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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 4): 150970, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656587

RESUMO

Environmental changes in response to global warming would conversely deplete the efficacy of our actions combating climate change, cultivating extra cost. Among them, the declining snow cover due to global warming would diminish its contribution to climate regulation, and further exacerbate global warming. This leads to a part of global carbon mitigation efforts acting virtually to neutralize the impact of snow cover reduction. It would have been otherwise saved to contribute to the goals of the Paris Agreement. In this respect, here we evaluate the economic impacts of snow cover reduction in the Northern Hemisphere in terms of the mitigation that virtually counteracts the loss of climate regulation pertinent to the snow cover reduction trend, to demonstrate the magnitude of the cascading costs of climate change. As different carbon mitigation approaches would lead to different economic impacts, we follow the general principles of the Paris Agreement and establish two responsibility-sharing scenarios. The results reveal the non-negligible global costs considering not only the impact incurred by the nations implementing carbon mitigation but also, in the context of globalization, the cascading effect magnified in the global supply chain. We also identify critical nations, sectors, and international trade pairs that would confront the most costs. The results urge hotspot nations and trade partners to actively participate in the enhanced global efforts through the Paris Agreement to reduce carbon emissions. This can not only mitigate its direct global warming effect, but also abate the impacts of collateral environmental deterioration, such as snow cover reduction, eventually for their own benefits.


Assuntos
Comércio , Neve , Mudança Climática , Aquecimento Global , Internacionalidade
2.
Waste Manag ; 137: 31-38, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731678

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine the government's cost efficiency considering the high-risk/high-return mechanism of PPP. Faced with increasing demand but with limited budget, the Korean government has relied on the Public-Private Partnership (PPP) to provide waste treatment services for the last couple of decades to expand fiscal space. However, most of waste treatment facilities projects have been promoted using the BTO (Build-Transfer-Operate) method with high rate of return due to the demand risk that is transferred to the private. We performed a conversion analysis of a BTO to a BTL (Build-Transfer-Lease) method, in which demand risk is borne by the government, for 18 PPP waste treatment cases with actual operation records. The result of comparing the life-cycle costs of government in employing each project method shows that the BTL can provide 5.26% of Value for Money (VfM) compared to the BTO as the government takes the demand risk and lowers the required rate of return of the private. This implies that transferring the demand risk to the private sector may not always be the best option for the government. From the government's perspective, instead of transferring the demand risk to the private and providing a high rate of return, the government can retain the demand risk and reduce the rate of return, and it can be fiscally more advantageous considering the cost structure of each PPP method. Through Korean PPP waste treatment cases, this study suggests that policy makers who implement PPP should consider the government's strategic risk sharing by understanding the predictability of demand and the nature of cost structure of each PPP method.


Assuntos
Setor Privado , Parcerias Público-Privadas , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Governo , República da Coreia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34886514

RESUMO

Bold new approaches are urgently needed to overcome global health challenges. The proposed Advanced Research Projects Agency for Health (ARPA-H) is intended to provide rapid health breakthroughs. While new technologies for earlier disease detection and more effective treatment are critical, we urge equal attention be given to the wider (physical, emotional, social, political, and economic) environmental ecosystems driving the non-communicable disease (NCD) crisis in the first place. This requires an integrated, cross-sectoral vision that spans the interwoven connections affecting health across the scales of people, places, and planet. This wider "exposome" perspective considers biopsychosocial factors that promote resilience and reduce vulnerabilities of individuals and communities over time-the many variables driving health disparities. Since life course health is strongly determined by early life environments, early interventions should be prioritized as a matter of effectiveness and social justice. Here, we explore the origins of the Advanced Research Project Agency and point to its potential to build integrated solutions, with wisdom and ethical value systems as a compass. Since the planned ARPA-H is anticipated to spawn international collaborations, the imagined concept is of relevance to a broad audience of researchers. With appropriate input, the quest for health equity through personalized, precision medicine while deconstructing unacceptable structural inequities may be accelerated.

