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1.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(3): e20190903, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533801

RESUMEN

The aims of this study were to determine the fatty acid profile of meat from lambs fed with different levels of safflower seed (0%, 7.5%, and 15%) and, also, to compare the characteristics of the meat patties prepared from this lamb meat (LMP) with beef meat patties (BMP). The safflower seed-supplemented diet did not change the contents of polyunsaturated and unsaturated fatty acids, except for C22:1. All meat patty formulations were considered safe for consumption. The values of cooking yield, shrinkage, water absorption index, luminosity (L*), and redness (a*) were similar for the LMP and BMP tested. While the safflower seed-supplemented diet did not alter the moisture, ash, and protein levels of LMP, the lipid content was lower than that in BMP. The incorporation of 15% safflower seed into lamb feed contributed to promoting better sensory attributes of the meat patties. Most of the physicochemical properties evaluated were similar among LMP and BMP. However, to improve the sensory properties of the product, dietary supplementation with 15% safflower seed is recommended.


Asunto(s)
Carthamus tinctorius , Carne Roja , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Bovinos , Dieta , Suplementos Dietéticos , Ácidos Grasos , Carne/análisis , Semillas , Ovinos
2.
J Environ Manage ; 283: 111991, 2021 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486196

RESUMEN

This study was conducted to distinguish the most cost-effective activated sludge-based wastewater treatment technology by focusing on removal efficiency (RE) for applying in the meat processing units. Four different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), namely anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A2O), membrane bioreactor (MBR), moving bed bioreactor (MBBR), and integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) were simulated regarding the daily annual data obtained from a meat processing unit. The descending order concerning the total cost (TC) was as follows: MBR > A2O > IFAS > MBBR while it was as MBR > IFAS > MBBR > A2O based on RE. Regarding the energy and material consumption costs, the A2O and MBR were the highest and lowest cost-effective systems, respectively. However, the MBR was the best from a biological treatment cost perspective. The boilers and co-generators contributed to 75% and 25% of the produced biogas, respectively, that supplied 50% of WWTP electricity demand. Among all different influent parameters, the effect of flow rate, COD, and BOD on the TC was statistically significant. Furthermore, the TC and present worth illustrated the most sensitivity to the construction cost alteration. This research provides insights into key economic parameters for a WWTP design and application.


Asunto(s)
Aguas del Alcantarillado , Purificación del Agua , Biopelículas , Reactores Biológicos , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Carne , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos , Aguas Residuales
3.
Molecules ; 26(2)2021 Jan 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477314

RESUMEN

In recent years, considerable importance is given to the use of agrifood wastes as they contain several groups of substances that are useful for development of functional foods. As muscle foods are prone to lipid and protein oxidation and perishable in nature, the industry is in constant search of synthetic free additives that help in retarding the oxidation process, leading to the development of healthier and shelf stable products. The by-products or residues of pomegranate fruit (seeds, pomace, and peel) are reported to contain bioactive compounds, including phenolic and polyphenolic compounds, dietary fibre, complex polysaccharides, minerals, vitamins, etc. Such compounds extracted from the by-products of pomegranate can be used as functional ingredients or food additives to harness the antioxidant, antimicrobial potential, or as substitutes for fat, and protein in various muscle food products. Besides, these natural additives are reported to improve the quality, safety, and extend the shelf life of different types of food products, including meat and fish. Although studies on application of pomegranate by-products on various foods are available, their effect on the physicochemical, oxidative changes, microbial, colour stabilizing, sensory acceptability, and shelf life of muscle foods are not comprehensively discussed previously. In this review, we vividly discuss these issues, and highlight the benefits of pomegranate by-products and their phenolic composition on human health.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/química , Suplementos Dietéticos , Conservantes de Alimentos/química , Frutas/química , Carne , Extractos Vegetales/química , Granada (Fruta)/química , Animales , Humanos
4.
Food Chem ; 346: 128883, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434864

RESUMEN

Bacteriophages (phages) have been extensively utilized as antibacterial agents in the food industry because of their host-specificity. However, their application in polymer films has been limited because of the lack of a strong attachment method for phage to the surface. We developed an antibacterial film by covalently immobilizing Escherichia coli (E. coli)-specific phage T4 on a polycaprolactone (PCL) film. The chemical bond formation was confirmed by XPS analysis, and the covalent attachment of phage T4 effectively inhibited E. coli growth even after external stimulation of the film by sonication. When applied as a packaging film for raw beef inoculated with E. coli O157:H7, the chemically functionalized PCL film showed approximately 30-fold higher bacterial inhibitory effects than the film with physically adsorbed phage T4. These results indicate the promising application potential of chemically functionalized PCL film with phage T4 as an antibacterial food packaging material against the foodborne pathogen E. coli.


