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1.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 56(4): 152, 2024 May 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722369

RESUMEN

Supplementing livestock grazing communal rangelands with leaf-meals from Acacia trees, which are currently considered as problematic invasive alien plants globally, may be a sustainable way of exploiting their desirable nutritional and anthelmintic properties. The current study evaluated worm burdens and growth performance of lambs grazing low-quality communal rangelands supplemented with leaf-meals prepared from the invasive alien plant species; Acacia mearnsii or A. dealbata. Forty, three-month-old ewe lambs weighing an average of 18.9 ± 0.60 kg were randomly allocated to four supplementary diets: (1) rangeland hay only (control), (2) commercial protein supplement plus rangeland hay, (3) A. mearnsii leaf-meal plus rangeland hay and (4) A. dealbata leaf-meal plus rangeland hay. All the supplementary diets were formulated to meet the lambs' minimum maintenance requirements for protein. All the lambs were grazed on communal rangelands daily from 0800 to 1400 after which they were penned to allow them access to their respective supplementary diets until 08:00 the following morning. The respective supplementary diets were offered at the rate of 400 g ewe- 1 day- 1 for 60 days. Lambs fed the commercial protein supplement had the highest dry matter intake followed by those fed the Acacia leaf-meals and the control diet, respectively (P ≤ 0.05). Relative to the other supplementary diets, lambs fed the commercial protein supplement and A. dealbata leaf-meal had higher (P ≤ 0.05) final body weight and average daily gains. Dietary supplementation did not affect lamb faecal worm egg counts over the study period (P > 0.05). There was no association between supplementary diets and lamb FAMACHA© scores (P > 0.05). It was concluded that supplementation of Acacia dealbata versus Acacia mearnsii has the potential to emulate commercial protein in maintaining growth performance of lambs grazing communal rangelands in the dry season.


Asunto(s)
Acacia , Alimentación Animal , Dieta , Suplementos Dietéticos , Hojas de la Planta , Animales , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Hojas de la Planta/química , Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Femenino , Sudáfrica , Dieta/veterinaria , Oveja Doméstica/crecimiento & desarrollo , Oveja Doméstica/fisiología , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/prevención & control , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/parasitología , Ovinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Ovinos/fisiología , Heces , Distribución Aleatoria , Recuento de Huevos de Parásitos/veterinaria , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11469, 2024 05 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38769392

RESUMEN

Large amount of wastes are burnt or left to decompose on site or at landfills where they cause air pollution and nutrient leaching to groundwater. Waste management strategies that return these food wastes to agricultural soils recover the carbon and nutrients that would otherwise have been lost, enrich soils and improve crop productivity. The incorporation of liming materials can neutralize the protons released, hence reducing soil acidity and its adverse impacts to the soil environment, food security, and human health. Biochar derived from organic residues is becoming a source of carbon input to soil and provides multifunctional values. Biochar can be alkaline in nature, with the level of alkalinity dependent upon the feedstock and processing conditions. This study conducted a characterization of biochar derived from the pyrolysis process of eggplant and Acacia nilotica bark at temperatures of 300 °C and 600 °C. An analysis was conducted on the biochar kinds to determine their pH, phosphorus (P), as well as other elemental composition. The proximate analysis was conducted by the ASTM standard 1762-84, while the surface morphological features were measured using a scanning electron microscope. The biochar derived from Acacia nilotica bark exhibited a greater yield and higher level of fixed carbon while possessing a lower content of ash and volatile components compared to biochar derived from eggplant. The eggplant biochar exhibits a higher liming ability at 600 °C compared to the acacia nilotica bark-derived biochar. The calcium carbonate equivalent, pH, potassium (K), and phosphorus (P) levels in eggplant biochars increased as the pyrolysis temperature increased. The results suggest that biochar derived from eggplant could be a beneficial resource for storing carbon in the soil, as well as for addressing soil acidity and enhancing nutrients availability, particularly potassium and phosphorus in acidic soils.


Asunto(s)
Biomasa , Carbón Orgánico , Pirólisis , Carbón Orgánico/química , Fósforo/química , Fósforo/análisis , Madera/química , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Suelo/química , Temperatura , Acacia/química , Carbono/química , Carbono/análisis
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(9)2024 May 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732191

