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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38895559

RESUMO

Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) with combined portal vein resection sometimes causes left-sided portal hypertension, which can be a problem. An appropriate treatment strategy for hemorrhagic ectopic varices due to left-sided portal hypertension after PD has not yet been determined. We report a case of repeated variceal rupture around the pancreatojejunostomy site. A 65-year-old woman with a history of PD for pancreatic head cancer was admitted with a chief complaint of bloody stools. She was diagnosed with pancreatojejunostomy variceal rupture, and an endoscopic cyanoacrylate injection was performed. As rebleeding occurred 2 weeks after the first treatment, endoscopic cyanoacrylate injection was repeated, and hemostasis was achieved. Additionally, she had esophageal, colonic, and gastrojejunostomy varices, and the future risk of these variceal ruptures was considered very high. Hence, a splenectomy was performed to prevent rebleeding or other variceal ruptures. Endoscopic cyanoacrylate injection is a useful treatment for hemorrhagic varices around the pancreatojejunostomy site. It is also necessary to understand portal vein hemodynamics and provide appropriate additional treatment in cases of recurrent variceal rupture due to left-sided portal hypertension after PD.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38895560

RESUMO

Objectives: Black spots (BSs) are lentiginous findings observed in the gastric body and fundus during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and are predominantly seen in patients undergoing Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment. However, the detailed patient background and exact composition are poorly understood. This study aims to clarify the clinicopathological features of BSs, examine patient demographics, and use the NanoSuit-correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) method combined with scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy for elemental analysis. Methods: Patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy between 2017 and 2022 were included. Data on age, medications, blood tests, and H. pylori infection status were retrospectively gathered from medical records. Univariate analysis was conducted to examine BS presence, with results then used in a multivariate model to identify associated risk factors. Additionally, pathological specimens from patients with BSs were analyzed for elemental composition using the NanoSuit-CLEM method combined with scanning electronmicroscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Results: An analysis of 6778 cases identified risk factors for BSs, including older age and using proton pump inhibitors, statins, corticosteroids, and antithrombotic drugs. Endoscopically, BSs correlated with higher gastric atrophy and lower active H. pylori infection. Iron deposition at BS sites was specifically identified using NanoSuit-CLEM. Conclusions: BSs on gastrointestinal endoscopy may indicate an absence of active H. pylori inflammation. The discovery of iron deposition within BSs using the NanoSuit-CLEM method has offered new insights into the possible causative factors and advances our understanding of the etiology of BSs, bringing us closer to unraveling the underlying mechanisms of their formation.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38903962

RESUMO

Objectives: For early gastrointestinal lesions, size is an important factor in the selection of treatment. Virtual scale endoscope (VSE) is a newly developed endoscope that can measure size more accurately than visual measurement. This study aimed to investigate whether VSE measurement is accurate for early gastrointestinal lesions of various sizes and morphologies. Methods: This study prospectively enrolled patients with early gastrointestinal lesions ≤20 mm in size visually. Lesion sizes were measured in the gastrointestinal tract visually, on endoscopic resection specimens with VSE, and finally on endoscopic resection specimens using a ruler. The primary endpoint was the normalized difference (ND) of VSE measurement. The secondary endpoints were the ND of visual measurement and the variation between NDs of VSE and visual measurements. ND was calculated as (100 × [measured size - true size] / true size) (%). True size was defined as size measured using a ruler. Results: This study included 60 lesions from April 2022 to December 2022, with 20 each in the esophagus, stomach, and colon. The lesion size was 14.0 ± 6.3 mm (mean ± standard deviation). Morphologies were protruded, slightly elevated, and flat or slightly depressed type in 8, 24, and 28 lesions, respectively. The primary endpoint was 0.3 ± 8.8%. In the secondary endpoints, the ND of visual measurement was -1.7 ± 29.3%, and the variability was significantly smaller in the ND of VSE measurement than in that of visual measurement (p < 0.001, F-test). Conclusions: VSE measurement is accurate for early gastrointestinal lesions of various sizes and morphologies.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38881579

