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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(15): e37673, 2024 Apr 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38608100

RESUMEN

This study aimed to investigate the trends in diseases of the digestive system hospital admissions (DDSHA) in England and Wales between (1999-2019). Secondary objectives were to investigate the type of admission and medication prescribing related to the digestive system in England. This is an ecological study using data from the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) database and the Patient Episode Database between April 1999 and March 2019. The rate of hospital admissions with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was calculated by dividing the number of DDSHA by the mid-year population. The trend in hospital admissions was assessed using a Poisson model. Overall, the rate of DDSHA rose by 84.2% (from 2231.27 [95% CI 2227.26-2235.28] in 1999 to 4109.33 [95% CI 4104.29-4114.38] in 2019 per 100,000 persons, trend test, P < .001). The most remarkable rise in hospital admission was seen in liver diseases, followed by other diseases of intestines with 1.85-fold, and 1.59-fold, respectively. Between 2004 and 2019, the overall prescribing rate for medications related to the gastrointestinal system increased by 74.6%, and stoma care related medications prescribing rate increased by 2.25-fold, followed by drugs affecting intestinal secretions and antisecretory drugs and mucosal protectants. There was an increase in hospital admission rate due to GI diseases in the United Kingdom (UK) by 84.2% from 1999 to 2019. The most remarkable rise in the rate of hospital admissions was seen in diseases of the liver and intestine.


Asunto(s)
Tracto Gastrointestinal , Hospitales , Humanos , Gales/epidemiología , Inglaterra/epidemiología , Reino Unido
2.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e081954, 2024 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589267

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Major reforms to the organisation of the National Health Service (NHS) in England established 42 integrated care systems (ICSs) to plan and coordinate local services. The changes are based on the idea that cross-sector collaboration is needed to improve health and reduce health inequalities-and similar policy changes are happening elsewhere in the UK and internationally. We explored local interpretations of national policy objectives on reducing health inequalities among senior leaders working in three ICSs. DESIGN: We carried out qualitative research based on semistructured interviews with NHS, public health, social care and other leaders in three ICSs in England. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We selected three ICSs with varied characteristics all experiencing high levels of socioeconomic deprivation. We conducted 32 in-depth interviews with senior leaders of NHS, local government and other organisations involved in the ICS's work on health inequalities. Our interviewees comprised 17 leaders from NHS organisations and 15 leaders from other sectors. RESULTS: Local interpretations of national policy objectives on health inequalities varied, and local leaders had contrasting-sometimes conflicting-perceptions of the boundaries of ICS action on reducing health inequalities. Translating national objectives into local priorities was often a challenge, and clarity from national policy-makers was frequently perceived as limited or lacking. Across the three ICSs, local leaders worried that objectives on tackling health inequalities were being crowded out by other short-term policy priorities, such as reducing pressures on NHS hospitals. The behaviour of national policy-makers appeared to undermine their stated priorities to reduce health inequalities. CONCLUSIONS: Varied and vague interpretations of NHS policy on health inequalities are not new, but lack of clarity among local health leaders brings major risks-including interventions being poorly targeted or inadvertently widening inequalities. Greater conceptual clarity is likely needed to guide ICS action in future.


Asunto(s)
Disparidades en Atención de Salud , Medicina Estatal , Humanos , Inglaterra , Política de Salud , Investigación Cualitativa , Pobreza
3.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e078671, 2024 Apr 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594188

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Government guidance to manage COVID-19 was challenged by low levels of health and digital literacy and lack of information in different languages. 'Covid Confidence' sessions (CC-sessions) were evaluated to assess their effectiveness in counteracting misinformation and provide an alternative source of information about the pandemic. DESIGN: We worked with community anchor organisations to co-ordinate online CC-sessions serving three economically deprived, ethnically mixed, neighbourhoods. We conducted a qualitative, participatory process evaluation, in tandem with the CC-sessions to explore whether a popular opinion leader/local champion model of health promotion could mobilise pandemic responses. Group discussions were supplemented by final interviews to assess changes in community capacity to mobilise. SETTING: Sheffield, England, September 2020 to November 2021. PARTICIPANTS: Community leaders, workers and volunteers representing a variety of local organisations resulted in 314 attendances at CC-sessions. A group of local health experts helped organisations make sense of government information. RESULTS: CC-sessions fostered cross-organisational relationships, which enabled rapid community responses. Community champions successfully adapted information to different groups. Listening, identifying individual concerns and providing practical support enabled people to make informed decisions on managing exposure and getting vaccinated. Some people were unable to comply with self-isolation due to overcrowded housing and the need to work. Communities drew on existing resources and networks. CONCLUSIONS: CC-sessions promoted stronger links between community organisations which reduced mistrust of government information. In future, government efforts to manage pandemics should partner with communities to codesign and implement prevention and control measures.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Creación de Capacidad , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Inglaterra
4.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e083816, 2024 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626957