Asunto(s)
Bacteriófago T4/química , Escherichia coli O157/crecimiento & desarrollo , Embalaje de Alimentos/métodos , Poliésteres/química , Animales , Bacteriófago T4/patogenicidad , Bovinos , Escherichia coli O157/virología , Microbiología de Alimentos , Embalaje de Alimentos/instrumentación , Carne/microbiología
5.
Food Chem ; 346: 128910, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460961

RESUMEN

Phosphates are commonly included in meat processing, where oxidation is inevitable, to improve water binding. This present study attempted to reveal the interactive roles of protein oxidation and tetrasodium pyrophosphate (TSPP) on the crosslinking pattern of myosin mediated by transglutaminase (TGase). Mild oxidation at 1 mM H2O2 facilitated the TGase-initiated crosslinking, with the dominate crosslinking site shifted from S1 (in nonoxidized myosin) to Rod. The introduction of TSPP alleviated the oxidation stress on proteins, and was conductive to the crosslinking reaction notably at the LMM domain. The crosslinking sites in untreated myosin were identified as Gln-613 (S1) and Gln-1498 (LMM) by amino-acid sequence analysis, while strongly oxidation resulted in the loss of Gln-1498. Contrastively, four new reactive crosslinking sites were generated by TSPP, one (Gln-558/Gln-567) located on S1 and three (Gln-1362, Gln-1374, and Gln-1423/Gln-1426) on LMM. Yet, Gln-1362 was eliminated under strong oxidation at 50 mM H2O2.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Difosfatos/química , Subfragmentos de Miosina/metabolismo , Transglutaminasas/metabolismo , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Animales , Peróxido de Hidrógeno/química , Carne/análisis , Subfragmentos de Miosina/química , Oxidación-Reducción , Porcinos
7.
Food Chem ; 346: 128930, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460962

RESUMEN

Studies have shown the effects of fat or oil types and myofibrillar protein on meat emulsions. In this study, fat extracted from pork, beef, chicken, and duck, as well as corn oil, was used to emulsify the extracted porcine myofibrillar protein. We evaluated the thermal and rheological properties, emulsion stability, texture profiles, fatty acid compositions, and microstructures of these meat emulsions. Meat emulsions containing animal fat had lower emulsion stability and better thermal stability, rheological properties, and hardness than those containing oil. The ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the meat emulsion containing corn oil was the highest, followed by duck, chicken, pork, and beef fat emulsions. Of the animal fat emulsions, chicken might be the best fat source when emulsifying porcine protein because of the high thermal and emulsion stability, rheological properties, and fatty acid composition of the emulsion and well-distributed fat particles in it.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Grasos/análisis , Carne/análisis , Proteínas Musculares/análisis , Reología , Animales , Bovinos , Pollos , Emulsiones , Manipulación de Alimentos , Porcinos
8.
Nutrients ; 13(1)2021 Jan 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466241