RESUMO

Objectives: The effectiveness and safety of propofol-based sedation and midazolam sedation in pediatric bidirectional endoscopy were compared. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the cases of pediatric patients (≤15 years old) who had undergone bidirectional endoscopy, esophagogastroduodenoscopy, and colonoscopy by pediatric gastroenterologists. Demographic data, indications, sedatives/dosages, clinical outcomes, endoscopic findings, adverse events, and total patient time requirements (total time in which patients stay in our hospital) were compared in the two sedation groups. Results: Ninety-one children (51 boys, 40 girls, mean age 13 years, range 9-15) treated at our hospital were enrolled. Propofol alone or in combination with midazolam and/or pentazocine was administered to 51 patients (propofol-based sedation group). Midazolam alone or in combination with pentazocine was administered to the other 40 patients (midazolam sedation group). In the propofol group, the following mean doses were used: propofol, 96 mg (range 40-145 mg); midazolam, 4.9 mg (range 3-5 mg); and pentazocine, 7.5 mg. In the midazolam group, the mean doses of midazolam and pentazocine were 6.2 mg (range 4-10 mg) and 15 mg, respectively. All procedures were successfully completed by pediatric gastroenterologists. The total procedure times and endoscopic findings were similar in the two groups, but the median patient time requirement in the propofol group was significantly shorter versus the midazolam group (7.3 h vs. 8.4 h, p < 0.001). No adverse events occurred in either group. Conclusions: Propofol-based sedation in pediatric bidirectional endoscopy was safely and effectively performed by pediatric gastroenterologists, and its patient time requirement was shorter than that for midazolam sedation.

6.
Neural Regen Res ; 20(3): 613-631, 2025 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38886929

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder with a complex and incompletely understood pathogenesis. Despite extensive research, a cure for Alzheimer's disease has not yet been found. Oxidative stress mediates excessive oxidative responses, and its involvement in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis as a primary or secondary pathological event is widely accepted. As a member of the selenium-containing antioxidant enzyme family, glutathione peroxidase 4 reduces esterified phospholipid hydroperoxides to maintain cellular redox homeostasis. With the discovery of ferroptosis, the central role of glutathione peroxidase 4 in anti-lipid peroxidation in several diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, has received widespread attention. Increasing evidence suggests that glutathione peroxidase 4 expression is inhibited in the Alzheimer's disease brain, resulting in oxidative stress, inflammation, ferroptosis, and apoptosis, which are closely associated with pathological damage in Alzheimer's disease. Several therapeutic approaches, such as small molecule drugs, natural plant products, and non-pharmacological treatments, ameliorate pathological damage and cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease by promoting glutathione peroxidase 4 expression and enhancing glutathione peroxidase 4 activity. Therefore, glutathione peroxidase 4 upregulation may be a promising strategy for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. This review provides an overview of the gene structure, biological functions, and regulatory mechanisms of glutathione peroxidase 4, a discussion on the important role of glutathione peroxidase 4 in pathological events closely related to Alzheimer's disease, and a summary of the advances in small-molecule drugs, natural plant products, and non-pharmacological therapies targeting glutathione peroxidase 4 for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Most prior studies on this subject used animal models, and relevant clinical studies are lacking. Future clinical trials are required to validate the therapeutic effects of strategies targeting glutathione peroxidase 4 in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