4.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(12)2021 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34943199

RESUMO

Global warming and the subsequent increase in the frequency of temperature anomalies are expected to affect marine and estuarine species' population dynamics, latitudinal distribution, and fitness, allowing non-native opportunistic species to invade and thrive in new geographical areas. Bivalves represent a significant percentage of the benthic biomass in marine ecosystems worldwide, often with commercial interest, while mediating fundamental ecological processes. To understand how these temperature anomalies contribute to the success (or not) of biological invasions, two closely related species, the native Ruditapes decussatus and the introduced R. philippinarum, were exposed to a simulated heat wave. Organisms of both species were exposed to mean summer temperature (~18 °C) for 6 days, followed by 6 days of simulated heat wave conditions (~22 °C). Both species were analysed for key ecological processes such as bioturbation and nutrient generation-which are significant proxies for benthic function and habitat quality-and subcellular biomarkers-oxidative stress and damage, and energetic metabolism. Results showed subcellular responses to heat waves. However, such responses were not expressed at the addressed ecological levels. The subcellular responses to the heat wave in the invasive R. philippinarum pinpoint less damage and higher cellular energy allocation to cope with thermal stress, which may further improve its fitness and thus invasiveness behaviour.

5.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261514, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34929001

RESUMO

Local and regional trade networks in small-scale fisheries are important for food security and livelihoods across the world. Such networks consist of both economic flows and social relationships, which connect different production regions to different types of fish demand. The structure of such trade networks, and the actions that take place within them (e.g., people fishing, buying, selling), can influence the capacity of small-scale fisheries to provide sufficient fish in a changing social and ecological context. In this study, we aim to understand the importance of networks between different types of traders that access spatially-distinct fish stocks for the availability and variability of fish provision. We deployed a mixed-methods approach, combining agent-based modelling, network analysis and qualitative data from a small-scale fishery in Baja California Sur, Mexico. The empirical data allowed us to investigate the trade processes that occur within trade networks; and the generation of distinct, empirically-informed network structures. Formalized in an agent-based model, these network structures enable analysis of how different trade networks affect the dynamics of fish provision and the exploitation level of fish stocks. Model results reveal how trade strategies based on social relationships and species diversification can lead to spillover effects between fish species and fishing regions. We found that the proportion of different trader types and their spatial connectivity have the potential to increase fish provision. However, they can also increase overexploitation depending on the specific connectivity patterns and trader types. Moreover, increasing connectivity generally leads to positive outcomes for some individual traders, but this does not necessarily imply better outcomes at the system level. Overall, our model provides an empirically-grounded, stylized representation of a fisheries trading system, and reveals important trade-offs that should be considered when evaluating the potential effect of future changes in regional trade networks.


Assuntos
Comércio/organização & administração , Pesqueiros , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Pesqueiros/organização & administração , Peixes , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , México
6.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-9305

RESUMO

In February 2020, the WHO-UNICEF-Lancet Commission ‘A Future for the World’s Children?’ launched its landmark report calling for urgent action for children’s health and well-being, to put them at the centre of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and at the centre of all policies across sectors. The report finds that children across the world face an uncertain future due to a rapidly changing climate, mass commercial marketing of harmful products like sugar, fast food, tobacco and alcohol, polluted environments, poverty, pervasive inequalities, migration and conflict, and from the failure of all sectors to integrate children’s needs and rights into their policies. Following our global launch on climate change, we'll be taking a deeper look at the mass commercial marketing of harmful products to children & adolescents at this event.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Proteção da Criança , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos , Dieta Saudável , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Marketing Social/ética , Política de Saúde
7.
Gen Psychiatr ; 34(6): e100648, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34825128

RESUMO

Climate change is one of the biggest challenges of our time and is likely to affect human beings in substantial ways. Recently, researchers started paying more attention to the changes in climate and their subsequent impact on the social, environmental and economic determinants of health, and the role they play in causing or exacerbating mental health problems. The effects of climate change-related events on mental well-being could be classified into direct and indirect effects. The direct effects of climate change mostly occur after acute weather events and include post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, substance abuse disorder, depression and even suicidal ideation. The indirect effects include economic losses, displacement and forced migration, competition over scarce resources and collective violence. The risk factors for developing those mental health issues include young age, female gender, low socioeconomic status, loss or injury of a loved one, being a member of immigrant groups or indigenous people, pre-existing mental illness and inadequate social support. However, in some individuals, especially those undisturbed by any directly observable effects of climate change, abstract awareness and acknowledgement of the ongoing climate crisis can induce negative emotions that can be intense enough to cause mental health illness. Coping strategies should be provided to the affected communities to protect their mental health from collapse in the face of climate disasters. Awareness of the mental health impacts of climate change should be raised, especially in the high-risk groups. Social and global attention to the climate crisis and its detrimental effects on mental health are crucial. This paper was written with the aim of trying to understand the currently, scientifically proven impact of climate change-related disasters on mental health and understanding the different methods of solving the problem at the corporate level, by trying to decrease greenhouse gas emissions to zero, and at the individual level by learning how to cope with the impacts of those disasters.