RESUMEN

Acacia melanoxylon is highly valued for its commercial applications, with the heartwood exhibiting a range of colors from dark to light among its various clones. The underlying mechanisms contributing to this color variation, however, have not been fully elucidated. In an effort to understand the factors that influence the development of dark heartwood, a comparative analysis was conducted on the microstructure, substance composition, differential gene expression, and metabolite profiles in the sapwood (SW), transition zone (TZ), and heartwood (HW) of two distinct clones, SR14 and SR25. A microscopic examination revealed that heartwood color variations are associated with an increased substance content within the ray parenchyma cells. A substance analysis indicated that the levels of starches, sugars, and lignin were more abundant in SP compared to HW, while the concentrations of phenols, flavonoids, and terpenoids were found to be higher in HW than in SP. Notably, the dark heartwood of the SR25 clone exhibited greater quantities of phenols and flavonoids compared to the SR14 clone, suggesting that these compounds are pivotal to the color distinction of the heartwood. An integrated analysis of transcriptome and metabolomics data uncovered a significant accumulation of sinapyl alcohol, sinapoyl aldehyde, hesperetin, 2', 3, 4, 4', 6'-peptahydroxychalcone 4'-O-glucoside, homoeriodictyol, and (2S)-liquiritigenin in the heartwood of SR25, which correlates with the up-regulated expression of CCRs (evm.TU.Chr3.1751, evm.TU.Chr4.654_667, evm.TU.Chr4.675, evm.TU.Chr4.699, and evm.TU.Chr4.704), COMTs (evm.TU.Chr13.3082, evm.TU.Chr13.3086, and evm.TU.Chr7.1411), CADs (evm.TU.Chr10.2175, evm.TU.Chr1.3453, and evm.TU.Chr8.1600), and HCTs (evm.TU.Chr4.1122, evm.TU.Chr4.1123, evm.TU.Chr8.1758, and evm.TU.Chr9.2960) in the TZ of A. melanoxylon. Furthermore, a marked differential expression of transcription factors (TFs), including MYBs, AP2/ERFs, bHLHs, bZIPs, C2H2s, and WRKYs, were observed to be closely linked to the phenols and flavonoids metabolites, highlighting the potential role of multiple TFs in regulating the biosynthesis of these metabolites and, consequently, influencing the color variation in the heartwood. This study facilitates molecular breeding for the accumulation of metabolites influencing the heartwood color in A. melanoxylon, and offers new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying heartwood formation in woody plants.


Asunto(s)
Acacia , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Madera , Acacia/metabolismo , Acacia/genética , Madera/metabolismo , Madera/química , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Lignina/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Fenoles/metabolismo , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica/métodos , Metabolómica/métodos
4.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 428, 2024 May 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773358

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Acacia nilotica Linn. is a widely distributed tree known for its applications in post-harvest and medicinal horticulture. However, its seed-based growth is relatively slow. Seed is a vital component for the propagation of A. nilotica due to its cost-effectiveness, genetic diversity, and ease of handling. Colchicine, commonly used for polyploidy induction in plants, may act as a pollutant at elevated levels. Its optimal concentration for Acacia nilotica's improved growth and development has not yet been determined, and the precise mechanism underlying this phenomenon has not been established. Therefore, this study investigated the impact of optimized colchicine (0.07%) seed treatment on A. nilotica's morphological, anatomical, physiological, fluorescent, and biochemical attributes under controlled conditions, comparing it with a control. RESULTS: Colchicine seed treatment significantly improved various plant attributes compared to control. This included increased shoot length (84.6%), root length (53.5%), shoot fresh weight (59.1%), root fresh weight (42.8%), shoot dry weight (51.5%), root dry weight (40%), fresh biomass (23.6%), stomatal size (35.9%), stomatal density (41.7%), stomatal index (51.2%), leaf thickness (11 times), leaf angle (2.4 times), photosynthetic rate (40%), water use efficiency (2.2 times), substomatal CO2 (36.6%), quantum yield of photosystem II (13.1%), proton flux (3.1 times), proton conductivity (2.3 times), linear electron flow (46.7%), enzymatic activities of catalase (25%), superoxide dismutase (33%), peroxidase (13.5%), and ascorbate peroxidase (28%), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl-radical scavenging activities(23%), total antioxidant capacity (59%), total phenolic (23%), and flavonoid content (37%) with less number of days to 80% germination (57.1%), transpiration rate (53.9%), stomatal conductance (67.1%), non-photochemical quenching (82.8%), non-regulatory energy dissipation (24.3%), and H2O2 (25%) and O-2 levels (30%). CONCLUSION: These findings elucidate the intricate mechanism behind the morphological, anatomical, physiological, fluorescent, and biochemical transformative effects of colchicine seed treatment on Acacia nilotica Linn. and offer valuable insights for quick production of A. nilotica's plants with modification and enhancement from seeds through an eco-friendly approach.


Asunto(s)
Acacia , Colchicina , Semillas , Colchicina/farmacología , Acacia/efectos de los fármacos , Acacia/fisiología , Acacia/crecimiento & desarrollo , Acacia/metabolismo , Semillas/efectos de los fármacos , Semillas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Fotosíntesis/efectos de los fármacos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo
5.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2020): 20232941, 2024 Apr 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593850

RESUMEN

Invasive flowering plants can disrupt plant-pollinator networks. This is well documented where invasives occur amongst native plants; however, the potential for 'spillover' effects of invasives that form stands in adjacent habitats are less well understood. Here we quantify the impact of two invasive Australian species, Acacia saligna and Acacia longifolia, on the plant-pollinator networks in fynbos habitats in South Africa. We compared networks from replicate 1 ha plots of native vegetation (n = 21) that were subjected to three treatments: (1) at least 400 m from flowering Acacia; (2) adjacent to flowering Acacia, or (3) adjacent to flowering Acacia where all Acacia flowers were manually removed. We found that native flowers adjacent to stands of flowering Acacia received significantly more insect visits, especially from beetles and Apis mellifera capensis, and that visitation was more generalized. We also recorded visitation to, and the seed set of, three native flowering species and found that two received more insect visits, but produced fewer seeds, when adjacent to flowering Acacia. Our research shows that 'spillover' effects of invasive Acacia can lead to significant changes in visitation and seed production of native co-flowering species in neighbouring habitats-a factor to be considered when managing invaded landscapes.


