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1.
Bioact Mater ; 20: 355-367, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35784635

RESUMO

Infection and healing of wounds after injury has always been an unavoidable problem in daily life, so design of a biomaterial with antibacterial and good wound healing properties is highly needed. Herein, a wound healing hydrogel dressing with halloysite clay and chitin as the main components was prepared, which combines the advantages of the biomacromolecule and clay. Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) are extremely biocompatible clay materials with a hollow tubular structure, and the inner and outer surfaces of HNTs are composed of SiOx and AlOx layers with different charges. Au nanoparticles with diameter in 5-10 nm were filled into the HNTs' lumen to endow photothermal effect of the clay materials. Au@HNTs was then mixed with chitin solution to prepare flexible composite hydrogel by crosslinking by epichlorohydrin. The antibacterial properties, biocompatibility and hemostatic properties of the hydrogel material were investigated by antibacterial experiments, cell experiments, mouse liver and tail hemostatic experiments. After infecting the back wound of mice with Staphylococcus aureus, the hydrogel was applied to the wound to further verify the killing effect on bacteria and wound healing effect of the hydrogel material in vivo. The Au@HNTs-chitin composite hydrogel exhibits high antibacterial and hemostatic activity as well as promoting wound healing function with low cytotoxicity. This study is significant for the development of high-performance wound dressings based on two commonly used biocompatible materials, which shows promising application in wound sterilization and healing.

2.
Bioact Mater ; 20: 404-417, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35784636

RESUMO

Human cancers typically express a high level of tumor-promoting mutant p53 protein (Mutp53) with a minimal level of tumor-suppressing wild-type p53 protein (WTp53). In this regard, inducing Mutp53 degradation while activating WTp53 is a viable strategy for precise anti-tumor therapy. Herein, a new carrier-free nanoprodrug (i.e., Mn-ZnO2 nanoparticles) was developed for concurrent delivery of dual Zn-Mn ions and reactive oxygen species (ROS) within tumor to regulate the p53 protein for high anti-tumor efficacy. In response to the mild tumor acidic environment, the released Zn2+ and H2O2 from Mn-ZnO2 NPs induced ubiquitination-mediated proteasomal degradation of Mutp53, while the liberative Mn2+ and increased ROS level activated the ATM-p53-Bax pathway to elevate WTp53 level. Both in vitro and in vivo results demonstrated that pH-responsive decomposition of Mn-ZnO2 NPs could effectively elevate the intracellular dual Zn-Mn ions and ROS level and subsequently generate the cytotoxic hydroxyl radical (•OH) through the Fenton-like reaction. With the integration of multiple functions (i.e., carrier-free ion and ROS delivery, tumor accumulation, p53 protein modulation, toxic •OH generation, and pH-activated MRI contrast) in a single nanosystem, Mn-ZnO2 NPs demonstrate its superiority as a promising nanotherapeutics for p53-mutated tumor therapy.

3.
Bioact Mater ; 20: 418-433, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35784637

RESUMO

Dental caries is one of the most prevalent human diseases resulting from tooth demineralization caused by acid production of bacteria plaque. It remains challenges for current practice to specifically identify, intervene and interrupt the development of caries while restoring defects. In this study, inspired by natural dental plaque, a stimuli-responsive multidrug delivery system (PMs@NaF-SAP) has been developed to prevent tooth decay and promote enamel restoration. Classic spherical core-shell structures of micelles dual-loaded with antibacterial and restorative agents are self-assembled into bacteria-responsive multidrug delivery system based on the pH-cleavable boronate ester bond, followed by conjugation with salivary-acquired peptide (SAP) to endow the nanoparticle with strong adhesion to tooth enamel. The constructed PMs@NaF-SAP specifically adheres to tooth, identifies cariogenic conditions and intelligently releases drugs at acidic pH, thereby providing antibacterial adhesion and cariogenic biofilm resistance, and restoring the microarchitecture and mechanical properties of demineralized teeth. Topical treatment with PMs@NaF-SAP effectively diminishes the onset and severity of caries without impacting oral microbiota diversity or surrounding mucosal tissues. These findings demonstrate this novel nanotherapy has potential as a promising biomedical application for caries prevention and tooth defect restoration while resisting biofilm-associated diseases in a controlled manner activated by pathological bacteria.

