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1.
Estima (Online) ; 18(1): e0820, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artículo en Portugués | BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1119351

RESUMEN

Objetivo: Investigar o perfil de eliminações intestinais em mulheres. Método: Estudo transversal, realizado com 41 mulheres atendidas em um centro de saúde da mulher no estado do Piauí no Brasil. Para coleta de dados foi utilizado um formulário contendo os dados sociodemográficos e questionários que avaliaram os dados do padrão de eliminação intestinal com perguntas fundamentadas nos critérios de Roma IV e escala de Bristol. Resultados: Das 41 participantes, 56,1% relataram consumir de uma a duas porções de frutas ou verduras por dia e 51,2% consumiam mais de dois litros de água por dia. Com relação aos padrões de eliminação intestinal, 39% apresentavam fezes na categoria Bristol 3. Quanto aos critérios de Roma IV, 21 (51,2%) mulheres foram consideradas constipadas e a frequência de evacuação teve significância estatística com a presença de constipação. Conclusão: Houve um número expressivo de mulheres com constipação intestinal. Observou-se a necessidade de desenvolver ações que auxiliem no enfrentamento do problema e melhore a qualidade de vida dessa população.


Asunto(s)
Perfil de Salud , Salud de la Mujer , Estreñimiento
2.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(8): 1036-1042, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935795

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The association between gynecological diagnoses and their distribution across healthcare sectors benefits health promotion and the identification of topics for continued education of gynecological care. This study aimed to identify healthcare diagnoses and referral flow in climacteric women. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study conducted at the Women's Health Clinic of the University Hospital, University of São Paulo, with a reference to gynecology and training for Residents of Family and Community Medicine, between 2017 and 2018. The medical records of 242 women whose sociodemographic and clinical information, gynecological diagnoses, and distribution of healthcare services (primary, secondary, and tertiary) had been processed were collected. Statistical analysis included the chi-square test and odds ratio. RESULTS: Smoking (OR = 2.27, 95% CI 1.05-4.89; p = 0.035) was associated with the referral of climacteric women to higher complexity services. Considering the distribution of non-oncological diagnoses in climacteric patients, the chance of women being referred to medium- and high-complexity health services presented a 2-fold increase in cases of breast diseases, a 2.35-fold increase in cases of noninflammatory disorders of the female genital tract, and a 3-fold increase in cases of inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs. CONCLUSION: Climacteric women aged over 55 years, postmenopausal women, and smoking women were most frequently referred to medium- and high-complexity outpatient surgery.


Asunto(s)
Climaterio , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Derivación y Consulta , Salud de la Mujer
3.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 20200800. 70 p. ilus, tab.
Monografía en Español | LILACS, MINSAPERU | ID: biblio-1117944

RESUMEN

El documento contiene el marco normativo en los servicios de salud que permita brindar el cuidado integral de la salud de las mujeres e integrantes del grupo familiar afectados por violencia sexual.


Asunto(s)
Delitos Sexuales , Mujeres , Salud de la Mujer , Violencia Doméstica , Servicios de Salud , Normas Técnicas
7.
Wiad Lek ; 73(6): 1134-1139, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723940

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To model, to ground and to check experimentally the efficiency of the complex organized system of fitness trainings and system of health improving trainings; to discover their influence on the status of women's somatic health of the first period mature age. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: Analysis, systematization, pedagogical observation, modelling, pedagogical experiment, tests: Ruffier, Stange, Romberg's, Harvard step test and tests of PWC170. RESULTS: Results: Complex organized system of fitness trainings (dosed, systematic, complex motive activity, managed by trainer) appeared more effective (11.68 %) in comparison with system of individual health improving trainings (6.54 %). Both systems contributed to reducing of weight (CG2 - 3.8 %, EG2 - 16.3 %),decrease in body's parts sizes, in particular, of breast (CG2 - 0.5 %, EG2 - 1.3 %), waist (CG2 - 2.3 %; EG2 - 13.75 %), pelvis (CG2 - 3.6 %; EG2 - 5.3 %), formation of physical characteristics (strength - CG2 - 2.1 %, EG2 - 17.4 % and flexibility - CG2 - 4.5 % and EG2 - 9 %).Differences in the level of physical capacity are marked, mainly, in the control group (PWC170absolute - 12.2 %; PWC170relative - 19.3 %), in comparison with experimental (PWC170 absolute - 10.2 %; PWC170 relative - 17.5 %). CONCLUSION: Conclusions: In general both systems assisted the improvement of somatic health level that proves the efficiency of system approach to organization of trainings in this agerelated group.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Aptitud Física , Pesos y Medidas Corporales , Prueba de Esfuerzo , Femenino , Humanos , Salud de la Mujer
8.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235329, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702035