Asunto(s)
Acacia , Polinización , Animales , Australia , Plantas , Semillas , Insectos , Flores , Especies Introducidas
6.
Molecules ; 29(7)2024 Apr 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38611939

RESUMEN

Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in varied applications, which are morphology dependent. Consequently, a morphology-controlled synthesis is mandatory. Although there are several studies focused on the plant extract-based biosynthesis of metallic nanoparticles, the use of extracts obtained from agro-wastes is scant. Furthermore, information regarding morphology modification through the use of additional agents is even more scarce. Thus, in this study, AgNPs were synthesized using a malt extract (ME) obtained from an artisanal beer brewing process residue. Additionally, sodium chloride (NaCl), gum arabic (GA), and talc (T) were used in an attempt to modify the morphology of AgNPs. XRD, DLS, SEM, and TEM results demonstrate that stable AgNPs of different sizes and shapes were synthesized. FTIR, HPLC analysis, and the quantification of total proteins, free amino acids, reducing sugars, and total polyphenols before and after AgNPs synthesis showed that ME biomolecules allowed them to act as a source of reducing and stabilizing agents. Therefore, this study provides evidence that ME can be successfully used to biosynthesize AgNPs. Additionally, the antibacterial activity of AgNPs against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria was evaluated. Results indicate that AgNPs show a higher antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria.


Asunto(s)
Acacia , Nanopartículas del Metal , Cerveza , Plata , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Cloruro de Sodio
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8720, 2024 04 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622258

RESUMEN

This article examined the effect of geographical (different climate conditions) and floral origins on some quality parameters of honey including the activity of diastase enzyme. Moreover, some non-quality parameters were investigated such as the pH, fructose, glucose, ratio of fructose/glucose and invertase. The honey samples were collected from Asir (cold climate) and Jazan (hot climate) regions at the southwestern part of Saudi Arabia. The geographical origin significantly affected the mean value moisture of the Acacia honey (p-value = 0.02), conductivity of the polyfloral honey (p-value = 0.03), sucrose of the Acacia honey (p-value = 0.02), diastase activity of the Acacia (p-value = 0.001), Ziziphus (p-value = 0.046) and polyfloral honey (p-value ≤ 0.001), fructose of the Acacia honey (p-value = 0.01), glucose of the Ziziphus honey (p-value = 0.03), fructose/ glucose ratio of the Ziziphus honey (p-value = 0.035), and invertase activity of the polyfloral honey (p-value ≤ 0.001). Regarding the effect of the floral origin of the honey from Asir region, the sucrose percentage of the Acacia honey was significantly more than that of the polyfloral honey (p- value = 0.003), the diastase activity of the Acacia honey was significantly more than its activity in the Ziziphus honey (p- value = 0.044), glucose percentage of the Ziziphus honey was significantly more the glucose percentage of the Acacia honey (p-value = 0.009) and the fructose/ glucose ratio of the Ziziphus honey was significantly more than that of the Acacia and polyforal honeys (p-value = 0.011 and p-value = 0.045, respectively). Concerning the significant effects of the floral origin on the quality parameters of the honey samples from Jazan region, the moisture of the Ziziphus honey was significantly increased when compared to the moisture of the Acacia honey (p-value = 0.038), the acidity of the polfloral honey was significantly more than the acidity of the Acacia honey (p-value = 0.049), the sum of fructose and glucose of the polyfloral honey was significantly increased compared to that of the Acacia honey (p-value = 0.015), the pH of the Ziziphus hiney was significantly more than the pH of the polyfloral honey (0.011) and the fructose of the polfloral honey was significantly more than that of the Acacia honey (p-value = 0.031). The effect of the geographical origin of the honey samples on their quality parameters depends on their floral origin and the effect of their floral origin differs according to their geographical origin. This article suggests considering collectively the geographical and floral origins effect when developing honey standards. However, the Codex standards for honey started considering this issue when it changed the standard concentration of HMF in honey from not more than 80-40 mg/Kg for honeys from cold climate and 80 mg/Kg for honeys from hot climates.


Asunto(s)
Acacia , Miel , Arabia Saudita , beta-Fructofuranosidasa , Fructosa , Glucosa , Sacarosa , Amilasas
8.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 308, 2024 Apr 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38644502

RESUMEN

Acacia melanoxylon is well known as a valuable commercial tree species owing to its high-quality heartwood (HW) products. However, the metabolism and regulatory mechanism of heartwood during wood development remain largely unclear. In this study, both microscopic observation and content determination proved that total amount of starches decreased and phenolics and flavonoids increased gradually from sapwood (SW) to HW. We also obtained the metabolite profiles of 10 metabolites related to phenolics and flavonoids during HW formation by metabolomics. Additionally, we collected a comprehensive overview of genes associated with the biosynthesis of sugars, terpenoids, phenolics, and flavonoids using RNA-seq. A total of ninety-one genes related to HW formation were identified. The transcripts related to plant hormones, programmed cell death (PCD), and dehydration were increased in transition zone (TZ) than in SW. The results of RT-PCR showed that the relative expression level of genes and transcription factors was also high in the TZ, regardless of the horizontal or vertical direction of the trunk. Therefore, the HW formation took place in the TZ for A. melanoxylon from molecular level, and potentially connected to plant hormones, PCD, and cell dehydration. Besides, the increased expression of sugar and terpenoid biosynthesis-related genes in TZ further confirmed the close connection between terpenoid biosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolites of A. melanoxylon. Furthermore, the integrated analysis of metabolism data and RNA-seq data showed the key transcription factors (TFs) regulating flavonoids and phenolics accumulation in HW, including negative correlation TFs (WRKY, MYB) and positive correlation TFs (AP2, bZIP, CBF, PB1, and TCP). And, the genes and metabolites from phenylpropanoid and flavonoid metabolism and biosynthesis were up-regulated and largely accumulated in TZ and HW, respectively. The findings of this research provide a basis for comprehending the buildup of metabolites and the molecular regulatory processes of HW formation in A. melanoxylon.