4.
Bioact Mater ; 20: 368-380, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35784638

RESUMO

Recently, a number of studies reported that casein was composed of various multifunctional bioactive peptides such as casein phosphopeptide and ß-casochemotide-1 that bind calcium ions and induce macrophage chemotaxis, which is crucial for bone homeostasis and bone fracture repair by cytokines secreted in the process. We hypothesized that the effects of the multifunctional biopeptides in casein would contribute to improving bone regeneration. Thus, we designed a tissue engineering platform that consisted of casein and polyvinyl alcohol, which was a physical-crosslinked scaffold (milk-derived protein; MDP), via simple freeze-thaw cycles and performed surface modification using 3,4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine (DOPA), a mussel adhesive protein, for immobilizing adhesive proteins and cytokines for recruiting cells in vivo (MDP-DOPA). Both the MDP and MDP-DOPA groups proved indirectly contribution of macrophages migration as RAW 264.7 cells were highly migrated toward materials by contained bioactive peptides. We implanted MDP and MDP-DOPA in a mouse calvarial defect orthotopic model and evaluated whether MDP-DOPA showed much faster mineral deposition and higher bone density than that of the no-treatment and MDP groups. The MDP-DOPA group showed the accumulation of host M2 macrophages and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) around the scaffold, whereas MDP presented mostly M1 macrophages in the early stage.

5.
Bioact Mater ; 20: 339-354, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35784639

RESUMO

Myocardial infarction (MI) leads to massive cardiomyocyte death and deposition of collagen fibers. This fibrous tissue disrupts electrical signaling in the myocardium, leading to cardiac systolic and diastolic dysfunction, as well as arrhythmias. Conductive hydrogels are a promising therapeutic strategy for MI. Here, we prepared a highly water-soluble conductive material (GP) by grafting polypyrrole (PPy) onto non-conductive gelatin. This component was added to the gel system formed by the Schiff base reaction between oxidized xanthan gum (OXG) and gelatin to construct an injectable conductive hydrogel. The prepared self-healing OGGP3 (3 wt% GP) hydrogel had good biocompatibility, elastic modulus, and electrical conductivity that matched the natural heart. The prepared biomaterials were injected into the rat myocardial scar tissue 2 days after MI. We found that the cardiac function of the rats treated with OGGP3 was improved, making it more difficult to induce arrhythmias. The electrical resistivity of myocardial fibrous tissue was reduced, and the conduction velocity of myocardial tissue was increased. Histological analysis showed reduced infarct size, increased left ventricular wall thickness, increased vessel density, and decreased inflammatory response in the infarcted area. Our findings clearly demonstrate that the OGGP3 hydrogel attenuates ventricular remodeling and inhibits infarct dilation, thus showing its potential for the treatment of MI.

6.
Bioact Mater ; 20: 381-403, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35784640

RESUMO

Rigidity (or stiffness) of materials and extracellular matrix has proven to be one of the most significant extracellular physicochemical cues that can control diverse cell behaviors, such as contractility, motility, and spreading, and the resultant pathophysiological phenomena. Many 2D materials engineered with tunable rigidity have enabled researchers to elucidate the roles of matrix biophysical cues in diverse cellular events, including migration, lineage specification, and mechanical memory. Moreover, the recent findings accumulated under 3D environments with viscoelastic and remodeling properties pointed to the importance of dynamically changing rigidity in cell fate control, tissue repair, and disease progression. Thus, here we aim to highlight the works related with material/matrix-rigidity-mediated cell and tissue behaviors, with a brief outlook into the studies on the effects of material/matrix rigidity on cell behaviors in 2D systems, further discussion of the events and considerations in tissue-mimicking 3D conditions, and then examination of the in vivo findings that concern material/matrix rigidity. The current discussion will help understand the material/matrix-rigidity-mediated biological phenomena and further leverage the concepts to find therapeutic targets and to design implantable materials for the treatment of damaged and diseased tissues.

7.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(1): 18-22, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35799503

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease is a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disorder that starts many years before the onset of cognitive symptoms. Identifying novel biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease has the potential for patient risk stratification, early diagnosis, and disease monitoring in response to therapy. A novel class of biomarkers is extracellular vesicles given their sensitivity and specificity to specific diseases. In addition, extracellular vesicles can be used as novel biological therapeutics given their ability to efficiently and functionally deliver therapeutic cargo. This is critical given the huge unmet need for novel treatment strategies for Alzheimer's disease. This review summarizes and discusses the most recent findings in this field.

