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1.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2020 Mar 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203083

RESUMEN

Alteration in reproductive hormones profile is associated with the increasing risk of menopausal depression in women. Serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) level is changed during the menopause transition, while the effect of FSH on menopausal depression has remained undefined. In this study we investigated whether or how FSH affected menopausal depression in postmenopausal (ovariectomized) FSHR knockout mice (Fshr-/-). We found that Fshr-/- mice displayed aggravated depression-like behaviors, accompanied by severe oxidative stress in the whole brain, resulted from significantly reduced glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLm) in glutathione synthesis and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) in NADP/NADPH transition. Importantly, administration of ROS scavenger N-acetyl cysteine (NAC, 150 mg · kg-1 · d-1, i.p. for 12 weeks) attenuated the depression-like behaviors of Fshr-/- mice. Consistent with these in vivo experiment results, we found that pretreatment with FSH (50, 100 ng/mL) dose-dependently increased protein levels of GCLm and G6PD, and decreased the ROS production in N2a mouse neuroblastoma cells. These findings demonstrate that FSH signaling is involved in pathogenesis of menopausal depression, and likely to maintain the redox-optimized ROS balance in neurons.

2.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 2020 Mar 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203475

RESUMEN

The transient larva-bearing biphasic life cycle is the hallmark of many metazoan phyla, but how metazoan larvae originated remains a major enigma in animal evolution. There are two hypotheses for larval origin. The 'larva-first' hypothesis suggests that the first metazoans were similar to extant larvae, with later evolution of the adult-added biphasic life cycle; the 'adult-first' hypothesis suggests that the first metazoans were adult forms, with the biphasic life cycle arising later via larval intercalation. Here, we investigate the evolutionary origin of primary larvae by conducting ontogenetic transcriptome profiling for Mollusca-the largest marine phylum characterized by a trochophore larval stage and highly variable adult forms. We reveal that trochophore larvae exhibit rapid transcriptome evolution with extraordinary incorporation of novel genes (potentially contributing to adult shell evolution), and that cell signalling/communication genes (for example, caveolin and innexin) are probably crucial for larval evolution. Transcriptome age analysis of eight metazoan species reveals the wide presence of young larval transcriptomes in both trochozoans and other major metazoan lineages, therefore arguing against the prevailing larva-first hypothesis. Our findings support an adult-first evolutionary scenario with a single metazoan larval intercalation, and suggest that the first appearance of proto-larva probably occurred after the divergence of direct-developing Ctenophora from a metazoan ancestor.

3.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 110: 110622, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32204064

RESUMEN

Sufficient vascularization is quite important for preventing cell death and promoting host integration during the repair of the critical sized bone defects. Porous structure providing enough space for the ingrowth of vessels is an essential consideration during the scaffold's development. In this study, we designed and fabricated three kinds of porous structured scaffolds based on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx), such as mono-structured PHBHHx scaffolds with macro pores (PH-1), di-structured PHBHHx scaffolds with macro-meso pores (PHS-2), and tri-structured PHBHHx scaffolds with macro-micro-meso pores (PHS-3), respectively. In vitro effects of the hierarchical porous scaffolds on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), such as cell attachment, glucose and lactate detection, relative gene expressions of endothelial markers were investigated. The PHS-3 scaffolds exhibited preferential potency of inducing better angiogenesis in vitro. Consequently, the hierarchical porous scaffolds were applied to load rhBMP-2 and repair the critical sized bone defect (15 mm) in rabbits. Microangiography analysis by three dimensional micro-computed tomographic (micro-CT) demonstrated that the volume of blood vessels within the defect area was higher in the rhBMP-2 loaded PHS-3 (PHS-3/rhBMP-2) than that in other rhBMP-2 loaded porous scaffolds with simplex or double scaled pores (PH-1/rhBMP-2 or PHS-2/rhBMP-2) at 4 weeks and 8 weeks, which implied that multi-level porous structure was conducive to nutrition transmission and revascularization. Further investigations of orthotopic bone formation by micro-CT, histological and immunohistochemistry analysis confirmed the most accelerated new bone formation rate in the PHS-3/rhBMP-2 group. The maximum load value of the regenerated bone induced by PHS-3/rhBMP-2 at 12 weeks was 258.47 ± 14.77 N which did not show significant difference from the normal bone of 268.81 ± 12.05 N. These results highlighted that introducing multi-level pores into the biocompatible scaffolds may be an effective approach to promote angiogenesis and bone regeneration.