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To determine General Practice (GP) recording of carer status and the number of patients self-identifying as carers, while self-completing an automated check-in screen prior to a GP consultation. DESIGN: A descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: 11 GPs in the West Midlands, England. Recruitment commenced in September 2019 and concluded in January 2020. PARTICIPANTS: All patients aged 10 years and over, self-completing an automated check-in screen, were invited to participate during a 3-week recruitment period. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The current coding of carers at participating GPs and the number of patients identifying themselves as a carer were primary outcome measures. Secondary outcome measures included the number of responses attained from automated check-in screens as a research data collection tool and whether carers felt supported in their carer role. RESULTS: 80.3% (n=9301) of patients self-completing an automated check-in screen participated in QUantifying the identification Of carers in general practice (STATUS QUO Study) (62.6% (n=5822) female, mean age 52.9 years (10-98 years, SD=20.3)). Prior to recruitment, the clinical code used to denote a carer was identified in 2.7% (n=2739) of medical records across the participating GPs.10.1% (n=936) of participants identified themselves as a carer. They reported feeling supported with their own health and social care needs: always 19.3% (n=150), a lot of the time 13.2% (n=102), some of the time 40.8% (n=317) and never 26.7% (n=207). CONCLUSIONS: Many more participants self-identified as a carer than were recorded on participating GP lists. Improvements in the recording of the population's caring status need to be actioned, to ensure that supportive implementation strategies for carers are effectively received. Using automated check-in facilities for research continues to provide high participation rates.


Asunto(s)
Cuidadores , Medicina General , Humanos , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Transversales , Inglaterra , Medicina Familiar y Comunitaria
5.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e078072, 2024 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626968

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To investigate how demographic, contractual and organisational factors are related to the retention of hospital workers in the English NHS. The study will specifically examine the trends in age-retention profiles. DESIGN: A double retrospective cross-cohort study using administrative data on senior and specialty doctors, nurses and midwives who were included in the 2009 and 2014 payrolls of all English NHS hospital Trusts. These individuals were tracked over time until 2019 to examine the associations between sociodemographic characteristics and the retention of hospital workers in each cohort. Logistic regressions were estimated at the individual worker level to analyse the data. Additionally, a multilevel panel regression was performed using linked payroll-survey data to investigate the association between hospital organisation characteristics and the retention of clinical staff. SETTING: Secondary acute and mental healthcare NHS hospital Trusts in England. PARTICIPANTS: 70 777 senior doctors (specialty and specialist doctors and hospital consultants) aged 30-70, and a total of 448 568 between nurses and midwives of any grade aged 20-70, employed by English NHS Trusts. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Employee retention, measured through binary indicators for stayers and NHS leavers, at 1-year and 5-year horizons. RESULTS: Minority doctors had lower 1-year retention rates in acute care than white doctors, while minority nurses and midwives saw higher retention. Part-time roles decreased retention for doctors but improved it for nurses. Fixed-term contracts negatively impacted both groups' retention. Trends diverged for nurses and doctors from 2009 to 2014-nurses' retention declined while doctors' 5-year retention slightly rose. Engagement boosted retention among clinical staff under 51 years of age in acute care. For nurses over 50, addressing their feedback was positively associated with retention. CONCLUSIONS: Demographic and contractual factors appear to be stronger predictors of hospital staff retention than organisational characteristics.