RESUMEN

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a global health challenge with substantial adverse effects on the world economy. It is beyond any doubt that it is, again, a call-to-action to minimize the risk of future zoonoses caused by emerging human pathogens. The primary response to contain zoonotic diseases is to call for more strict regulations on wildlife trade and hunting. This is because the origins of coronaviruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), SARS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), as well as other viral pathogens (e.g., Ebola, HIV) are traceable to wild animals. Although COVID-19 is not related to livestock animals, the pandemic increased general attention given to zoonotic viral infections-the risk of which can also be associated with livestock. Therefore, this paper discusses the potential transformation of industrial livestock farming and the production of animal products, particularly meat, to decrease the risks for transmission of novel human pathogens. Plant-based diets have a number of advantages, but it is unrealistic to consider them as the only solution offered to the problem. Therefore, a search for alternative protein sources in insect-based foods and cultured meat, important technologies enabling safer meat production. Although both of these strategies offer a number of potential advantages, they are also subject to the number of challenges that are discussed in this paper. Importantly, insect-based foods and cultured meat can provide additional benefits in the context of ecological footprint, an aspect important in light of predicted climate changes. Furthermore, cultured meat can be regarded as ethically superior and supports better food security. There is a need to further support the implementation and expansion of all three approaches discussed in this paper, plant-based diets, insect-based foods, and cultured meat, to decrease the epidemiological risks and ensure a sustainable future. Furthermore, cultured meat also offers a number of additional benefits in the context of environmental impact, ethical issues, and food security.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Proteínas en la Dieta/provisión & distribución , Abastecimiento de Alimentos/métodos , Animales , /prevención & control , Insectos Comestibles , Alimentos , Humanos , Carne , Plantas Comestibles , Zoonosis/etiología , Zoonosis/prevención & control
9.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 339: 109014, 2021 Feb 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333444

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to develop a method with improved sensitivity for Campylobacter jejuni detection in foods. Nitrogen-doped carbon nanodots (N-CNDs) were synthesized and added to an enrichment medium (Bolton broth) at a concentration of 10 mg/mL. A light-emitting diode (LED) at a wavelength of 425 nm was used to irradiate the N-CNDs-supplemented enrichment medium to induce an exothermic reaction for 1 h. Additionally, a monoclonal antibody specific to C. jejuni NCTC11168 was developed using hybridoma cells to aid detection. The C. jejuni detection capabilities of N-CNDs-supplemented enrichment medium and the conventional Bolton broth enrichment, were compared using duck samples. C. jejuni in the enrichment was detected with the monoclonal antibody based-indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ID-ELISA). The N-CNDs-supplemented enrichment medium showed a better C. jejuni detection capability than the conventional Bolton broth enrichment. Additionally, data from ID-ELISA showed excellent detection efficiency and a shortened detection time in the N-CNDs-supplemented enrichment medium after LED irradiation at 425 nm. These results indicate that 1-h LED irradiation at 425 nm to Bolton broth supplemented with the N-CNDs increased the detection efficiency and shortened the detection time with the monoclonal antibody for C. jejuni in food.


Asunto(s)
Campylobacter jejuni/aislamiento & purificación , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Microbiología de Alimentos/métodos , Carne/microbiología , Nanopartículas/química , Animales , Anticuerpos Monoclonales/metabolismo , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Carbono/química , Carbono/farmacología , Medios de Cultivo , Patos/microbiología , Nitrógeno/química , Nitrógeno/farmacología
10.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 339: 109017, 2021 Feb 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338980

RESUMEN

Campylobacter is an important foodborne pathogen causing bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide; however, there has been a lack of information over the past decade on its occurrence, antibiotic susceptibility and genetic diversity in Thailand. Poultry meat is considered as a reservoir for transmission of Campylobacter to humans. This study determines the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Campylobacter spp. on chicken samples purchased from 50 local wet markets and supermarkets in central Thailand. Of the 296 samples, 99 (33.5%) were contaminated with C. jejuni, 54 (18.2%) were C. coli and 15 (5.1%) were contaminated with both species. Antibiotic resistance rate is higher among C. coli isolates; 100%, 76.8%, 37.7%, 36.2% and 13.0% were resistant to quinolones, cyclines, macrolides, clindamycin and gentamicin, respectively. Most of the C. jejuni isolates were resistant to quinolones (79.8%) and cyclines (38.6%) whereas resistance to macrolides, clindamycin and gentamicin was found to be 1.8%. Multi-drug resistance (i.e. to three or more unrelated antimicrobials) was detected in 37.7% of C. coli and 1.8% of C. jejuni isolates. This study has revealed high contamination rates and alarming levels of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp. isolated from retail chicken samples in Thailand, suggesting the necessity of implementing interventions to reduce its prevalence from farm to table in the country.