4.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 1321-1333, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32161461

RESUMEN

Introduction: Currently, the unsatisfactory treatment of cardiac hypertrophy is due to the unbridled myocardial fibrosis. Melatonin has been demonstrated to ameliorate cardiac hypertrophy and its accompanied fibrosis in previous studies. But it is not clinically appealing due to its short-lasting time against the hostile microenvironment when administered orally. Methods: Herein, to address this, poly (lactide) polycarboxybetaine (PLGA-COOH) accompanied by cardiac homing peptide (CHP) and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) were used to establish a novel drug delivery and transportation strategy for melatonin via a facile two-step emulsion method. This study characterized these nanoparticles (CHP-mel@SPIONs) and tested their delivery to the hypertrophied heart and their effect on myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis in an animal model of pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Results: The engineered magnetic nanoparticles of CHP-mel@SPIONs were spherical (diameter = 221 ± 13 nm) and had a negative zeta potential of -19.18 ± 3.27 mV. The CHP-mel@SPIONs displayed excellent drug encapsulation capacities of SPIONs (75.27 ± 3.1%) and melatonin (77.69 ± 6.04%) separately, and their magnetic properties were characterized by constructing magnetic hysteresis curves and exhibited no remnant magnetization or coercivity. The animal experiments showed that compared with mel@SPIONs, CHP-mel@SPIONs accumulated more in the heart, especially in the presence of an external magnetic field, with in vivo echocardiography and RT-PCR and histological assessments confirming the amelioration of the myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis with low drug doses. Conclusion: This simple biocompatible dual-targeting nanoagent may be a potential candidate for the guided clinical therapy of heart disease.

5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(11): 13189-13199, 2020 Mar 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134628

RESUMEN

Nondegradable heavy metals have caused great dangers to the environment and human health. Combining stimuli-responsive materials with conventional MOF-based adsorbents has been considered an effective method to generate intelligent adsorbents for superior control over the adsorption process. Herein, a smart MOF-based ratiometric fluorescent adsorbent was designed to accurately monitor the progression of the removal of copper ions with dual-emitting fluorescence signal. Unlike the traditional difunctional materials, this delicately designed platform overcomes the huge energy gap to achieve two functions simultaneously. This unconventional platform provides a reliable fluorescent response toward Cu2+ during the removing process, changing linearly related to the degree of the adsorption process, which holds extreme promise in effectively monitoring the adsorption process. The underlying relationship of the adsorption and fluorescence response process toward copper was investigated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. In particular, because of the favorable ion binding affinity of ZIF-8 and self-calibrating effect of RhB, the as-prepared smart adsorbent demonstrates a superior adsorption performance of 608 mg g-1, broad response range (0.05-200 ppm, 2.07 × 10-7to 8.29 × 10-4 M), ultrahigh sensitivity (0.04 ppm, 1.91 × 10-7 M) toward Cu2+ and strong anti-interference ability. This smart adsorbent opens an intelligent pathway to promote substantial advancements in the fields of environmental monitoring and industrial waste management.

6.
J Dent ; 94: 103310, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119967

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the effect of Liraglutide (LIRA) on osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) stimulated by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (Pg-LPS) and its mechanismin in vitro. Further, investigated the osteoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of LIRA in periodontitis in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ALP staining, Alizarin red staining(AR-S), qRT-PCR, Western Blot, and immunofluorescence staining were used to elucidate the effect of LIRA on osteogenesis of hPDLCs. Western Blot was performed to evaluate the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling-related protein. Moreover, male Wistar rats model of periodontitis were established to assess the anti-inflammatory and osteoprotective effect of LIRA in vivo. RESULTS: After LIRA treatment, the formation of mineralized nodules was increased, the expression of ALP and Runx2 were upregulated. Moreover, Pg-LPS strongly activated the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway and reduced the osteogenesis of hPDLCs. But these effects were reversed by LIRA. The in vivo results showed that treatment with LIRA resulted in reduced inflammatory cell infiltration in periodontal tissues and decreased concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6, and it reduced alveolar bone resorption. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic administration of LIRA solution is a potential treatment for reducing inflammation and bone loss in periodontal disease. This suggests that LIRA can be used as a potential drug for the treatment of periodontitis. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: We showed that systemic administration of LIRA can have a beneficial effect in periodontitis. It can be used as a potential drug for the treatment of periodontitis.