Asunto(s)
Hospitales Psiquiátricos , Medicina Estatal , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estudios de Cohortes , Inglaterra
8.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1059, 2024 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627716

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Prevalence of self-harm In England is rising, however contact with statutory services remains relatively low. There is growing recognition of the potential role voluntary, community and social enterprise sector (VCSE) organisations have in the provision of self-harm support. We aimed to explore individuals' experiences of using these services and the barriers and facilitators to accessing support. METHODS: Qualitative, online interviews with 23 adults (18+) who have accessed support from VCSE organisations for self-harm in the Yorkshire and the Humber region were undertaken. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was undertaken using NVivo software. RESULTS: Participants described how a lack of service flexibility and the perception that their individual needs were not being heard often made them less likely to engage with both statutory and VCSE organisations. The complexity of care pathways made it difficult for them to access appropriate support when required, as did a lack of awareness of the types of support available. Participants described how engagement was improved by services that fostered a sense of community. The delivery of peer support played a key role in creating this sense of belonging. Education and workplace settings were also viewed as key sources of support for individuals, with a lack of mental health literacy acting as a barrier to access in these environments. CONCLUSIONS: VCSE organisations can play a crucial role in the provision of support for self-harm, however, pathways into these services remain complex and links between statutory and non-statutory services need to be strengthened. The provision of peer support is viewed as a crucial component of effective support in VCSE organisations. Further supervision and training should be offered to those providing peer support to ensure that their own mental health is protected.


Asunto(s)
Salud Mental , Conducta Autodestructiva , Adulto , Humanos , Retroalimentación , Investigación Cualitativa , Inglaterra/epidemiología , Conducta Autodestructiva/epidemiología , Conducta Autodestructiva/prevención & control , Conducta Autodestructiva/psicología
9.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0298804, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574013

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The aim was to compare the probability of discharge after hip fracture surgery conditional on being alive and in hospital between patients mobilised within and beyond 36-hours of surgery across groups defined by depression. METHODS: Data were taken from the National Hip Fracture Database and included patients 60 years of age or older who underwent hip fracture surgery in England and Wales between 2014 and 2016. The conditional probability of postsurgical live discharge was estimated for patients mobilised early and for patients mobilised late across groups with and without depression. The association between mobilisation timing and the conditional probability of live discharge were also estimated separately through adjusted generalized linear models. RESULTS: Data were analysed for 116,274 patients. A diagnosis of depression was present in 8.31% patients. In those with depression, 7,412 (76.7%) patients mobilised early. In those without depression, 84,085 (78.9%) patients mobilised early. By day 30 after surgery, the adjusted odds ratio of discharge among those who mobilised early compared to late was 1.79 (95% CI: 1.56-2.05, p<0.001) and 1.92 (95% CI: 1.84-2.00, p<0.001) for those with and without depression, respectively. CONCLUSION: A similar proportion of patients with depression mobilised early after hip fracture surgery when compared to those without a diagnosis of depression. The association between mobilisation timing and time to live discharge was observed for patients with and without depression.


Asunto(s)
Fracturas de Cadera , Alta del Paciente , Humanos , Depresión/epidemiología , Fracturas de Cadera/cirugía , Fracturas de Cadera/diagnóstico , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Inglaterra/epidemiología
10.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301889, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38625950

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this paper is to investigate what factors are associated to cardiovascular disease and what differences exists between Asians living in the UK (from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing) and the Asians living in India (from the Longitudinal Ageing Study in India). METHODS: Logistic regression was used to investigate how demographic and physical performance factors were associated with cardiovascular disease using data from Wave 6 of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing and Wave 1 of the Longitudinal Study of Ageing in India, with the main variable of interest being country of residence, Asians in England or Asians in India. RESULTS: A total of 83,997 participants were included in the analyses. In the primary analysis, 73,396 participants from LASI were compared to 171 Asians in ELSA. After adjusting for age, blood pressure, resting heart rate, sex, waist circumference, gait, handgrip strength and standing balance, there was a statistically significant difference for the outcome of CVD between Whites ELSA (reference) and the participants of LASI (odds ratio = 0.77; 95% confidence interval = 0.60 to 0.99). There were no significant differences in CVD between the LASI participants, Asian ELSA, and the Non-White but not Asian ELSA groups. DISCUSSION: No difference was found between Asians that live in India compared to ethnic minorities living in England, including Asians, after adjusting for confounders, but was found between Whites in ELSA compared to LASI participants. A key limitation was the massive disparity in sample sizes between the ELSA subgroups and LASI. Further work is required where comparable sample sizes and longitudinal analyses allow trends to be identified and to investigate the factors associated with the difference in CVD between two similar ethnicities living in distinct locations. CONCLUSION: After adjusting for risk factors, there was no difference in CVD between localised Asians and the ethnic minorities in the UK, but there was a difference between the majority ethnicities in the respective countries.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Humanos , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Estudios Longitudinales , Fuerza de la Mano , Asiático , Factores de Riesgo , Inglaterra , India/epidemiología
11.
12.
BMJ ; 385: q811, 2024 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580387
13.
Ann Med ; 56(1): 2334907, 2024 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38599225