9.
Sustain Sci ; : 1-14, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34630728

RESUMO

The rapid pace and escalating severity of climate change impacts have made clear that current incremental approaches to pressing global socio-ecological challenges are insufficient to address the root causes of unsustainable development. This has spurred increasing interest in the dynamics of transformation: the actors, capacities and resources needed to fundamentally shift development paths. The private sector is at the core of essential transformative processes necessary to build a future premised on environmental integrity, social inclusivity, and resilience. The activities of the private sector are structured and driven by their underlying business model, which is at its core a set of assumptions about how a business creates, extracts and delivers value. Dominant conceptualizations of the business model remain a narrow imagining of how business interacts with societal processes and shape development patterns. In this article we call for the conceptualization and design of business models anchored in societal purpose and operating within planetary boundaries, apt for the Anthropocene. We identify five building blocks for business models where transdisciplinary sustainability research can accelerate entrepreneurial activity that fosters desirable sustainable pathways by enabling the creation of new capabilities in support of broader transformational processes. This article seeks to inform (and potentially re-orient the efforts of) transdisciplinary scholars engaging the private sector in the co-production of community-based sustainability and resilience-building initiatives. Likewise, the building blocks provide a guide for businesses who aim to deepen their capacity to build new partnerships, identify, and incorporate new information on climate risk into their operations and develop practices, sequences and procedures oriented toward the sustainable development goals and disaster resilience.

10.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258523, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637471

RESUMO

Illegal wildlife trade is one of the greatest threats to biodiversity. Understanding its economic value is a first step to establishing the magnitude of the problem. We develop a dataset of illegal wildlife trade prices and combine it with seizure data to estimate the economic value of illegal wildlife trade entering the USA. Using 2013 as a reference year, the results reveal that the economic value of illegal wildlife trade entering the USA was, using a conservative scenario where potential outliers were excluded, US$3.2 billion/year (uncertainty range (UR) 5th and 95th percentile of US$0.6-8.2 billion/year) and, without excluding potential outliers, US$4.3 billion/year (UR of US$1.3-9.6 billion/year). Our results for the USA alone are of a comparable magnitude to the lower bound of commonly used global estimates of the economic value of IWT of uncertain origin, suggesting that the global economic value of IWT is currently underestimated and requires an urgent revision.


Assuntos
Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Bases de Dados Factuais , Estados Unidos
12.
J Environ Manage ; 300: 113695, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649325

RESUMO

The current global economy demands synergies between ecological responsiveness and business models. To analyse this dynamic, this study investigates the relationship between green innovation and corporate financial performance for German HDAX companies from 2008 to 2019 by constructing an green innovation measure. A two-step GMM system and penalised-spline estimation are used to test the linear relationship between green innovation and financial proxies (return on assets, return on invested capital, and the market-to-book ratio). The results indicate a linear positive effect of green innovation on different financial performance measures. This suggests that green innovation drives resource efficiency and enhances corporate reputation, which, in turn, boosts financial performance.


Assuntos
Comércio , Organizações , China , Clima
14.
Glob Health Promot ; : 17579759211044074, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34711103

RESUMO

Health promotion has evolved over the last decades from a primary focus on behaviour change to establishing an ambitious goal of creating healthy, fair and sustainable environments in a manner which realises the rights of all people to health and well-being while protecting the health of our planet and its ecosystems. This paper argues that in order to contribute to this ambitious goal, health promotion must address three key tasks. The first is the need to take planetary health more seriously and move away from reductionist thinking to an approach that sees the planet as a complex system and values more harmony with nature, protects biodiversity and prevents global warming. The second task is to advocate and support governments to govern for health. The key to doing this is putting health and equity before profit, creating healthy urban environments, encouraging participatory decision-making, advocating for healthy economic models and assessing the ways in which corporate determinants of health operate. The third task is to ensure that moves to professionalise health promotion do not come at the expense of health promotion advocacy to powerful people and organisations. Health promotion is well placed to support civil society movements arguing for social and economic change that will benefit health such as the Black Lives Matter and environment movements.

