R) to a pool of skin samples from 12 healthy volunteers. RESULTS: Heterogeneity in cytokine gene expression was found among patients with SLE. Eighteen of 38 valid SLE samples (47%) presented overexpression (R>1) of at least one cytokine. Lesional skin samples tended to show higher cytokine expression than samples from uninvolved skin (p = 0.06). IL-5 and IFN-γ were the most commonly overexpressed cytokines. Samples with cytokine overexpression corresponded to more extensive and severe lesions. Prednisone dose did not differ between samples without cytokine overexpression (15.71±3.45 mg/day) and those with overexpressed cytokines (12.68±5.41 mg/day) (p = 0.216). Samples from all patients not receiving diphosphate chloroquine had at least one overexpressed cytokine. CONCLUSIONS: The heterogeneous keratinocyte cytokine gene expression reflects the complex immunological and inflammatory background in SLE. Patients with severe/extensive skin lesions showed a higher frequency of cytokine gene overexpression. Increased IFN-γ and IL-5 expression suggests that Th1 and Th2 cells are involved in SLE skin inflammation. The possibility that prednisone and antimalarial drugs may have contributed to low cytokine gene expression in some samples cannot be ruled out.


Asunto(s)
Citocinas/genética , Expresión Génica/genética , Queratinocitos/metabolismo , Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico/genética , Enfermedades de la Piel/genética , Adulto , Citocinas/metabolismo , Femenino , Humanos , Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico/metabolismo , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , Enfermedades de la Piel/metabolismo , Adulto Joven
5.
Clinics ; 66(1): 77-82, 2011. ilus, tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: lil-578600

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To analyze cytokine gene expression in keratinocytes from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). INTRODUCTION: Keratinocytes represent 95 percent of epidermal cells and can secrete several cytokines. METHODS: Keratinocytes were obtained by laser microdissection from 21 patients with SLE (10 discoid and 11 acute lesions) at involved and uninvolved sites. All patients were receiving a low/moderate prednisone dose and 18 were receiving chloroquine diphosphate. IL-2, IL-5, TNF-α and IFN-γ gene expression was evaluated by real-time PCR and expressed as the ratio (R) to a pool of skin samples from 12 healthy volunteers. RESULTS: Heterogeneity in cytokine gene expression was found among patients with SLE. Eighteen of 38 valid SLE samples (47 percent) presented overexpression (R>1) of at least one cytokine. Lesional skin samples tended to show higher cytokine expression than samples from uninvolved skin (p = 0.06). IL-5 and IFN-γ were the most commonly overexpressed cytokines. Samples with cytokine overexpression corresponded to more extensive and severe lesions. Prednisone dose did not differ between samples without cytokine overexpression (15.71±3.45 mg/day) and those with overexpressed cytokines (12.68±5.41 mg/day) (p = 0.216). Samples from all patients not receiving diphosphate chloroquine had at least one overexpressed cytokine. CONCLUSIONS: The heterogeneous keratinocyte cytokine gene expression reflects the complex immunological and inflammatory background in SLE. Patients with severe/extensive skin lesions showed a higher frequency of cytokine gene overexpression. Increased IFN-γ and IL-5 expression suggests that Th1 and Th2 cells are involved in SLE skin inflammation. The possibility that prednisone and antimalarial drugs may have contributed to low cytokine gene expression in some samples cannot be ruled out.


Asunto(s)
Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven , Citocinas/genética , Expresión Génica/genética , Queratinocitos/metabolismo , Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico/genética , Enfermedades de la Piel/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico/metabolismo , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , Enfermedades de la Piel/metabolismo
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