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Pregnancy termination is one of the key issues that require urgent attention in achieving the third Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) of ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being for all at all ages. The reproductive health decision-making (RHDM) capacity of women plays a key role in their reproductive health outcomes, including pregnancy termination. Based on this premise, we examined RHDM capacity and pregnancy termination among women of reproductive age in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We pooled data from the women's files of the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of 27 countries in SSA, which are part of the DHS programme. The total sample was 240,489 women aged 15 to 49. We calculated the overall prevalence of pregnancy termination in the 27 countries as well as the prevalence in each individual country. We also examined the association between RHDM capacity, socio-demographic characteristics and pregnancy termination. RHDM was generated from two variables: decision-making on sexual intercourse and decision-making on condom use. Binary logistic regression analysis was conducted and presented as Crude Odds Ratios (COR) and Adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR) with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). Statistical significance was declared p<0.05. RESULTS: The prevalence of pregnancy termination ranged from 7.5% in Benin to 39.5% in Gabon with an average of 16.5%. Women who were capable of taking reproductive health decisions had higher odds of terminating a pregnancy than those who were incapable (AOR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.17-1.24). We also found that women aged 45-49 (AOR = 5.54, 95% CI = 5.11-6.01), women with primary level of education (AOR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.20-1.17), those cohabiting (AOR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.04-1.11), those in the richest wealth quintile (AOR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.02-1.11) and women employed in the services sector (AOR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.27-1.44) were more likely to terminate pregnancies. Relatedly, women who did not intend to use contraceptive (AOR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.39-1.56), those who knew only folkloric contraceptive method (AOR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.18-1.32), women who watched television almost every day (AOR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.20-1.24) and those who listened to radio almost every day (AOR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.04-1.18) had higher odds of terminating a pregnancy. However, women with four or more children had the lowest odds (AOR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.54-0.60) of terminating a pregnancy. CONCLUSION: We found that women who are capable of taking reproductive health decisions are more likely to terminate pregnancies. Our findings also suggest that age, level of education, contraceptive use and intention, place of residence, and parity are associated with pregnancy termination. Our findings call for the implementation of policies or the strengthening of existing ones to empower women about RHDM capacity. Such empowerment could have a positive impact on their uptake of safe abortions. Achieving this will not only accelerate progress towards the achievement of maternal health-related SDGs but would also immensely reduce the number of women who die as a result of pregnancy termination in SSA.


Asunto(s)
Aborto Inducido/psicología , Salud Reproductiva/tendencias , Salud de la Mujer/tendencias , Adolescente , Adulto , África del Sur del Sahara , Benin/epidemiología , Toma de Decisiones Clínicas , Conducta Anticonceptiva/psicología , Anticonceptivos/uso terapéutico , Femenino , Gabón/epidemiología , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Embarazo , Salud de la Mujer/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
11.
Matern Child Health J ; 24(9): 1161-1169, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32656692