Asunto(s)
Campylobacter/efectos de los fármacos , Campylobacter/fisiología , Pollos , Microbiología de Alimentos , Carne/microbiología , Animales , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Campylobacter/aislamiento & purificación , Microbiología de Alimentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Prevalencia , Tailandia
11.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 339: 109013, 2021 Feb 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340943

RESUMEN

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of acute and chronic hepatitis in humans. The zoonotic HEV genotype 3 is the main genotype in Europe. The foodborne transmission via consumption of meat and meat products prepared from infected pigs or wild boars is considered the major transmission route of this genotype. High hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) is a technique, which can be used for inactivation of pathogens in food. Here, preparations of a cell culture-adapted HEV genotype 3 strain in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were subjected to HPP and the remaining infectivity was titrated in cell culture by counting fluorescent foci of replicating virus. A gradual decrease in infectivity was found by application of 100 to 600 MPa for 2 min. At 20 °C, infectivity reduction of 0.5 log10 at 200 MPa and 1 log10 at 400 MPa were observed. Slightly higher infectivity reduction of 1 log10 at 200 MPa and 2 log10 at 400 MPa were found by application of the pressure at 4 °C. At both temperatures, the virus was nearly completely inactivated (>3.5 log10 infectivity decrease) at 600 MPa; however, low amounts of remaining infectious virus were observed in one of three replicates in both cases. Transmission electron microscopy showed disassembled and distorted particles in the preparations treated with 600 MPa. Time-course experiments at 400 MPa showed a continuous decline of infectivity from 30 s to 10 min, leading to a 2 log10 infectivity decrease at 20 °C and to a 2.5 log10 infectivity decrease at 4 °C for a 10 min pressure application each. Predictive models for inactivation of HEV by HPP were generated on the basis of the generated data. The results show that HPP treatment can reduce HEV infectivity, which is mainly dependent on pressure height and duration of the HPP treatment. Compared to other viruses, HEV appears to be relatively stable against HPP and high pressure/long time combinations have to be applied for significant reduction of infectivity.


Asunto(s)
Microbiología de Alimentos , Virus de la Hepatitis E/fisiología , Presión Hidrostática , Productos de la Carne/virología , Inactivación de Virus , Animales , Europa (Continente) , Hepatitis E/transmisión , Hepatitis E/virología , Virus de la Hepatitis E/ultraestructura , Humanos , Carne/virología , Microscopía Electrónica de Transmisión , Modelos Biológicos , Sus scrofa , Porcinos , Temperatura
12.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 337: 108928, 2021 Jan 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152572

RESUMEN

Sponges are frequently used in kitchens and have been shown to harbor large numbers of bacteria, occasionally also pathogens. Less is known about kitchen brushes regarding usage and presence of bacteria. In the present study, the use of sponges and brushes was studied in a survey among 9966 European consumers in ten countries, and growth and survival of bacteria in sponges and brushes were examined in laboratory experiments. Sponges were the preferred hand-cleaning utensils for washing-up in the majority of countries, while brushes were most frequently used in Denmark and Norway. Consumers mostly change their sponges at regular times, but also sensory cues (looks dirty, smelly, slimy) and usage occurrences such as wiping up meat juices may trigger replacement. Besides cleaning the dishes, over a quarter of the dish brush users also use it to clean a chopping board after soilage from chicken meat juices. The water uptake and drying rate varied considerably, both between different sponges and between brushes and sponges, where brushes dried fastest. Campylobacter survived one day in all sponges and Salmonella more than seven days in two of three types of sponges. In the type of sponge that dried slowest, Salmonella grew on the first day and was always found in higher levels than in the other sponges. Non-pathogenic bacteria grew in the sponges and reached levels around 9 log CFU/sponge. In brushes all types of bacteria died over time. Campylobacter and Salmonella were reduced by more than 2.5 log to below the detection limit after one and three days, respectively. Bacteriota studies revealed a tendency for a dominance by Gram-negative bacteria and a shift to high relative prevalence of Pseudomonas over time in sponges. Both enumeration by agar plating and bacteriota analysis confirmed that the pathogens were in a minority compared to the other bacteria. Treatments of sponges and brushes with chlorine, boiling or in the dishwasher were effective to reduce Salmonella. We conclude that brushes are more hygienic than sponges and that their use should be encouraged. Contaminated sponges or brushes should be replaced or cleaned when they may have been in contact with pathogenic microorganisms, e.g. used on raw food spills. Cleaning of sponges and brushes with chlorine, boiling or dishwasher may be a safe alternative to replacing them with new ones.