7.
Neural Regen Res ; 20(3): 632-645, 2025 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38886930

RESUMO

Ischemic stroke is a cerebrovascular disease associated with high mortality and disability rates. Since the inflammation and immune response play a central role in driving ischemic damage, it becomes essential to modulate excessive inflammatory reactions to promote cell survival and facilitate tissue repair around the injury site. Various cell types are involved in the inflammatory response, including microglia, astrocytes, and neutrophils, each exhibiting distinct phenotypic profiles upon stimulation. They display either proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory states, a phenomenon known as 'cell polarization.' There are two cell polarization therapy strategies. The first involves inducing cells into a neuroprotective phenotype in vitro, then reintroducing them autologously. The second approach utilizes small molecular substances to directly affect cells in vivo. In this review, we elucidate the polarization dynamics of the three reactive cell populations (microglia, astrocytes, and neutrophils) in the context of ischemic stroke, and provide a comprehensive summary of the molecular mechanisms involved in their phenotypic switching. By unraveling the complexity of cell polarization, we hope to offer insights for future research on neuroinflammation and novel therapeutic strategies for ischemic stroke.

8.
Neural Regen Res ; 20(3): 646-659, 2025 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38886931

RESUMO

Neurodegenerative diseases cause great medical and economic burdens for both patients and society; however, the complex molecular mechanisms thereof are not yet well understood. With the development of high-coverage sequencing technology, researchers have started to notice that genomic repeat regions, previously neglected in search of disease culprits, are active contributors to multiple neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we describe the association between repeat element variants and multiple degenerative diseases through genome-wide association studies and targeted sequencing. We discuss the identification of disease-relevant repeat element variants, further powered by the advancement of long-read sequencing technologies and their related tools, and summarize recent findings in the molecular mechanisms of repeat element variants in brain degeneration, such as those causing transcriptional silencing or RNA-mediated gain of toxic function. Furthermore, we describe how in silico predictions using innovative computational models, such as deep learning language models, could enhance and accelerate our understanding of the functional impact of repeat element variants. Finally, we discuss future directions to advance current findings for a better understanding of neurodegenerative diseases and the clinical applications of genomic repeat elements.

9.
Neural Regen Res ; 20(3): 660-670, 2025 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38886932

RESUMO

Spinal cord injury results in paralysis, sensory disturbances, sphincter dysfunction, and multiple systemic secondary conditions, most arising from autonomic dysregulation. All this produces profound negative psychosocial implications for affected people, their families, and their communities; the financial costs can be challenging for their families and health institutions. Treatments aimed at restoring the spinal cord after spinal cord injury, which have been tested in animal models or clinical trials, generally seek to counteract one or more of the secondary mechanisms of injury to limit the extent of the initial damage. Most published works on structural/functional restoration in acute and chronic spinal cord injury stages use a single type of treatment: a drug or trophic factor, transplant of a cell type, and implantation of a biomaterial. Despite the significant benefits reported in animal models, when translating these successful therapeutic strategies to humans, the result in clinical trials has been considered of little relevance because the improvement, when present, is usually insufficient. Until now, most studies designed to promote neuroprotection or regeneration at different stages after spinal cord injury have used single treatments. Considering the occurrence of various secondary mechanisms of injury in the acute and sub-acute phases of spinal cord injury, it is reasonable to speculate that more than one therapeutic agent could be required to promote structural and functional restoration of the damaged spinal cord. Treatments that combine several therapeutic agents, targeting different mechanisms of injury, which, when used as a single therapy, have shown some benefits, allow us to assume that they will have synergistic beneficial effects. Thus, this narrative review article aims to summarize current trends in the use of strategies that combine therapeutic agents administered simultaneously or sequentially, seeking structural and functional restoration of the injured spinal cord.

10.
Neural Regen Res ; 20(3): 682-694, 2025 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38886935

RESUMO

Sirtuin 2 is a member of the sirtuin family nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent deacetylases, known for its regulatory role in different processes, including inflammation. In this context, sirtuin 2 has been involved in the modulation of key inflammatory signaling pathways and transcription factors by deacetylating specific targets, such as nuclear factor κB and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-leucine-rich-repeat and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3). However, whether sirtuin 2-mediated pathways induce a pro- or an anti-inflammatory response remains controversial. Sirtuin 2 has been implicated in promoting inflammation in conditions such as asthma and neurodegenerative diseases, suggesting that its inhibition in these conditions could be a potential therapeutic strategy. Conversely, arthritis and type 2 diabetes mellitus studies suggest that sirtuin 2 is essential at the peripheral level and, thus, its inhibition in these pathologies would not be recommended. Overall, the precise role of sirtuin 2 in inflammation appears to be context-dependent, and further investigation is needed to determine the specific molecular mechanisms and downstream targets through which sirtuin 2 influences inflammatory processes in various tissues and pathological conditions. The present review explores the involvement of sirtuin 2 in the inflammation associated with different pathologies to elucidate whether its pharmacological modulation could serve as an effective strategy for treating this prevalent symptom across various diseases.