Asunto(s)
Acacia , Flavonoides , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Madera , Acacia/genética , Acacia/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonoides/biosíntesis , Madera/genética , Madera/metabolismo , Metabolómica , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Transcriptoma , Fenoles/metabolismo , Factores de Transcripción/metabolismo , Factores de Transcripción/genética
9.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 210: 108618, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38631157

RESUMEN

The Acacia koa S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) synthetase was identified from transcriptome data and cloned into the T7-expression vector pEt14b. Assays indicate a thermoalkaliphic enzyme which tolerates conditions up to pH 10.5, 55 °C and 3 M KCl. In vitro examples of plant SAM-synthetase activity are scarce, however this study provides supporting evidence that these extremophilic properties may actually be typical for this plant enzyme. Enzyme kinetic constants (Km = 1.44 mM, Kcat = 1.29 s-1, Vmax 170 µM. min-1) are comparable to nonplant SAM-synthetases except that substrate inhibition was not apparent at 10 mM ATP/L-methionine. Methods were explored in this study to reduce feedback inhibition, which is known to limit SAM-synthetase activity in vitro. Four single-point mutation variants of the Acacia koa SAM-synthetase were produced, each with varying degrees of reduced reaction rate, greater sensitivity to product inhibition and loss of thermophilic properties. Although an enhanced mutant was not produced, this study describes the first mutagenesis of a plant SAM-synthetase. Overcoming feedback inhibition was accomplished by the addition of organic solvent to enzyme assays. Acetonitrile, methanol or dimethylformamide, when included as 25% of the assay volume, improved total SAM production by 30-65%.


Asunto(s)
Acacia , Metionina Adenosiltransferasa , Acacia/genética , Acacia/metabolismo , Acacia/enzimología , Metionina Adenosiltransferasa/genética , Metionina Adenosiltransferasa/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Cinética , S-Adenosilmetionina/metabolismo , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno
10.
Toxicon ; 243: 107737, 2024 May 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38677379

RESUMEN

Botanical essential oils are natural insecticides derived from plants, offering eco-friendly alternatives to synthetic chemicals for pest control. In this study, the essential oils were extracted from Acacia nilotica seed cotyledons, and their toxicity was tested against insect pests. Furthermore, the chemical components of the essential oils were identified through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The essential oil extracted from A. nilotica seeds exhibited the highest mortality rates of 60% and 98% in Culex quinquefasciatus, and 60% and 96.66% mortality in Plutella xylostella at 24 and 48 h after treatment, respectively. The essential oils resulted in a lower LC50 of 159.263 ppm/mL, and LC90 of 320.930 ppm/mL within 24 h. In 48 h, the LC50 was 52.070 ppm/mL and the LC90 was 195.123 ppm/mL for C. quinquefasciatus. In the essential oil treatment of P. xylostella, the lower LC50 was 165.900 ppm/mL, and the LC90 was 343.840 ppm/mL 24 h after the treatment. At 48 h post-treatment, the LC50 decreased to 62.965 ppm/mL, and the LC90 decreased to 236.795 ppm/mL in P. xylostella. The study investigated the impact of essential oils on insect enzymes 24 h after treatment. The study revealed significant changes in the levels of insect enzymes, including a decrease in acetylcholinesterase enzymes and an increase in glutathione S-transferase compared to the control group. Essential oils had minimal effects, resulting in mortality rates of 30.66% and 46% at 24 and 48 h after treatment on Artemia salina. After 48 h, minimal toxic effects of essential oils were observed on E. eugeniae, with a mortality rate of 11.33%. The GC-MS analysis of A. nilotica seed-derived essential oils revealed ten major chemical constituents, including 6-hydroxymellein, phthalic acid, trichloroacetic acid, hexadecane, acetamide, heptacosane, eicosane, pentadecane, 1,3,4-eugenol, and chrodrimanin B. Among these constituents, Heptacosane is the major chemical component, and this molecule has a high potential for involvement in insecticidal activity.