8.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(1): 5-17, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35799502

RESUMO

Cellular and mitochondrial membrane phospholipids provide the substrate for synthesis and release of prostaglandins in response to certain chemical, mechanical, noxious and other stimuli. Prostaglandin D2, prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin F2α, prostaglandin I2 and thromboxane-A2 interact with five major receptors (and their sub-types) to elicit specific downstream cellular and tissue actions. In general, prostaglandins have been associated with pain, inflammation, and edema when they are present at high local concentrations and involved on a chronic basis. However, in acute settings, certain endogenous and exogenous prostaglandins have beneficial effects ranging from mediating muscle contraction/relaxation, providing cellular protection, regulating sleep, and enhancing blood flow, to lowering intraocular pressure to prevent the development of glaucoma, a blinding disease. Several classes of prostaglandins are implicated (or are considered beneficial) in certain central nervous system dysfunctions (e.g., Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis; stroke, traumatic brain injuries and pain) and in ocular disorders (e.g., ocular hypertension and glaucoma; allergy and inflammation; edematous retinal disorders). This review endeavors to address the physiological/pathological roles of prostaglandins in the central nervous system and ocular function in health and disease, and provides insights towards the therapeutic utility of some prostaglandin agonists and antagonists, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and cyclooxygenase inhibitors.

9.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(1): 23-30, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35799504

RESUMO

Injuries to the spinal cord result in permanent disabilities that limit daily life activities. The main reasons for these poor outcomes are the limited regenerative capacity of central neurons and the inhibitory milieu that is established upon traumatic injuries. Despite decades of research, there is still no efficient treatment for spinal cord injury. Many strategies are tested in preclinical studies that focus on ameliorating the functional outcomes after spinal cord injury. Among these, molecular compounds are currently being used for neurological recovery, with promising results. These molecules target the axon collapsed growth cone, the inhibitory microenvironment, the survival of neurons and glial cells, and the re-establishment of lost connections. In this review we focused on molecules that are being used, either in preclinical or clinical studies, to treat spinal cord injuries, such as drugs, growth and neurotrophic factors, enzymes, and purines. The mechanisms of action of these molecules are discussed, considering traumatic spinal cord injury in rodents and humans.

10.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(1): 31-37, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35799505

RESUMO

Stroke is the second leading cause of death and a major cause of disability worldwide, and biological sex is an important determining factor in stroke incidence and pathology. From childhood through adulthood, men have a higher incidence of stroke compared with women. Abundant research has confirmed the beneficial effects of estrogen in experimental ischemic stroke but genetic factors such as the X-chromosome complement can also play an important role in determining sex differences in stroke. Autophagy is a self-degrading cellular process orchestrated by multiple core proteins, which leads to the engulfment of cytoplasmic material and degradation of cargo after autophagy vesicles fuse with lysosomes or endosomes. The levels and the activity of components of these signaling pathways and of autophagy-related proteins can be altered during ischemic insults. Ischemic stroke activates autophagy, however, whether inhibiting autophagy after stroke is beneficial in the brain is still under a debate. Autophagy is a potential mechanism that may contribute to differences in stroke progression between the sexes. Furthermore, the effects of manipulating autophagy may also differ between the sexes. Mechanisms that regulate autophagy in a sex-dependent manner in ischemic stroke remain unexplored. In this review, we summarize clinical and pre-clinical evidence for sex differences in stroke. We briefly introduce the autophagy process and summarize the effects of gonadal hormones in autophagy in the brain and discuss X-linked genes that could potentially regulate brain autophagy. Finally, we review pre-clinical studies that address the mechanisms that could mediate sex differences in brain autophagy after stroke.

11.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(1): 38-46, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35799506

RESUMO

Obesity is associated with several diseases, including mental health. Adipose tissue is distributed around the internal organs, acting in the regulation of metabolism by storing and releasing fatty acids and adipokine in the tissues. Excessive nutritional intake results in hypertrophy and proliferation of adipocytes, leading to local hypoxia in adipose tissue and changes in these adipokine releases. This leads to the recruitment of immune cells to adipose tissue and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The presence of high levels of free fatty acids and inflammatory molecules interfere with intracellular insulin signaling, which can generate a neuroinflammatory process. In this review, we provide an up-to-date discussion of how excessive obesity can lead to possible cognitive dysfunction. We also address the idea that obesity-associated systemic inflammation leads to neuroinflammation in the brain, particularly the hypothalamus and hippocampus, and that this is partially responsible for these negative cognitive outcomes. In addition, we discuss some clinical models and animal studies for obesity and clarify the mechanism of action of anti-obesity drugs in the central nervous system.