Asunto(s)
Fenómenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Contaminación de Equipos/estadística & datos numéricos , Productos Domésticos/microbiología , Animales , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Campylobacter/fisiología , Cloro , Recuento de Colonia Microbiana , Comportamiento del Consumidor , Utensilios de Comida y Culinaria , Europa (Continente) , Manipulación de Alimentos , Higiene/normas , Carne/microbiología , Salmonella/fisiología , Factores de Tiempo
13.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 337: 108966, 2021 Jan 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202297

RESUMEN

Meat and meat products are perishable products that require the use additives to prevent the spoilage by foodborne microorganisms and pathogenic bacteria. Current trends for products without synthetic preservatives have led to the search for new sources of antimicrobial compounds. Essential oils (EOs), which has been used since ancient times, meet these goals since their effectiveness as antimicrobial agents in meat and meat products have been demonstrated. Cinnamon, clove, coriander, oregano, rosemary, sage, thyme, among others, have shown a greater potential to control and inhibit the growth of microorganisms. Although EOs are natural products, their quality must be evaluated before being used, allowing to grant the Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) classification. The bioactive compounds (BAC) present in their composition are linked to their activity, being the concentration and the quality of these compounds very important characteristics. Therefore, a single mechanism of action cannot be attributed to them. Extraction technique plays an important role, which has led to improve conventional techniques in favour of green emerging technologies that allow to preserve better target bioactive components, operating at lower temperatures and avoiding as much as possible the use of solvents, with more sustainable processing and reduced energy use and environmental pollution. Once extracted, these compounds display greater inhibition of gram-positive than gram-negative bacteria. Membrane disruption is the main mechanism of action involved. Their intense characteristics and the possible interaction with meat components make that their application combined with other EOs, encapsulated and being part of active film, increase their bioactivity without modifying the quality of the final product.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacología , Productos de la Carne/microbiología , Aceites Volátiles/farmacología , Antiinfecciosos/química , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias/patogenicidad , Membrana Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Películas Comestibles , Conservantes de Alimentos/química , Carne/microbiología , Aceites Volátiles/química , Aceites Vegetales/química , Aceites Vegetales/farmacología
14.
Food Chem ; 339: 127891, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861930

RESUMEN

We propose a visual strategy for simultaneous detection of multiple adulterated components in beef by integration of multiple polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) with the lateral flow strip (LFS). The primer sets for adulterated components are uniquely designed with different nucleic acid tags (NAT), enabling the amplicons with specific wobbled sequences at two opposite ends. The wobbled sequences will precisely hybridize with the pre-immobilized capture probes on T lines (T1, T2 and T3) and C line, contributing to the coloration of LFS. Taking advantages of extraordinary amplification efficiency of PCR and simplicity of LFS, common adulterated components including chicken, duck and pork can be easily detected with LOD as low as 0.01% (wt%), which is comparable to that of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) but with more simplified operations and reduced costs. The method can be extended to identification of other components by replacing the functional primer set. This method can be a useful candidate for meat quality control at the resource-limited setups.


Asunto(s)
Pollos/genética , Patos/genética , Carne/análisis , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa/métodos , Animales , Bovinos , ADN/aislamiento & purificación , ADN/metabolismo , Oro/química , Límite de Detección , Nanopartículas del Metal/química , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa/instrumentación , Porcinos
15.
Food Chem ; 334: 127471, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688174

RESUMEN

Optimal QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) conditions with good accuracy, repeatability and precision were established to rapidly extract the European Union (EU) priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from various food matrices (Category: Poultry and Meat, Fish and seafood, Grains, Soy beans and products, Root vegetables and Coffee). The QuEChERS conditions combined with the established high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection conditions were used to rapidly determine the PAHs in 19 popular cooked foods in Taiwan and their corresponding original materials. These conditions also meet the EU and Taiwan Food and Drug Administration specifications. Charcoal grilled, gas stove grilled and smoked foods had higher PAHs contents, while fried and electric oven-baked/baked foods had lower PAHs contents. In addition to the effects of cooking methods, the contamination of original materials by PAHs in the environment should also have an important impact on the contents of PAHs in these cooked foods.