Asunto(s)
Acacia , Insecticidas , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Aceites Volátiles , Animales , Aceites Volátiles/química , Aceites Volátiles/farmacología , Acacia/química , Insecticidas/química , Insecticidas/toxicidad , Culex/efectos de los fármacos , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Mariposas Nocturnas/efectos de los fármacos , Semillas/química
11.
Chemosphere ; 356: 141881, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575078

RESUMEN

Acacia Senegal waste (ASW) is remaining biomass following gum Arabic harvesting and has no use mentioned in the literature as of yet. This study aims to convert ASW into valuable biochar via two comparative thermal and hydrothermal techniques, which include pyrochar ASW at 300 °C (PC ASW300) and hydrochar ASW at 180 °C (HC ASW180), respectively, for Cu (II) adsorption from aqueous solutions. SEM-EDS, FTIR, XRD, and XPS were used to characterize the biochar. Adsorption performance was studied as a function of pH, contact time, and adsorbent concentration. Adsorption kinetics were best fit for a pseudo-second-order model. And thermodynamics studies revealed that Cu (II) on biochar was endothermic, spontaneous, and best fitted to the Langmuir isotherm model. Pyrochar adsorption capacity (31.93 mg g-1) was seven times that of hydrochar (5.45 mg g-1). ASW treated with phosphorus (PC H3PO4 and HC H3PO4) prior to the carbonization altered the pore structure and surface functional groups as well (O-P-O, P-CH3, and P-OH) of biochar. It was found that treating with phosphorous acid increased adsorption capacity to 141.7 mg g-1 and 22.24 mg g-1 for PC H3PO4 and HC H3PO4, respectively. The surface functional groups of biochar resulted from lignin, alkaloids, and polysaccharides combined with Cu (II) during the adsorption process via surface complexation accompanied by π-electron interaction and Cu (II) reduction. These findings shed light on the ASW biochar potential as a new green cost-effective adsorbent and drew an insightful understanding of Cu (II) adsorption performance and mechanism. It is concluded that ASW-derived biochar is highly effective and a promising alternative for Cu (II) decontamination from wastewater.


Asunto(s)
Acacia , Carbón Orgánico , Cobre , Aguas Residuales , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Adsorción , Carbón Orgánico/química , Cobre/química , Acacia/química , Aguas Residuales/química , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/química , Cinética , Termodinámica , Descontaminación/métodos , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Purificación del Agua/métodos , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos/métodos
12.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 59(4): 192-201, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38433648

RESUMEN

The adsorption mechanism of S-Metolachlor in an aqueous solution by sawdust biochar derived from Acacia auriculiformis (SAB) was studied. SAB was manufactured at 500 °C for 4 h under oxygen-limited conditions and characterized for SEM, EDS, pHpzc, BET, and FTIR. The adsorption kinetics, isotherm, and diffusion studies of S-Metolachlor and SAB were further explored. Moreover, the effects of the solution pH were examined on the adsorption of S-Metolachlor by SAB. The BET analysis of SAB was achieved at 106.74 m2.g-1 and the solution pH did not significantly influence the S-Metolachlor adsorption. The adsorption data were fitted into a Langmuir isotherm and the PSO model. The film diffusion coefficient Df (4.93 × 10-11 to 8.17 × 10-11 m2.s-1) and the particle diffusion coefficient Dp (1.68 × 10-11 to 2.65 × 10-11 m2.s-1) were determined and the rate-limiting step of S-Metolachlor adsorption and SAB was governed by liquid film diffusion. The S-Metolachlor adsorption process onto SAB was controlled by multiple mechanisms, including pore filling, H-bonding, hydrophobic interaction, and π-π EDA interactions. H-bonding is the main interaction for the adsorption of S-Metolachlor and SAB. Conclusively, the study illustrates that biochar produced from Acacia auriculiformis sawdust possessed effective adsorption properties for S-Metolachlor herbicide.


Asunto(s)
Acacia , Acetamidas , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Adsorción , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/química , Carbón Orgánico/química , Cinética
13.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6248, 2024 03 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38486053

RESUMEN

Mosquitoes are one of the deadliest and most hazardous animals on Earth, where they transmit several diseases that kill millions of people annually. There is an ongoing search almost everywhere in the world for more effective and contemporary ways to control mosquitoes other than pesticides. Phytochemicals are affordable, biodegradable biological agents that specialize in eliminating pests that represent a risk to public health. The effectiveness of Acacia nilotica methanol and aqueous leaf extracts against 4th instar larvae was evaluated. The results revealed that the methanol extract of A. nilotica had a noticeable influence on the mortality rate of mosquito larvae, especially at high concentrations. Not only did the mortality rate rise significantly, but the hatching of the mosquito eggs was potentially suppressed.Terpenes, fatty acids, esters, glycosides, pyrrolidine alkane, piperazine, and phenols were the most prevalent components in the methanol extract, while the aqueous extract of A. nilotica exclusively showed the presence of fatty acids. The insecticidal susceptibility tests of both aqueous and alcoholic extract of A. nilotica confirmed that the Acacia plant could serves as a secure and efficient substitute for chemical pesticides because of its promising effect on killing larvae and egg hatching delaying addition to their safety as one of the natural pesticides. Molecular docking study was performed using one of the crucial and life-controlling protein targets, fatty acid binding protein (FABP) and the most active ingredients as testing ligands to describe their binding ability. Most of the structurally related compounds to the co-crystallized ligand, OLA, like hexadecanoic acid furnished high binding affinity to the target protein with very strong and stable intermolecular hydrogen bonding and this is quite similar to OLA itself. Some other structural non-related compounds revealed extraordinarily strong binding abilities like Methoxy phenyl piperazine. Most of the binding reactivities of the majortested structures are due to high structure similarity between the positive control, OLA, and tested compounds. Such structure similarity reinforced with the binding abilities of some detected compounds in the A. nilotica extract could present a reasonable interpretation for its insecticidal activity via deactivating the FABP protein. The FABP4 enzyme inhibition activity was assessed for of both methanolic and aqueous of acacia plant extract and the inhibition results of methanol extract depicted noticeable potency if compared to orlistat, with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.681, and 0.535 µg/ml, respectively.