RESUMEN

This study assessed the knowledge, behavior, and needs of competitive adolescent (16-18 years) distance runners and distance running coaches enrolled as part of England Athletics' Youth Talent Programme in relation to the prevention of running-related injury (RRI). Two online surveys were developed and distributed to the distance runners (survey one) and coaches (survey two). Both surveys included sections related to: (1) current knowledge; (2) current behavior; (3) need and support for RRI prevention measures; and (4) possible content and form of RRI prevention measures. A total of 39 distance runners (36% of total possible sample) completed survey 1, and 29 coaches (32% of total possible sample) completed survey 2. Key findings included that the majority of distance runners and coaches: (1) agreed that it is 'very important' to try to prevent RRI; (2) are currently implementing something in practice (e.g., strength training) to prevent RRI; and (3) view the creation of RRI prevention measures as an important initiative. Differences between distance runners and coaches were identified in relation to their understanding of the most common causes of RRI. Interestingly, distance runners identified a modifiable cause of RRI (i.e., too much training) as the most common cause of RRI, while coaches selected a non-modifiable cause of RRI (i.e., growth and maturation). These key findings were supplemented by competitive adolescent runners and distance running coaches detailing their delivery preferences for such RRI prevention measures. Results from this study will help inform subsequent steps of the larger co-creation process, with an emphasis on developing multifaceted and context-specific RRI prevention measures that are deemed to be feasible and acceptable for real-world implementation.


The majority of competitive adolescent distance runners and distance running coaches who took part in this study agreed that it is 'very important' to try to prevent RRI and view the creation of RRI prevention measures as an important initiative.Alongside this support, interesting differences between the distance runners and coaches were also identified, including, for example: (1) their understanding of the most common causes of RRI and (2) their preferences about where and when to complete RRI prevention measures.Results from this study will help inform subsequent steps of the larger co-creation process, with an emphasis on developing multifaceted and context-specific RRI prevention measures that are deemed to be feasible and acceptable for real-world implementation.


Asunto(s)
Atletas , Carrera , Humanos , Adolescente , Carrera/lesiones , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Inglaterra
14.
BMC Med ; 22(1): 162, 2024 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38616257

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in major inequalities in infection and disease burden between areas of varying socioeconomic deprivation in many countries, including England. Areas of higher deprivation tend to have a different population structure-generally younger-which can increase viral transmission due to higher contact rates in school-going children and working-age adults. Higher deprivation is also associated with a higher presence of chronic comorbidities, which were convincingly demonstrated to be risk factors for severe COVID-19 disease. These two major factors need to be combined to better understand and quantify their relative importance in the observed COVID-19 inequalities. METHODS: We used UK Census data on health status and demography stratified by decile of the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD), which is a measure of socioeconomic deprivation. We calculated epidemiological impact using an age-stratified COVID-19 transmission model, which incorporated different contact patterns and clinical health profiles by decile. To separate the contribution of each factor, we considered a scenario where the clinical health profile of all deciles was at the level of the least deprived. We also considered the effectiveness of school closures and vaccination of over 65-year-olds in each decile. RESULTS: In the modelled epidemics in urban areas, the most deprived decile experienced 9% more infections, 13% more clinical cases, and a 97% larger peak clinical size than the least deprived; we found similar inequalities in rural areas. Twenty-one per cent of clinical cases and 16% of deaths in England observed under the model assumptions would not occur if all deciles experienced the clinical health profile of the least deprived decile. We found that more deaths were prevented in more affluent areas during school closures and vaccination rollouts. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that both clinical and demographic factors synergise to generate health inequalities in COVID-19, that improving the clinical health profile of populations would increase health equity, and that some interventions can increase health inequalities.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Adulto , Niño , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Pandemias , Inglaterra/epidemiología , Clase Social , Costo de Enfermedad
15.
PeerJ ; 12: e17060, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38618574