11.
Neural Regen Res ; 20(3): 671-681, 2025 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38886933

RESUMO

Cells undergo metabolic reprogramming to adapt to changes in nutrient availability, cellular activity, and transitions in cell states. The balance between glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration is crucial for energy production, and metabolic reprogramming stipulates a shift in such balance to optimize both bioenergetic efficiency and anabolic requirements. Failure in switching bioenergetic dependence can lead to maladaptation and pathogenesis. While cellular degradation is known to recycle precursor molecules for anabolism, its potential role in regulating energy production remains less explored. The bioenergetic switch between glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration involves transcription factors and organelle homeostasis, which are both regulated by the cellular degradation pathways. A growing body of studies has demonstrated that both stem cells and differentiated cells exhibit bioenergetic switch upon perturbations of autophagic activity or endolysosomal processes. Here, we highlighted the current understanding of the interplay between degradation processes, specifically autophagy and endolysosomes, transcription factors, endolysosomal signaling, and mitochondrial homeostasis in shaping cellular bioenergetics. This review aims to summarize the relationship between degradation processes and bioenergetics, providing a foundation for future research to unveil deeper mechanistic insights into bioenergetic regulation.

13.
Neural Regen Res ; 20(3): 715-724, 2025 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38886937

RESUMO

Tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) signaling plays a pivotal role in dendritic growth and dendritic spine formation to promote learning and memory. The activity-dependent release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor at synapses binds to pre- or postsynaptic TrkB resulting in the strengthening of synapses, reflected by long-term potentiation. Postsynaptically, the association of postsynaptic density protein-95 with TrkB enhances phospholipase Cγ-Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-mechanistic target of rapamycin signaling required for long-term potentiation. In this review, we discuss TrkB-postsynaptic density protein-95 coupling as a promising strategy to magnify brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling towards the development of novel therapeutics for specific neurological disorders. A reduction of TrkB signaling has been observed in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease, and enhancement of postsynaptic density protein-95 association with TrkB signaling could mitigate the observed deficiency of neuronal connectivity in schizophrenia and depression. Treatment with brain-derived neurotrophic factor is problematic, due to poor pharmacokinetics, low brain penetration, and side effects resulting from activation of the p75 neurotrophin receptor or the truncated TrkB.T1 isoform. Although TrkB agonists and antibodies that activate TrkB are being intensively investigated, they cannot distinguish the multiple human TrkB splicing isoforms or cell type-specific functions. Targeting TrkB-postsynaptic density protein-95 coupling provides an alternative approach to specifically boost TrkB signaling at localized synaptic sites versus global stimulation that risks many adverse side effects.

14.
Neural Regen Res ; 20(3): 695-714, 2025 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38886936

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease, the primary cause of dementia, is characterized by neuropathologies, such as amyloid plaques, synaptic and neuronal degeneration, and neurofibrillary tangles. Although amyloid plaques are the primary characteristic of Alzheimer's disease in the central nervous system and peripheral organs, targeting amyloid-beta clearance in the central nervous system has shown limited clinical efficacy in Alzheimer's disease treatment. Metabolic abnormalities are commonly observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease. The liver is the primary peripheral organ involved in amyloid-beta metabolism, playing a crucial role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease. Notably, impaired cholesterol metabolism in the liver may exacerbate the development of Alzheimer's disease. In this review, we explore the underlying causes of Alzheimer's disease and elucidate the role of the liver in amyloid-beta clearance and cholesterol metabolism. Furthermore, we propose that restoring normal cholesterol metabolism in the liver could represent a promising therapeutic strategy for addressing Alzheimer's disease.