Asunto(s)
Acacia , Culex , Insecticidas , Animales , Humanos , Acacia/química , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Metanol , Insecticidas/farmacología , Insecticidas/química , Ácidos Grasos , Piperazinas
14.
Chem Biodivers ; 21(2): e202301847, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38299486

RESUMEN

In this study, I determined the essential oil (EO) chemical composition and crude methanol extract (ME) phytochemical profile of the leaves of Acacia gerrardii (ACGL), a plant growing in Saudi Arabia. Additionally, I assessed their in vitro antioxidant activity. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the EO revealed a high content of oxygenated monoterpenes (79.86 %), primarily dominated by pulegone (35.11 %), carvacrol (27.36 %), and neo-dihydrocarveol (4.67 %). The ME was analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine its qualitative chemical profile. Four organic acids, eleven phenolic compounds, sixteen flavonoids, nine terpenoids (eight triterpenoids and one diterpenoid), and one coumarin were found in the ME of ACGL. This extract was found to be dominated by 5,6,4-trihydroxy-7,3-dimethoxyflavone (39.30 %), acteoside (30.27 %), nevadensin (7.55 %), isoacteoside (3.08 %) and apiin (3.23 %), and hesperidin (2.73 %). The phenolic (TPC=127.70±1.47 mg gallic acid equivalents/g of extract) and flavonoid (TFC=85.48±0.12 mg quercetin equivalents/g of extract) contents of the ME were also assessed. The in vitro antioxidant activities of both the EO and ME were evaluated using DPPH, ABTS, and ferrous ion chelating effect assays. Compared to the positive control (vit. E and Vit. C), and both extracts exhibited excellent activity.


Asunto(s)
Acacia , Aceites Volátiles , Antioxidantes/química , Aceites Volátiles/farmacología , Aceites Volátiles/química , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Metanol , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/química , Arabia Saudita , Cromatografía Liquida , Cromatografía Líquida con Espectrometría de Masas , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Flavonoides/química
15.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 325: 117842, 2024 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310987

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Acacia nilotica (L.) Wild. Ex Delilie is a shrub with significant ethnomedicinal stature. Therefore, in the undertaken study, its wound healing attributes are determined. AIM OF THE STUDY: The current study provided evidence of the traditional use of A. nilotica species and conferred A. nilotica bark extract as a potent candidate for wound healing agents. MATERIALS & METHODS: A. nilotica leaves extract (ANL-E); A. nilotica bark extract (ANB-E), and A. nilotica stem extract (ANS-E) were prepared using methanol-chloroform (1:1). Phytochemical analysis was performed using gallic acid equivalent (GAE) total phenolic content (TPC), quercetin equivalent (QE) total flavonoid content (TFC) assays and High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In vitro antioxidant potential (free radical scavenging activity (FRSA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay), antibacterial activity (broth microdilution method) and hemolytic analysis was carried out. Wound healing proficiency of ANB-E was determined by wound excision model followed by estimating hydroxyproline content and endogenous antioxidant markers. RESULTS: Maximum phenolic and flavonoid content were depicted by ANB-E i.e., 50.9 ± 0.34 µg gallic acid equivalent/mg extract and 28.7 ± 0.13 µg quercetin equivalent/mg extract, respectively. HPLC analysis unraveled the presence of a significant amount of catechin in ANL-E, ANB-E and ANS-E (54.66 ± 0.02, 44.9 ± 0.004 and 31.36 ± 0.02 µg/mg extract) respectively. Highest percent free radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant capacity, and ferric reducing action power (i.e., 93.3 ± 0.42 %, 222.10 ± 0.76, and 222.86 ± 0.54 µg ascorbic acid equivalent/mg extract) were exhibited by ANB-E. Maximum antibacterial potential against Staphylococcus aureus was exhibited by ANB-E (MIC 12.5 µg/ml). Two of the extracts i.e., ANL-E and ANB-E were found biocompatible with less than 5 % hemolytic potential. Based upon findings of in vitro analysis, ANB-E (10, 5, and 2.5 % w/w, C1, C2, and C3, respectively) was selected for evaluating its in vivo wound healing potential. Maximum contraction of wound area and fastest epithelization i.e., 98 ± 0.05 % and 11.2 ± 1.00 (day) was exhibited by C1. Maximum hydroxyproline content, glutathione, catalase, and peroxidase were demonstrated by C1 i.e., 15.9 ± 0.52 µg/mg, 9.3 ± 0.17 mmol/mg, 7.2 ± 0.17 and 6.2 ± 0.14 U/mg, respectively. Maximal curbed lipid peroxidation i.e., 0.7 ± 0.15 mmol/mg was also depicted by C1. CONCLUSIONS: In a nutshell, the current investigation endorsed the wound healing potential of ANB-E suggesting it to be an excellent candidate for future studies.