7.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229786, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119715

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Handwriting ability is related to many neuronal functions, such as visual-perceptual skills, orthographic coding, motor planning and execution, kinesthetic feedback and visual-motor coordination. To date, there is no specific assessment tool for to assess preschool children's handwriting ability in Mainland China. Our study aimed to develop a tool to assess the handwriting ability of children aged 5-6 years old in Mainland China and to analyze its reliability and validity. METHODS: The investigation comprised three phases: 1) original tool generation, 2) tool revision, 3) reliability analysis (i.e., interrater, test-retest) and validity analysis (i.e., content, criterion). RESULTS: The sample included a total of 482 children. The internal consistency (Cronbach alpha) was 0.74. The test-retest correlation coefficients ranged from 0.38 to 0.80. As expected, our data showed an improving trend in handwriting, and differences in respect to age and gender. When compared with the 'handwriting difficulty' group, each subtest score of children in the 'normal' group showed significant differences (p < 0.05). The correlation validity, compared with the visual-motor integration development test (VMI), was 0.17-0.52. CONCLUSION: The Handwriting Test for Preschool Children (HT-PRE), which is a newly developed handwriting screening tool for preschool children aged 5-6 years old in Mainland China, has displayed a very good internal consistency, acceptable test-retest reproducibility, and good criterion-based validity, and has also shown good application prospects for handwriting difficulty screening in a clinical setting.

8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2020 Mar 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131598

RESUMEN

Numerous recent observation and intervention studies suggest that the microbiota in the gut and oral cavity play important roles in host physiology, including disease development and progression. Of the many environmental factors involved, dietary components play a pivotal role in shaping the microbiota community and function, thus eliciting beneficial or detrimental consequences on host health. The microbiota affect human physiology by altering the chemical structures of dietary components, thus creating new biological properties and modifying their lifetime and bioavailability. This review will describe the causal mechanisms between the microbiota and some specific bacterial species and diet components providing health benefits and how this knowledge could be incorporated in dietary strategies for improving human health.

9.
Poult Sci ; 99(3): 1734-1743, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115040

RESUMEN

This study was conducted to investigate the comparative effects of dietary supplementation with microalgae oil or fish oil on fatty acid composition, sensory quality, and overall acceptability of table eggs. A total of six hundred thirty, 30-week-old, Hy-Line Brown laying hens were allocated to 7 dietary treatments. Layers were fed with a control diet or the control diet supplemented with graded levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 1.25, 2.50, and 5.00 mg/g feed) derived from microalgae oil or fish oil. The feeding trial lasted 10 wk. Enrichment of eggs with DHA by dietary supplementation with microalgae oil or fish oil enhanced yolk DHA and total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) enrichment and reduced n-6-to-n-3 ratio in a dose-response manner, whereas the efficiency decreased (P < 0.05). The overall efficiency of DHA incorporation into eggs was similar for the 2 sources (P > 0.05). In comparison with fish oil, dietary microalgae oil supplementation resulted in higher scores for egg flavor and overall acceptability, both of which declined linearly in response to DHA supplementation (P < 0.05). Among the aroma and flavor characteristics, fishy aroma and flavor scores increased linearly and quadratically (P < 0.05) in response to dietary DHA supplementation, and egg aroma and flavor and milky flavor scores decreased linearly (P < 0.05). The results from partial least squares analysis showed that fishy flavor and aroma were closely associated with DHA, α-linolenic acid, and total n-3 PUFA, and oleic acid, arachidonic acid, and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid were more related to egg aroma and flavor. The results suggested that microalgae oil would be more promising for egg DHA enrichment owing to better sensory quality of the resultant eggs.