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Preconception health impacts perinatal outcomes, but the difficulty in engaging reproductive-aged individuals in health promotion activities is a barrier to effective implementation of preconception interventions. Since most women have more than one pregnancy and many risk factors repeat across pregnancies, the time between pregnancies-the interconception period-may be an opportune time to improve health. Our objective was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of an interconception intervention delivered by public health nurses. METHODS: We conducted a pilot randomized controlled trial in three small urban and rural public health units in Ontario, Canada, in 2017-2018 among women who were ≥ 18 years of age and between 2 and 12 months postpartum after a first birth. Women randomly allocated to the intervention group received a preconception risk assessment, tailored health education, and referral for clinical follow-up as needed, while those in the control group received standard care. Primary outcomes were intervention feasibility, adherence, and acceptability. RESULTS: Of 66 eligible women, 61% agreed to participate and were randomized to the intervention (n = 16) or control (n = 24) groups. The follow-up rate was 78% at 1 month and 71% at 3 months. Most women (83%) were satisfied with the intervention, including the number and length of sessions and content of recommendations. CONCLUSIONS FOR PRACTICE: Results demonstrate the potential feasibility and acceptability of an interconception intervention delivered in a public health setting. The short- and long-term impacts of the intervention on knowledge, behavior, and health should be tested in a larger sample.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Salud , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Enfermeras de Salud Pública , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Atención Preconceptiva/métodos , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Ontario , Evaluación de Procesos y Resultados en Atención de Salud , Proyectos Piloto , Embarazo , Salud Reproductiva , Servicios de Salud Rural , Servicios Urbanos de Salud , Salud de la Mujer
12.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (49): 59-75, jul. 2020.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-192094

RESUMEN

Este artículo describe el discurso de actores relevantes sobre la noción y argumentos de la objeción de conciencia en el contexto del aborto en Chile. Los resultados dan cuenta de la complejidad para abordar esta temática. Hay actores que consideran la objeción de conciencia un derecho fundamental. Para otros, constituye un privilegio y una manifestación de desigualdad ante la ley. Los principales argumentos aluden a la libertad de conciencia y religión. Se considera contrastar la objeción de conciencia con el compromiso de conciencia, debiendo incorporarse la reflexión ética en la formación y capacitación de los equipos de salud. Deben generarse instancias de fiscalización y regulación, evitando vulnerar los derechos de las mujeres que puedan resultar afectadas por esta objeción


This article describes the discourse of relevant actors on the notion and arguments of conscientious objection to abortion in Chile. The results show the complexity of addressing this issue. There are actors who consider conscientious objection a fundamental right. For others, it constitutes a privilege and a manifestation of legal inequality. The main arguments refer to freedom of conscience and religion. It is considered to contrast conscientious objection with conscientious commitment, and ethical reflection should be incorporated into the education and training of health teams. Monitoring and regulatory instances must be created to avoid violating the rights of women who may be affected by this objection


Aquest article descriu el discurs d'actors rellevants sobre la noció I arguments de l'objecció de consciència en el context de l'avortament a Xile. Els resultats evidencien la complexitat per abordar aquesta temàtica. Hi ha actors que consideren l'objecció de consciència un dret fonamental. Per altres, constitueix un privilegi I una manifestació de desigualtat davant la llei. Els principals arguments al·ludeixen a la llibertat de consciència I religió. Es considera contrastar l'objecció de consciència amb el compromís de consciència, I s'ha d'incorporar la reflexió ètica a la formació I capacitació dels equips de salut. S'han de generar instàncies de fiscalització I regulació, evitant vulnerar els drets de les dones que puguin resultar afectades per aquesta objecció


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Embarazo , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Aborto , Derechos de la Mujer/legislación & jurisprudencia , Conciencia , Salud Reproductiva/ética , Salud Sexual/ética , Chile , Salud de la Mujer/legislación & jurisprudencia , Salud Reproductiva/legislación & jurisprudencia , Salud Sexual/legislación & jurisprudencia , Ética Médica
17.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 223(3): 383.e1-383.e7, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561227