Asunto(s)
Acacia , Antioxidantes , Antioxidantes/química , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Extractos Vegetales/análisis , Acacia/química , Quercetina , Hidroxiprolina , Ácido Gálico , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Flavonoides/farmacología , Flavonoides/análisis , Radicales Libres
16.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2921, 2024 02 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38316894

RESUMEN

The application of natural extracts to vegetable plants can increase production, optimize nutrient and water uptake, and mitigate the effects of stress on vegetable plants by enhancing primary and secondary metabolism. In this study, Acacia saligna (Labill.) H.L.Wendl. fruit aqueous extract (FAE) was applied as a foliar application to assess and demonstrate its effects on growth, productivity, and phytochemicals of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) plants. A. saligna FAE (2%, 4%, and 6%), each combined with 50% of the recommended dose of N fertilizer was applied to coriander plants over the course of two successive seasons in the field. These treatments were compared with the control treatment, which used a 100% recommended dose of N. The four tested treatments were set up in a randomized complete block design with three replicates for a total of 12 experimental plots. Each replicate (experimental plot) was 3 m2 (2 × 1.5 m2) in size and included 300 seeds/m2. The phytochemicals were examined using chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods, where the essential oils (EOs) extracted from leaves were analyzed by Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), while the phenolic and flavonoid compounds were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). With the application of A. saligna FAE (4%) + 50% N fertilizer, the levels of total solid content, total carbohydrates, total protein, total phenols, and total antioxidant activity, as well as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll a + b, and carotenoids, were increased at harvest. The treatment A. saligna FAE at 6% + 50% N fertilizer did not observe significant improvement in the growth parameters of coriander plants because of the anticipated allelopathic effects. By GC-MS analysis, the major compounds in the EO from control treatment were 2-octyn-1-ol (23.93%), and 2-butyl-1-octanol (8.80%), in treated plants with 2% of A. saligna FAE + 50% N fertilizer were (E)-2-decen-1-ol (32.00%), and 1-methoxymethoxy-oct-2-yne (13.71%), in treated plants with 4% A. saligna FAE + 50% N fertilizer were E-2-undecen-1-ol (32.70%), and 3,5,5-trimethyl-1-hexene (8.91%), and in the treated plants with A. saligna FAE (6%) + 50% N fertilizer were phytol (80.44%), and (Z)6,(Z)9-pentadecadien-1-ol (13.75%). The flavonoid components 7-hydroxyflavone, naringin, rutin, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, apigenin, and catechin were presented with variable concentrations according to the treatments utilized as identified by HPLC analysis from the methanol extracts of the treated plants with the combination treatments of A. saligna FAE (2, 4, and 6%) and N fertilization (50% from the recommended dose) and control coriander plants (100% N recommended dose). The combination of 50% N fertilizer treatment and the biostimulant A. saligna FAE (4%) seems to improve coriander plant growth while simultaneously lowering N fertilizer consumption. Future research will be needed to further study the effectiveness of several concentrations of A. saligna FAE in various conditions and/or species.


Asunto(s)
Acacia , Coriandrum , Coriandrum/química , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Fertilizantes , Frutas/química , Fitoquímicos/análisis , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Plantas
17.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 93, 2024 Feb 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321418

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Acacia species are economically significant as medicinal plants that have been utilized since ancient times. Acacia modesta has been reported to possess potent antibacterial and antioxidant properties, but its growth rate is slow. In this study, we hypothesized that inducing callus in vitro from A. modesta could enhance the production of antibacterial and antioxidant secondary metabolites, thereby circumventing the issues of slow growth and excessive harvesting of the plant. RESULTS: The callus was induced from axillary buds on MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/L of 2,4-D and 1 mg/L of BAP. The secondary metabolites, volatile compounds, antibacterial activity, and antioxidant activity of the callus and parent plant leaf extracts were evaluated. The results revealed that the content of phenolics and flavonoids, the number of volatile compounds, and the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the callus extract were significantly enhanced (P ≤ 0.05) compared to the leaf extract. The antibacterial and antioxidant effects were strongly correlated with the total phenolic and flavonoid content in the extracts. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that in vitro callus culture increases the production of phenolics, flavonoids, and volatile compounds. This subsequently enhances the antibacterial and antioxidant properties of A. modesta.


Asunto(s)
Acacia , Antioxidantes , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Acacia/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Fenoles/metabolismo
18.
Environ Res ; 249: 118388, 2024 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38331149

RESUMEN

Nowadays, the scarcity of energy resources is promoting the search for alternative energy sources, boosting interest in the use of forest lignocellulosic residue in the energy sector. In this study, the focus is on the energy recovery from two lignocellulosic residues originated during the pruning of ornamental trees (Horse Chestnut, CI, and False Acacia, FA). Both conventional and flash pyrolysis techniques were applied. The experimental pyrolysis variables were obtained from the study of the thermal behaviour of the pruning residues in thermogravimetric analysis. It was carried out under 5 heating rates and kinetic parameters were estimated using Flynn-Wall-Ozawa method. Results denoted higher maximum mass loss rate values for the same release temperature regions under FA experiments. Also, FA samples had lower final residues for the processes. However, activation energy values were so close for both species. FA was also linked to the faster reactions according frequency factor outcomes. Conventional pyrolysis of pruning residues was carried out in a horizontal oven of original design at a heating rate of 25 °C/min, at 750 °C and 60 min of permanence at that temperature; flash pyrolysis was tested in that oven at 750 and 850 °C. In these pyrolysis processes, three fractions were obtained: bio-char, bio-oil and gas. The physicochemical attributes of the bio-chars suggested their potential utility as biofuels (28.4-29.8 MJ/kg), adsorbent precursors or soil additives. Conventional pyrolysis bio-oils had a dominant monoaromatic hydrocarbons nature, with phenols being the most abundant (≥60%), while flash bio-oils contain mainly polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Conventional pyrolysis gases contained up to 60 vol% of CO2; flash pyrolysis gases had high combustible gas content (CO, CH4, H2) and a low CO2 content (<25 vol%). As a result, their calorific value (18.06 MJ/kg) exhibited a threefold increase compared to the gas produced through conventional pyrolysis (6.04 MJ/kg).