15.
Neural Regen Res ; 20(3): 725-739, 2025 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38886938

RESUMO

Developing effective and long-term treatment strategies for rare and complex neurodegenerative diseases is challenging. One of the major roadblocks is the extensive heterogeneity among patients. This hinders understanding the underlying disease-causing mechanisms and building solutions that have implications for a broad spectrum of patients. One potential solution is to develop personalized medicine approaches based on strategies that target the most prevalent cellular events that are perturbed in patients. Especially in patients with a known genetic mutation, it may be possible to understand how these mutations contribute to problems that lead to neurodegeneration. Protein-protein interaction analyses offer great advantages for revealing how proteins interact, which cellular events are primarily involved in these interactions, and how they become affected when key genes are mutated in patients. This line of investigation also suggests novel druggable targets for patients with different mutations. Here, we focus on alsin and spastin, two proteins that are identified as "causative" for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and hereditary spastic paraplegia, respectively, when mutated. Our review analyzes the protein interactome for alsin and spastin, the canonical pathways that are primarily important for each protein domain, as well as compounds that are either Food and Drug Administration-approved or are in active clinical trials concerning the affected cellular pathways. This line of research begins to pave the way for personalized medicine approaches that are desperately needed for rare neurodegenerative diseases that are complex and heterogeneous.

16.
Neural Regen Res ; 20(3): 779-793, 2025 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38886942

RESUMO

Mononuclear macrophage infiltration in the central nervous system is a prominent feature of neuroinflammation. Recent studies on the pathogenesis and progression of multiple sclerosis have highlighted the multiple roles of mononuclear macrophages in the neuroinflammatory process. Monocytes play a significant role in neuroinflammation, and managing neuroinflammation by manipulating peripheral monocytes stands out as an effective strategy for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, leading to improved patient outcomes. This review outlines the steps involved in the entry of myeloid monocytes into the central nervous system that are targets for effective intervention: the activation of bone marrow hematopoiesis, migration of monocytes in the blood, and penetration of the blood-brain barrier by monocytes. Finally, we summarize the different monocyte subpopulations and their effects on the central nervous system based on phenotypic differences. As activated microglia resemble monocyte-derived macrophages, it is important to accurately identify the role of monocyte-derived macrophages in disease. Depending on the roles played by monocyte-derived macrophages at different stages of the disease, several of these processes can be interrupted to limit neuroinflammation and improve patient prognosis. Here, we discuss possible strategies to target monocytes in neurological diseases, focusing on three key aspects of monocyte infiltration into the central nervous system, to provide new ideas for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

18.
Neural Regen Res ; 20(3): 740-750, 2025 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38886939

RESUMO

Lipid droplets serve as primary storage organelles for neutral lipids in neurons, glial cells, and other cells in the nervous system. Lipid droplet formation begins with the synthesis of neutral lipids in the endoplasmic reticulum. Previously, lipid droplets were recognized for their role in maintaining lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis; however, recent research has shown that lipid droplets are highly adaptive organelles with diverse functions in the nervous system. In addition to their role in regulating cell metabolism, lipid droplets play a protective role in various cellular stress responses. Furthermore, lipid droplets exhibit specific functions in neurons and glial cells. Dysregulation of lipid droplet formation leads to cellular dysfunction, metabolic abnormalities, and nervous system diseases. This review aims to provide an overview of the role of lipid droplets in the nervous system, covering topics such as biogenesis, cellular specificity, and functions. Additionally, it will explore the association between lipid droplets and neurodegenerative disorders. Understanding the involvement of lipid droplets in cell metabolic homeostasis related to the nervous system is crucial to determine the underlying causes and in exploring potential therapeutic approaches for these diseases.

19.
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