RESUMEN

Very large unidentified elongate and rounded fossil bone segments of uncertain origin recovered from different Rhaetian (Late Triassic) fossil localities across Europe have been puzzling the paleontological community since the second half of the 19th century. Different hypotheses have been proposed regarding the nature of these fossils: (1) giant amphibian bones, (2) dinosaurian or other archosaurian long bone shafts, and (3) giant ichthyosaurian jaw bone segments. We call the latter proposal the 'Giant Ichthyosaur Hypothesis' and test it using bone histology. In presumable ichthyosaur specimens from SW England (Lilstock), France (Autun), and indeterminate cortical fragments from Germany (Bonenburg), we found a combination of shared histological features in the periosteal cortex: an unusual woven-parallel complex of strictly longitudinal primary osteons set in a novel woven-fibered matrix type with intrinsic coarse collagen fibers (IFM), and a distinctive pattern of Haversian substitution in which secondary osteons often form within primary ones. The splenial and surangular of the holotype of the giant ichthyosaur Shastasaurus sikanniensis from Canada were sampled for comparison. The results of the sampling indicate a common osteohistology with the European specimens. A broad histological comparison is provided to reject alternative taxonomic affinities aside from ichthyosaurs of the very large bone segment. Most importantly, we highlight the occurrence of shared peculiar osteogenic processes in Late Triassic giant ichthyosaurs, reflecting special ossification strategies enabling fast growth and achievement of giant size and/or related to biomechanical properties akin to ossified tendons.


Asunto(s)
Dinosaurios , Animales , Osteogénesis , Diáfisis , Canadá , Inglaterra
16.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e081056, 2024 Apr 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604623

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to understand how staff in children's hospitals view their responsibility to reduce health inequalities for the children and young people who access their services. DESIGN: We conducted an exploratory qualitative study. SETTING: The study took place at nine children's hospitals in England. PARTICIPANTS: 217 members of staff contributed via interviews and focus groups conducted January-June 2023. Staff were represented at all levels of the organisations, and all staff who volunteered to contribute were included in the study. ANALYSIS: Data were analysed using Rapid Research Evaluation and Appraisal (RREAL) methodology for rapid assessment procedures (RAP). RESULTS: All of the children's hospitals were taking some action to reduce health inequalities. Two key themes were identified. First, it was clear that reducing health inequalities was seen as something that was of vital import and should be part of staff's day-to-day activity, framed as 'everyone's business.' Many staff felt that there was an obligation to intervene to ensure that children and young people receiving hospital treatment were not further disadvantaged by, for example, food poverty. Second, however, the deeply entrenched and intersectional nature of health inequalities sometimes meant that these inequalities were complex to tackle, with no clear impetus to specific actions, and could be framed as 'no-one's responsibility'. Within a complex health and social care system, there were many potential actors who could take responsibility for reducing health inequalities, and staff often questioned whether it was the role of a children's hospital to lead these initiatives. CONCLUSIONS: Broadly speaking, senior leaders were clear about their organisational role in reducing health inequalities where they impacted on access and quality of care, but there was some uncertainty about the perceived boundaries of responsibility. This led to fragility in the sustainability of activity, and a lack of joined-up intervention. Most hospitals were forging ahead with activity, considering that it was more important to work to overcome health inequalities rather than debate whose job it was.


Asunto(s)
Inequidades en Salud , Personal de Hospital , Niño , Humanos , Adolescente , Inglaterra , Investigación Cualitativa , Hospitales
17.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e080405, 2024 Apr 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604637

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: On 6 April 2022, the UK government implemented mandatory kilocalorie (kcal) labelling regulations for food and drink products sold in the out-of-home food sector (OHFS) in England. Previous assessments of kcal labelling practices in the UK OHFS found a low prevalence of voluntary implementation and poor compliance with labelling recommendations. This study aimed to examine changes in labelling practices preimplementation versus post implementation of mandatory labelling regulations in 2022. METHODS: In August-December 2021 (preimplementation) and August-November 2022 (post implementation), large OHFS businesses (250 or more employees) subject to labelling regulations were visited. At two time points, a researcher visited the same 117 food outlets (belonging to 90 unique businesses) across four local authorities in England. Outlets were rated for compliance with government regulations for whether kcal labelling was provided at any or all point of choice, provided for all eligible food and drink items, provided per portion for sharing items, if labelling was clear and legible and if kcal reference information was displayed. RESULTS: There was a significant increase (21% preimplementation vs 80% post implementation, OR=40.98 (95% CI 8.08 to 207.74), p<0.001) in the proportion of outlets providing any kcal labelling at point-of-choice post implementation. Only 15% of outlets met all labelling compliance criteria post implementation, with a minority of outlets not presenting labelling in a clear (33%) or legible (29%) way. CONCLUSION: The number of large businesses in the OHFS providing kcal labelling increased following the implementation of mandatory labelling regulations. However, around one-fifth of eligible outlets sampled were not providing kcal labelling 4-8 months after the regulations came into force, and the majority of businesses only partially complied with government guidance. More effective enforcement may be required to further improve kcal labelling practices in the OHFS in England. PREREGISTRATION: Study protocol and analysis strategy preregistered on Open Science Framework (https://osf.io/pfnm6/).