Asunto(s)
Biocombustibles , Biomasa , Pirólisis , Biocombustibles/análisis , Acacia/química , Corylus/química , Termogravimetría , Árboles
19.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 205-215, feb. 2024. ilus, tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528814

RESUMEN

SUMMARY: This study assessed the effects of Acacia Senegal (AS) combined with insulin on Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) activity and mRNA expression, serum glucose, renal function, and oxidative stress in a rat model of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Sixty rats were equally divided into six groups: normal control, normal+AS, diabetic (DM), DM+insulin, DM+AS, and DM+insulin+AS groups. Diabetes mellitus (type 1) was induced by a single injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg), and insulin and AS treatments were carried until rats were culled at the end of week 12. Serum glucose and creatinine levels, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were measured. Renal homogenate levels of NKA activity and gene expression, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and reduced glutathione (GSH) were evaluated as well as kidney tissue histology and ultrastructure. Diabetes caused glomerular damage and modulation of blood and tissue levels of creatinine, glucose, HbA1c, malondialdehyde, NKA activity and gene expression, SOD, catalase and GSH, which were significantly (p<0.05) treated with AS, insulin, and insulin plus AS. However, AS+insulin treatments were more effective. In conclusion, combined administration of AS with insulin to rats with DN decreased NKA activity and gene expression as well as oxidative stress, and improved glycemic state and renal structure and function.


Este estudio evaluó los efectos de Acacia senegal (AS) combinada con insulina sobre la actividad Na+/K+- ATPasa (NKA) y la expresión de ARNm, la glucosa sérica, la función renal y el estrés oxidativo en un modelo de nefropatía diabética (ND) en ratas. Sesenta ratas se dividieron equitativamente en seis grupos: control normal, normal+AS, diabética (DM), DM+insulina, DM+AS y DM+insulina+AS. La diabetes mellitus (tipo 1) se indujo mediante una única inyección de estreptozotocina (65 mg/kg), y los tratamientos con insulina y AS se llevaron a cabo hasta que las ratas fueron sacrificadas al final de la semana 12. Se midieron niveles séricos de glucosa y creatinina, hemoglobina A1c (HbA1c). Se evaluaron los niveles de homogeneizado renal de actividad NKA y expresión génica, malondialdehído, superóxido dismutasa (SOD), catalasa y glutatión reducido (GSH), así como la histología y ultraestructura del tejido renal. La diabetes causó daño glomerular y modulación de los niveles sanguíneos y tisulares de creatinina, glucosa, HbA1c, malondialdehído, actividad y expresión génica de NKA, SOD, catalasa y GSH, los cuales fueron tratados significativamente (p<0,05) con AS, insulina e insulina más AS. Sin embargo, los tratamientos con AS+insulina fueron más efectivos. En conclusión, la administración combinada de AS con insulina a ratas con DN disminuyó la actividad de NKA y la expresión genética, así como el estrés oxidativo, y mejoró el estado glucémico y la estructura y función renal.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Masculino , Ratas , Extractos Vegetales/administración & dosificación , ATPasa Intercambiadora de Sodio-Potasio/efectos de los fármacos , Nefropatías Diabéticas/tratamiento farmacológico , Acacia/química , Superóxido Dismutasa , Hemoglobina Glucada/análisis , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Expresión Génica , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , ATPasa Intercambiadora de Sodio-Potasio/genética , Estrés Oxidativo , Microscopía Electrónica de Transmisión , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Quimioterapia Combinada , Control Glucémico , Insulina/administración & dosificación , Riñón/efectos de los fármacos , Malondialdehído
20.
Exp Parasitol ; 259: 108707, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38336095

RESUMEN

Natural honey contains glycoconjugates as minor components. We characterized acacia honey glycoconjugates with molecular masses in the range of 2-5 kDa. The glycoconjugates were separated by RP-HPLC into three peaks (termed RP-2-5 k-I, RP-2-5 k-II, and RP-2-5 k-III) which demonstrated paralyzing effects on the model nematode C. elegans (ED50 of 50 ng glycoconjugates/µL). To examine molecular mechanisms underlying the nematicidal effects of honey glycoconjugates, expressional analyses of genes that are essential for the growth, development, reproduction, and movement of C. elegans were carried out. Quantitative PCR-based assays showed that these molecules moderately regulate the expression of genes involved in the citric acid cycle (mdh-1 and idhg-1) and cytoskeleton (act-1 and act-2). MALDI-ToF-MS/MS analysis of RP-HPLC peaks revealed the presence of paucimannose-like N-glycans which are known to play important roles in invertebrates e.g., worms and flies. These findings provided novel information regarding the structure and nematicidal function of honey glycoconjugates.


Asunto(s)
Acacia , Miel , Animales , Abejas , Miel/análisis , Caenorhabditis elegans , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Antinematodos/farmacología , Glicoconjugados/farmacología
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