RESUMEN

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has significantly disrupted operations in academic departments of obstetrics and gynecology throughout the United States and will continue to affect them in the foreseeable future. It has also created an environment conducive to innovation and the accelerated implementation of new ideas. These departments will need to adapt their operations to accommodate coronavirus disease 2019 and to continue to meet their tripartite mission of clinical excellence, medical education, and women's health research. This "Call to Action" paper from the leaders of American Gynecological and Obstetrical Society and Council of University Chairs of Obstetrics and Gynecology provides a framework to help the leaders of departments of obstetrics and gynecology reimagine and reengineer their operations in light of the current coronavirus disease 2019 crisis and future pandemics.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Ginecología , Obstetricia , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Academias e Institutos , Educación Médica , Ginecología/educación , Humanos , Obstetricia/educación , Pandemias , Seguridad del Paciente , Sociedades Médicas , Salud de la Mujer
19.
Am J Public Health ; 110(8): 1175-1181, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552022

RESUMEN

Coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality rates in the United States have declined by up to two thirds in recent decades. Closer examination of these trends reveals substantial inequities in the distribution of mortality benefits. It is worrying that the uneven distribution of CHD that exists from lowest to highest social class-the social gradient-has become more pronounced in the United States since 1990 and is most pronounced for women.Here we consider ways in which this trend disproportionately affects premenopausal women aged 35 to 54 years. We apply a social determinants of health framework focusing on intersecting axes of inequalities-notably gender, class, ethnicity, geographical location, access to wealth, and class-among other power relations to which young and middle-aged women are especially vulnerable, and we argue that increasing inequalities may be driving these unprecedented deteriorations. We conclude by discussing interventions and policies to target and alleviate inequality axes that have potential to promote greater equity in the distribution of CHD mortality and morbidity gains.The application of this framework in the context of women's cardiovascular health can help shed light regarding why we are seeing persistently poorer outcomes for premenopausal US women.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Coronaria/epidemiología , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Premenopausia/fisiología , Salud de la Mujer , Adulto , Enfermedad Coronaria/mortalidad , Enfermedad Coronaria/terapia , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
20.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234812, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555738

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Due to the absence and or costliness of biological measures such as glycated haemoglobin, diabetes case ascertainment and prevalence studies are usually conducted using surveys or routine health service use databases. However, the use of each of these sources is associated with its limitations potentially impacting the quality of the case ascertainment and prevalence estimation. This study aimed at ascertaining diabetes cases and estimating prevalence among mid- and older-age women through simultaneous use of a longitudinal survey and multiple healthcare administrative data sources. METHODS: Data were available for 12,432 and 13,714 women born in 1921-26 and 1946-51 from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH). Diabetes was ascertained using the ALSWH survey, health service use, and cause of death data. Parsimonious multiple logistic regression analyses tested associations between sociodemographic and health variables and the presence of diabetes. RESULTS: In both cohorts, two or more of the sources captured more than 80% of the women with diabetes. The point prevalence of diabetes increased from 8.4% when the mean age of the women were aged 73, to 22.0% of surviving women at age 90 in the 1921-26 cohort; and from 2.6% at age 48 to 15.8% at age 68 in the 1946-51 cohort. In the 1921-26 cohort, women who were obese (OR: 3.56; 95 CI: 3.04-4.17) and women who were sedentary (OR: 1.18; 95 CI: 1.09-1.40) were more likely to have diabetes compared to those who had a normal weight and engaged in a moderate level of physical activity. In the 1946-51 cohort, the odds of diabetes increased three times (OR: 2.99; 95 CI: 2.54-3.52) for overweight women and nine times (OR: 8.78; 95 CI: 7.46-10.33) for obese women compared to those who had normal weight. CONCLUSIONS: The simultaneous use of multiple data sources improved the validity of diabetes case ascertainment. Application of this methodology in future studies may have important benefits including estimation of disease burden, health service needs, and resource allocation with improved precision. Diabetes prevalence increased with age, was much higher in the 1946-51 cohort than in 1921-26 at similar ages, and was significantly associated with physical inactivity and obesity. Interventions to promote physical activity and a healthy weight are needed to prevent the rising prevalence of diabetes across successive generations.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Australia/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Complicaciones de la Diabetes/patología , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/complicaciones , Obesidad/patología , Prevalencia , Salud de la Mujer
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