10.
Adv Mater ; : e1908011, 2020 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115824

RESUMEN

Designing new hole-transporting materials (HTMs) with desired chemical, electrical, and electronic properties is critical to realize efficient and stable inverted perovskite solar cells (PVSCs) with a p-i-n structure. Herein, the synthesis of a novel 3D small molecule named TPE-S and its application as an HTM in PVSCs are shown. The all-inorganic inverted PVSCs made using TPE-S, processed without any dopant or post-treatment, are highly efficient and stable. Compared to control devices based on the commonly used HTM, PEDOT:PSS, devices based on TPE-S exhibit improved optoelectronic properties, more favorable interfacial energetics, and reduced recombination due to an improved trap passivation effect. As a result, the all-inorganic CsPbI2 Br PVSCs based on TPE-S demonstrate a remarkable efficiency of 15.4% along with excellent stability, which is the one of the highest reported values for inverted all-inorganic PVSCs. Meanwhile, the TPE-S layer can also be generally used to improve the performance of organic/inorganic hybrid inverted PVSCs, which show an outstanding power conversation efficiency of 21.0%, approaching the highest reported efficiency for inverted PVSCs. This work highlights the great potential of TPE-S as a simple and general dopant-free HTM for different types of high-performance PVSCs.

11.
Nanoscale ; 2020 Mar 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118223

RESUMEN

The rapid and continuous progress made in perovskite solar cell (PSC) technology has drawn considerable attention from the photovoltaic research community, and the application of perovskites in other electronic devices (such as photodetectors, light-emitting diodes, and batteries) has become imminent. Because of the diversity in device configurations, optimization of film deposition, and exploration of material systems, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of PSCs has been certified to be as high as 25.2%, making this type of solar cells the fastest advancing technology until now. As demonstrated by researchers worldwide, controlling the morphology and defects in perovskite films is essential for attaining high-performance PSCs. In this regard, interface engineering has proven to be a very efficient way to address these issues, obtaining better charge collection efficiency, and reducing recombination losses. In this review, the interfacial modification between perovskite films and charge-transport layers (CTLs) as well as CTLs and electrodes of PSCs has been widely summarized. Grain boundary (GB) engineering and stress engineering are also included since they are closely related to the improvement in device performance and stability.

12.
Kaohsiung J Med Sci ; 2020 Mar 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118363

RESUMEN

Results of fine-needle aspiration of hepatic nodules may be equivocal to confuse clinical judgment. The utility of primary culture of aspiration residual specimens to improve the accuracy in differential diagnosis between hepatocellular carcinoma and benign lesions was investigated. A total of 337 patients (hepatocellular carcinoma proven by aspiration 277, by other modalities 35, benign nodules 25) were included. The growth patterns of cancer cells at the 14th day of primary culture from aspiration proven hepatocellular carcinoma patients were applied as criteria for analysis. Hepatocellular carcinoma proven by aspiration showed higher incidence of outgrowth of cancer cells than those not proven by aspiration or the incidence of outgrowth of hepatocyte antigen positive cells in benign lesions (all P < .02). To differentiate hepatocellular carcinoma from benign nodules measuring ≤2 cm, growth patterns as item showed similar sensitivity and accuracy to aspiration results. The negative predictive values for the above two items in differential diagnosis were all below 45% in nodules measuring either ≤ or >2 cm. Using at least one positive result of growth patterns or aspiration as item for differential diagnosis increased the sensitivity, negative predictive value and accuracy, but little decreased the specificity and positive predictive value as compared with aspiration results alone in nodules measuring either ≤ or >2 cm. In conclusion, the growth patterns at the 14th day of primary culture can be applied for dynamic interpretation of the specimens to improve the diagnostic accuracy of fine-needle aspiration between hepatocellular carcinoma and benign lesions.

13.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 28(7): 115395, 2020 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113844

RESUMEN

Glucose transporters (GLUTs) regulate glucose uptake and are often overexpressed in several human tumors. To identify new chemotypes targeting GLUT1, we built a pharmacophore model and searched against a NCI compound database. Sixteen hit molecules with good docking scores were screened for GLUT1 inhibition and antiproliferative activities. From these, we identified that compounds 2, 5, 6 and 13 inhibited the cell viability in a dose-dependent manner and that the IC50s of 2 and 6 are<10 µM concentration in the HCT116 colon cancer cell line. Lead compound 13 (NSC295720) was a GLUT1 inhibitor. Docking studies show that GLUT1 residues Phe291, Phe379, Glu380, Trp388, and Trp412 were important for inhibitor binding.