Asunto(s)
Análisis de los Alimentos/métodos , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Carbón Orgánico , Fraccionamiento Químico/métodos , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Culinaria , Unión Europea , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas/métodos , Límite de Detección , Carne/análisis , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Alimentos Marinos/análisis , Taiwán , Verduras/química
16.
Food Chem ; 334: 127608, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711280

RESUMEN

Food analysis to ensure food safety and quality are relevant to all countries. This study aimed to develop a detection technique by combining recombinase polymerase amplification with CRISPR-Cas12a for food safety (termed RPA-Cas12a-FS). Our data showed that this novel method could be detected via fluorescence intensity for the molecular identification of foodborne pathogenic bacteria, genetically modified crops, and meat adulteration. After optimization, the sensitivity and stability of RPA-Cas12a-FS was further enhanced. The RPA-Cas12a-FS system could specifically detect target gene levels as low as 10 copies in 45 min at 37 °C. The RPA-Cas12a-FS system was sensitive both using standard samples in the lab and using samples from the field, which indicated that this detection method was practical. In conclusion, a simple, rapid, and highly sensitive detection method based on CRISPR-Cas12a was developed for molecular identification in the food safety field without requiring technical expertise or ancillary equipment.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Análisis de los Alimentos/métodos , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Microbiología de Alimentos/métodos , Técnicas de Amplificación de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Proteínas Bacterianas/genética , Proteínas Asociadas a CRISPR/genética , Productos Agrícolas/genética , Endodesoxirribonucleasas/genética , Fluorescencia , Inocuidad de los Alimentos , Carne , Plantas Modificadas Genéticamente/genética , ARN Guia , Recombinasas/genética , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
17.
Food Chem ; 334: 127611, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712493

RESUMEN

Plant polyphenols applied as natural antioxidant ingredients, are known to bind to cysteine residues on meat proteins. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of light exposure on the formation of cysteine-phenol adduct in meat added 4-methylcatechol (4MC), a model polyphenol, during storage through quantitative LC-MS/MS-based analysis. Cysteine-4-methylcatechol adduct (Cys-4MC) formation in meat added 1500 ppm 4-MC increased significantly (by 50%) when stored under light in oxygen at 4 °C for 7 days as compared to storage in the dark. This was reflected by a significant decrease in thiol concentrations in the same sample. Gel electrophoresis showed loss in myosin heavy chain (MHC), and a resulting increase in cross-linked MHC (CL-MHC) and larger protein polymers in samples added 4MC. Protein blots stained with nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) showed intensive protein-polyphenol binding in the meat samples added 4MC, but no major differences between storage conditions.


Asunto(s)
Catecoles/química , Almacenamiento de Alimentos/métodos , Proteínas de la Carne/química , Carne , Oxígeno/química , Antioxidantes/química , Cromatografía Liquida , Cisteína/química , Electroforesis en Gel de Poliacrilamida , Luz , Carne/análisis , Proteínas de la Carne/metabolismo , Cadenas Pesadas de Miosina/química , Compuestos de Sulfhidrilo/química , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem
18.
Food Chem ; 335: 127646, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731123

RESUMEN

Carbon/ZnO coaxial microfibers were synthesized with the hypha of Penicillium expansum as low-cost and green template. The SEM images, XRD and Raman spectra were used to characterize the morphology and chemical components of the prepared microfibers. The formation of the coaxial structure could be attributed to the attachment of Zn2+ onto the hypha surface through coordination and electrostatic interactions. Sensing performance of the carbon/ZnO microfibers toward Dopamine (DA) were evaluated by dropping method. Results showed that the proposed sensor exhibited good selectivity, reproducibility, and stability with a detection limit of 0.106 µM. Two linear ranges were obtained from 0 to 50 and 50 to 300 µM. The practicality of the carbon/ZnO microfibers was supported by the successful detection of DA in pork with recovery ranging from 96.85% to 104.51%. Based on the excellent electrochemical performance and easy preparation, the proposed sensor provides a promising method for determination of DA.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas Biosensibles/métodos , Carbono/química , Carbono/metabolismo , Dopamina/análisis , Hifa/metabolismo , Carne/análisis , Penicillium/metabolismo , Óxido de Zinc/química , Óxido de Zinc/metabolismo , Animales , Técnicas Biosensibles/instrumentación , Hifa/crecimiento & desarrollo , Penicillium/crecimiento & desarrollo , Porcinos
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 759: 144306, 2021 Mar 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340862