16.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256552, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496001

RESUMO

Our research goal was to investigate the primate pet trade in the United States. While dogs and cats are the most common type of pet, there are an estimated 15,000 pet primates in the United States and the demand for exotic pets in general has been rising. Most research on pet primates occurs in habitat countries and little is known about these pets in the United States. We collected data from six exotic pet-trade websites twice a month for 12 months. We recorded the type of primate for sale, sex, age, location, and price. We used Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit tests to compare whether the number of male and female pet primates for sale and the number of different age categories of pet primates for sale differed from equality and Spearman Correlation to examine associations between price and size and price and supply. We recorded 551 pet primates for sale between June 2019-June 2020, with 69.1% platyrrhines, 21.6% strepsirrhines, and 8.9% catarrhines. Marmosets were sold most often (36.7%, N = 202) followed by lemurs (21.6%, N = 119), capuchins (11.3%, N = 62), and squirrel monkeys (10.5%, N = 58). Almost two-thirds of the pet primates for sale were male (Chi-Square = 16.056, df = 1, P = 0. 00006) and 78.7% were under one year old (Chi-Square = 440.264, df = 2, P<0.00001). The median price was $3,800 though price was highly variable, even for the same taxa. There are several potential drivers for the primate pet trade, including media influence, fashion/status, and profitable breeding though these are not mutually exclusive. Primates do not make good pets and even when captive-bred, pet primates impact the conservation of their wild counterparts. Advertisement campaigns focusing on disease transmission and legal consequences and a federal ban on pet primate ownership are two avenues to pursue to end the ownership of pet primates in the United States.


Assuntos
Animais Exóticos , Comércio , Animais de Estimação , Doenças dos Primatas/transmissão , Primatas , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Feminino , Masculino , Propriedade/legislação & jurisprudência , Animais de Estimação/economia , Estados Unidos
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501858

RESUMO

At present, China has not yet formed an effective development model for the industrialization of construction waste. The level of construction waste treatment and resource utilization is still low, and recycled products also lack market competitiveness. In order to promote the effective development of the remanufactured construction and demolition waste supply chain better, and based on the present situation, this manuscript establishes a game model for recycling units in two different situations: with and without remanufacturing capabilities. However, most existing studies have determined that all recycling units have remanufacturing capabilities. In the first situation, the main players of the game are recycling units with remanufacturing capabilities and consumers. In the second situation, the main players of the game are recycling units without remanufacturing capabilities and the third-party remanufacturer with remanufacturing ability. Therefore, our research can ascertain the optimal strategy choices of both parties in the game under different return situations and discuss the impact of changes to related parameters through numerical simulations. The results show: (1) When the recycling unit has remanufacturing capabilities, corporate leadership and government supervision rate have positive effects on its evolution to strict manufacturing. Only a high supervision rate can effectively suppress the negative impact of speculative gains and drive the system to (strict manufacturing; positive). Furthermore, the higher the supervision rate, the faster the system will converge. Then, the consumer's payment difference coefficient has a negative effect on the evolution of the recycling unit to strict manufacturing. The larger the payment difference coefficient, the faster the system will converge to a stable state (tendency to formal manufacturing; negative). (2) When the recycling unit does not have the ability to remanufacture, the government cost subsidy rate and the recycling unit's effort profit coefficient have positive effects on the recycling unit's evolution to the direction of effort. Meanwhile, the larger the profit coefficient of the recovery unit's effort, the faster the system will converge. The conclusions obtained provide certain theoretical guidance for the decision making of CDW recycling supply chain recovery units and relevant government departments.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Comércio , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Materiais de Construção , Financiamento Governamental , Governo , Resíduos Industriais , Reciclagem
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