14.
Zool Res ; 41(2): 203-207, 2020 Mar 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150793

RESUMEN

Gap junctions regulate intercellular communication between Sertoli cells and germ cells in male testes and play vital functions in spermatogenesis. Many factors in animal breeding and husbandry can induce oxidative stress, which can impair the testis microenvironment and male animal fertility. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Recently, we identified that androgen signals promote the expression of connexin-43 (Cx43), a key component of gap junctions, to regulate spermatogenesis. Thus, we asked whether hyperactive reactive oxygen species (ROS) can impair gap junctions by interfering with Cx43 in porcine testes. Using a porcine Sertoli cell in vitro system, we found that hyperactive ROS caused extensive apoptosis in Sertoli cells, remarkable decrease in Cx43 expression, and failed maintenance of co-cultured spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), indicating that ROS impaired the function of Sertoli cells and promoted loss of SSCs. This observation provides a possible mechanism for the impact of ROS on fertility of male animals.

15.
Prev Med ; 134: 106051, 2020 Mar 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32156563

RESUMEN

This study examined national trends in self-directed violence in the context of changes in opioid use and depression to better inform prevention measures. Using 2000-2015 National Inpatient Sample (NIS) data, we identified 625,064 hospitalizations for self-directed violence among persons aged ≥10 years in the United States. Based on whether co-listing opioid related diagnosis and depression, we categorized hospitalizations for self-directed violence into four comorbid categories as 1) related to opioids alone; 2) related to depression alone; 3) related to both opioids and depression; and 4) related to neither opioids nor depression. Census population estimates served as the denominator for calculating hospitalization rates for self-directed violence. Hospitalization rates for self-directed violence related to opioids doubled from 5.1 per 100,000 persons in 2000 to 11.0 in 2015. The rate of increase was highest for self-directed violence related to both opioids and depression, which increased 9.4% annually during 2000-2011 and then decreased 4.3% annually during 2011-2015. Hospitalizations for self-directed violence related to depression alone remained the predominant category, accounting for approximately 60% of hospitalizations for self-directed violence; the rates among females aged 10-24 years were the highest among all subgroups, and rose 7.8% annually since 2011 reaching 93.2 per 100,000 persons in 2015. These findings highlight the importance of assessing the risk for self-directed violence among patients misusing opioids and the importance of treating opioid use disorder and depression, particularly when they co-occur. Prevention and treatment of depression is especially important for young females.

17.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 133(5): 517-522, 2020 Mar 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142491

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The programmed intermittent epidural bolus (PIEB) technique is widely used in labor analgesia, but the parameter settings of PIEB have not yet been standardized. We designed a study to identify the optimal interval duration for PIEB using 10 mL of ropivacaine 0.08% and sufentanyl 0.3 µg/mL, a regimen commonly used to control labor pain in China, to provide effective analgesia in 90% of women during the first stage of labor without breakthrough pain. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind sequential allocation trial to obtain the effective interval 90% (EI90%) during the first stage of labor between April 2019 and May 2019. This study included the American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status II-III nulliparous parturients at term, who requested epidural analgesia. The bolus volume was fixed at 10 mL of ropivacaine 0.08% with sufentanyl 0.3 µg/mL. Participants were divided into four groups (groups 60, 50, 40, and 30) according to the PIEB intervals (60, 50, 40, and 30 min, respectively). The interval duration of the first parturient was set at 60 min and that of subsequent parturients varied according to a biased-coin design. The truncated Dixon and Mood method and the isotonic regression analysis method were used to estimate the EI90% and its 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Forty-four women were enrolled in this study. The estimated optimal interval was 44.1 min (95% CI 41.7-46.5 min) and 39.5 min (95% CI 32.5-50.0 min), using the truncated Dixon and Mood method and isotonic regression analysis, respectively. The maximum sensory block level above T6 was in nearly 20% of parturients in group 30; however, 5.3%, 0%, and 0% of the parturients presented with sensory block level above T6 in groups 40, 50, and 60, respectively. There were no cases of hypotension and only one parturient complained of motor block. CONCLUSION: With a fixed 10 mL dose of ropivacaine 0.08% with sufentanyl 0.3 µg/mL, the optimal PIEB interval is about 42 min. Further studies are warranted to define the efficacy of this regimen throughout all stages of labor. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR1900022199; http://www.chictr.org.cn/com/25/historyversionpuben.aspx?regno=ChiCTR1900022199.