Asunto(s)
Alimentos , Restaurantes , Humanos , Ingestión de Energía , Inglaterra , Comercio
18.
BMJ ; 385: q850, 2024 Apr 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604673
19.
BMC Palliat Care ; 23(1): 99, 2024 Apr 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609945

RESUMEN

It seems probable that some form of medically-assisted dying will become legal in England and Wales in the foreseeable future. Assisted dying Bills are at various stages of preparation in surrounding jurisdictions (Scotland, Republic of Ireland, Isle of Man, Jersey), and activists campaign unceasingly for a change in the law in England and Wales. There is generally uncritical supportive media coverage, and individual autonomy is seen as the unassailable trump card: 'my life, my death'.However, devising a law which is 'fit for purpose' is not an easy matter. The challenge is to achieve an appropriate balance between compassion and patient autonomy on the one hand, and respect for human life generally and medical autonomy on the other. More people should benefit from a change in the law than be harmed. In relation to medically-assisted dying, this may not be possible. Protecting the vulnerable is a key issue. Likewise, not impacting negatively on societal attitudes towards the disabled and frail elderly, particularly those with dementia.This paper compares three existing models of physician-assisted suicide: Switzerland, Oregon (USA), and Victoria (Australia). Vulnerability and autonomy are discussed, and concern expressed about the biased nature of much of the advocacy for assisted dying, tantamount to disinformation. A 'hidden' danger of assisted dying is noted, namely, increased suffering as more patients decline referral to palliative-hospice care because they fear they will be 'drugged to death'.Finally, suggestions are made for a possible 'least worse' way forward. One solution would seem to be for physician-assisted suicide to be the responsibility of a stand-alone Department for Assisted Dying overseen by lawyers or judges and operated by technicians. Doctors would be required only to confirm a patient's medical eligibility. Palliative-hospice care should definitely not be involved, and healthcare professionals must have an inviolable right to opt out of involvement. There is also an urgent need to improve the provision of care for all terminally ill patients.


Asunto(s)
Suicidio Asistido , Anciano , Humanos , Inglaterra , Miedo , Anciano Frágil , Victoria
20.
Age Ageing ; 53(4)2024 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38610063

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Chronic subdural haematoma (cSDH) is a common neurosurgical pathology affecting older patients with other health conditions. A significant proportion (up-to 90%) of referrals for surgery in neurosciences units (NSU) come from secondary care. However, the organisation of this care and the experience of patients repatriated to non-specialist centres are currently unclear. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to clarify patient outcome in non-specialist centres following NSU discharge for cSDH surgery and to understand key system challenges. The study was set within a representative neurosurgical care system in the east of England. DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of patients referred for cSDH surgery. Alongside case record review, patient and staff experience were explored using surveys as well as an interactive c-design workshop. Challenges were identified from thematic analysis of survey responses and triangulated by focussed workshop discussions. RESULTS: Data on 381 patients referred for cSDH surgery from six centres was reviewed. One hundred and fifty-six (41%) patients were repatriated following surgery. Sixty-one (39%) of those repatriated suffered an inpatient complication (new infection, troponin rise or renal injury) following NSU discharge, with 58 requiring institutional discharge or new care. Surveys for staff (n = 42) and patients (n = 209) identified that resourcing, communication, and inter-hospital distance posed care challenges. This was corroborated through workshop discussions with stakeholders from two institutions. CONCLUSIONS: A significant amount of perioperative care for cSDH is delivered outside of specialist centres. Future improvement initiatives must recognise the system-wide nature of delivery and the challenges such an arrangement presents.


Asunto(s)
Hematoma Subdural Crónico , Humanos , Hematoma Subdural Crónico/diagnóstico , Hematoma Subdural Crónico/cirugía , Estudios Retrospectivos , Pacientes Internos , Comunicación , Inglaterra/epidemiología
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