RESUMEN

Feed consumption is responsible for the largest shares of resource use required for producing pork. In the European Union (EU), a meat consumption decrease is expected in combination with a growth of meat production driven by foreign demand. This paper presents a multiple environmental assessment of the resource use linked to EU pig feed by performing a material flow analysis of each single feed item constituting the EU pig diet. The global relevance and the trade-driven interlinkages are disclosed by considering the country-specific resource efficiencies of 254 territories. Our analysis reveals that in 2017 a total resource use of 14.5 Mha of land, 51.9 Gm3 of green water, 3.9 Gm3 of blue water, 1.23 Mtonnes of nitrogen, 0.35 Mtonnes of phosphorous, and 0.34 Mtonnes of potassium was required to satisfy the EU demand of pig feed. Wheat-based products accounted for the largest share of land use (32%), green water (35%), nitrogen and phosphorous from fertilizer use (44% and 28%, respectively). Also soybean accounted for a significant share of land use (15%), green water (20%) and phosphorous from fertilizer use (25%). Moreover, soybean-related feed items contributed the most to the potassium use (24%). While the domestic production of cereals satisfied the demand, protein-based ingredients such as soybean were largely imported, mainly from South America, outsourcing the related environmental burden. Moreover, most of the feed from extra-EU countries resulted with higher resource use intensities than EU implying a potential resource saving if feed was domestically produced. Results obtained are discussed in relation to the many constraints that limit the possibility of increasing the EU feed production and promising alternative solutions. In particular, while some solutions seem promising in terms of savings, the current EU regulation needs to be redesigned to allow their implementation and the achievement of ambitious EU targets.


Asunto(s)
Carne , Soja , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Unión Europea , Nitrógeno , América del Sur , Porcinos
20.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 337: 108932, 2021 Jan 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152570

RESUMEN

Culturing methods are conventionally applied to investigate the contamination of food with several microorganisms after heat processing. However, with these methods, it is not possible to evaluate whether heat-treated meat products, such as cooked sausages, contained parts of spoiled meat. Therefore, two specific multiplex qPCRs were developed in this study in order to determine the microbiological quality of the raw materials used for these products. The PCR targets focused on four bacterial groups often found on meat (family Enterobacteriaceae, genus Pseudomonas, genus Staphylococcus and species Brochothrix thermosphacta). Specificity as well as sensitivity of the developed multiplex qPCRs, validated by using 68 microbial species, were 100%. The applicability of both multiplex qPCRs compared to culturing methods was performed using 96 meat samples (fresh and naturally spoiled) and 12 inhouse-made "Lyoner" sausages containing variable ratios of spoiled meat (0%, 5%, 12% and 25%; n = 3 for each group). Both methods showed similar results by evaluating the ∆log10 cfu/g, the relative accuracy and the t-test analysis (p > 0.05). Comparing qPCR results of the different sausage groups, a significant difference between sausages containing fresh meat and sausages containing spoiled meat (12% and 25%) was found only for Pseudomonas and B. thermosphacta in both raw and cooked sausages. The statistical difference between 5% vs. 12% and 25% spoiled meat in cooked sausages, was also found only for these two bacterial groups. The developed multiplex qPCRs were further applied to 30 commercially available "Bologna-type" sausages. The results showed a total of 14 sausages considered to be suspicious for Food Fraud. While the role of Staphylococcus spp. in meat spoilage remains unclear, Pseudomonas, Enterobacteriaceae and B. thermosphacta could together be used as an indicator for "spoiled meat" used in sausages. The developed qPCR systems in this study allow the detection of four relevant bacterial groups in the heated Bologna-type sausages and provide information about the hygienic quality of raw materials used. This method could thus be helpful for screening food suspected of Food Fraud.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/genética , Microbiología de Alimentos/métodos , Productos de la Carne/microbiología , Carne/microbiología , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Animales , Brochothrix/genética , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Calor , Pseudomonas/genética , Staphylococcus/genética
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