18.
Cancer Res Treat ; 2020 Mar 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32138466

RESUMEN

Purpose: While numerous epidemiological studies have indicated that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have anticancer properties in various cancers, the effects and mechanisms of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in ovarian cancer cell growth are poorly understood. Materials and Methods: ES2 ovarian clear cell carcinoma cells and SKOV3 adenocarcinoma cells were treated with palmitic acid or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), followed by flow cytometry and cell counting to measure apoptosis and proliferation, respectively. A modified protein lipid overlay assay (PLO) was used t¬¬o further verify whether EPA was a ligand of GPR30 in ES2 cells. The levels of apoptosis-related genes, phosphorylated AKT, and phosphorylated ERK1/2 were detected to explore the underlying mechanism. Finally, inhibitory effect of EPA on tumor growth via GPR30 was determined in vitro and in vivo. Results: EPA suppressed ES2 ovarian clear cell carcinoma cells growth via GPR30, a novel EPA receptor, by inducing apoptosis. As a ligand of GPR30, EPA activated the GPR30-cAMP-PKA signaling pathway. When GPR30 was suppressed by siRNA or its inhibitor G15, the antiproliferative action of EPA was impaired. Furthermore, EPA inhibited tumor growth by blocking the activation of AKT and ERK. In the mouse xenograft model, EPA decreased tumor volume and weight through GPR30 by blocking tumor cell proliferation. Conclusion: These results confirm that EPA is a tumor suppressor in human ovarian clear cell carcinoma cells and functions through a novel fatty acid receptor, GPR30, indicating a mechanistic linkage between omega-3 fatty acids and cancers.

19.
Sex Transm Infect ; 2020 Mar 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209639

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Key populations such as men who have sex with men (MSM), drug users and sex workers are at high risk of HIV infection, but they are marginalised and hidden. Social network strategy (SNS) is purposeful to use social networks to generate social influence, accelerate behaviour change and achieve desirable outcomes among individuals or communities and have been increasingly used for HIV interventions. This study aims to investigate the effects of SNS on HIV prevention among key populations. METHODS: We searched six databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Library, ScienceDirect and Wiley for randomised controlled trials published between January 1999 and May 2019. Eligibility criteria included SNS conducted among key populations for HIV interventions, with a comparator group. Outcomes included changes in HIV high-risk behaviour, HIV seroconversion and other HIV outcomes. We used the risk ratio (RR) or mean difference with associated 95% confidence interval (CI) to assess the comparative efficacy between SNS and control methods on the selected outcomes. The GRADE system was used to assess the quality of evidence for the studies. RESULTS: Of 2818 citations identified, 28 trails from 24 papers met the inclusion criteria. The results showed that SNS was associated with less unprotected intercourse (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.86) and sex with multiple partners (0.46, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.65). Additionally, relative to the control methods, SNS significantly reduced HIV seroconversion (0.65, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.81), improved HIV testing uptake (1.11, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.15) and promoted participant retention (1.03, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.06) among key populations. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system showed that trails were of moderate quality. CONCLUSIONS: This review provides evidence that SNS can reach key populations who are currently not being reached by existing programmes and deliver HIV interventions through social networks, which decreases HIV sexual risk behaviour and HIV incidence and increases HIV testing uptake and participant retention. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019140533.

20.
Biomater Sci ; 2020 Mar 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32211626

RESUMEN

Theranostics is a new trend integrating diagnostic and therapeutic functions in tumour research. Theranostic nanoparticles enabling both tumour imaging and drug delivery are a promising platform for image-guided cancer therapy. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has great potential in synergy with traditional chemotherapy but faces great challenges due to hypoxia, poor targeting ability and the limited penetration depth of visible light. To solve these problems, we presented a novel nanosystem of FA/UCNPs-RB/HCPT/PFH@lipid (denoted as FURH-PFH-NPs), with a perfluorohexane (PFH) carrying rich oxygen core and a folic acid-modified lipid shell. The shell contains 10-hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) and self-fluorescing photosensitizer compounds, namely, upconversion nanoparticles and rose bengal (UCNPs-RB). In this study, FURH-PFH-NPs aggregated in SKOV3 cells (in vitro) and the nude xenograft tumour region when combined with folic acid receptors. When triggered by low-intensity focused ultrasound (LIFU), FURH-PFH-NPs released PFH, UCNPs-RB and HCPT. The above procedure was monitored through multimodal imaging, which simultaneously guided the tumour therapy. UCNPs-RB and PFH promoted the PDT effect under LIFU. Through PDT and HCPT, we obtained better therapeutic effects and good biosafety against SKOV3 nude xenograft tumours. FURH-PFH-NPs combined with LIFU and laser irradiation might be a promising strategy for ovarian cancer.

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