12.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(1): 47-50, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35799507

RESUMO

Perinatal inflammation is a significant risk factor for lifelong neurodevelopmental impairments such as cerebral palsy. Extensive clinical and preclinical evidence links the severity and pattern of perinatal inflammation to impaired maturation of white and grey matters and reduced brain growth. Multiple pathways are involved in the pathogenesis of perinatal inflammation. However, studies of human and experimental perinatal encephalopathy have demonstrated a strong causative link between perinatal encephalopathy and excessive production of the pro-inflammatory effector cytokine interleukin-1. In this review, we summarize clinical and preclinical evidence that underpins interleukin-1 as a critical factor in initiating and perpatuating systemic and central nervous system inflammation and subsequent perinatal brain injury. We also highlight the important role of endogenous interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in mitigating interleukin-1-driven neuroinflammation and tissue damage, and summarize outcomes from clinical and mechanistic animal studies that establish the commercially available interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, anakinra, as a safe and effective therapeutic intervention. We reflect on the evidence supporting clinical translation of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist for infants at the greatest risk of perinatal inflammation and impaired neurodevelopment, and suggest a path to advance interleukin-1 receptor antagonist along the translational path for perinatal neuroprotection.

13.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(1): 51-56, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35799508

RESUMO

Aging is a global phenomenon and a complex biological process of all living beings that introduces various changes. During this physiological process, the brain is the most affected organ due to changes in its structural and chemical functions, such as changes in plasticity and decrease in the number, diameter, length, and branching of dendrites and dendritic spines. Likewise, it presents a great reduction in volume resulting from the contraction of the gray matter. Consequently, aging can affect not only cognitive functions, including learning and memory, but also the quality of life of older people. As a result of the phenomena, various molecules with notable neuroprotective capacity have been proposed, which provide a therapeutic alternative for people under conditions of aging or some neurodegenerative diseases. It is important to indicate that in recent years the use of molecules with neurotrophic activity has shown interesting results when evaluated in in vivo models. This review aims to describe the neurotrophic potential of molecules such as resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene), neurotrophins (brain-derived neurotrophic factor), and neurotrophic-type compounds such as the terminal carboxyl domain of the heavy chain of tetanus toxin, cerebrolysin, neuropeptide-12, and rapamycin. Most of these molecules have been evaluated by our research group. Studies suggest that these molecules exert an important therapeutic potential, restoring brain function in aging conditions or models of neurodegenerative diseases. Hence, our interest is in describing the current scientific evidence that supports the therapeutic potential of these molecules with active neurotrophic.

14.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(1): 57-63, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35799509

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a degenerative neurological disease that primarily affects the elderly. Drug therapy is the main strategy for AD treatment, but current treatments suffer from poor efficacy and a number of side effects. Non-drug therapy is attracting more attention and may be a better strategy for treatment of AD. Hypoxia is one of the important factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of AD. Multiple cellular processes synergistically promote hypoxia, including aging, hypertension, diabetes, hypoxia/obstructive sleep apnea, obesity, and traumatic brain injury. Increasing evidence has shown that hypoxia may affect multiple pathological aspects of AD, such as amyloid-beta metabolism, tau phosphorylation, autophagy, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and mitochondrial and synaptic dysfunction. Treatments targeting hypoxia may delay or mitigate the progression of AD. Numerous studies have shown that oxygen therapy could improve the risk factors and clinical symptoms of AD. Increasing evidence also suggests that oxygen therapy may improve many pathological aspects of AD including amyloid-beta metabolism, tau phosphorylation, neuroinflammation, neuronal apoptosis, oxidative stress, neurotrophic factors, mitochondrial function, cerebral blood volume, and protein synthesis. In this review, we summarized the effects of oxygen therapy on AD pathogenesis and the mechanisms underlying these alterations. We expect that this review can benefit future clinical applications and therapy strategies on oxygen therapy for AD.

15.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(1): 64-67, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35799510

RESUMO

We explore the hypothesis that a potential explanation for the initiation of motor neuron disease is an unappreciated vulnerability in central nervous system defense, the direct delivery of neurotoxins into motor neurons via peripheral nerve retrograde transport. This further suggests a mechanism for focal initiation of neuro-degenerative diseases in general, with subsequent spread by network degeneration as suggested by the Frost-Diamond hypothesis. We propose this vulnerability may be a byproduct of vertebrate evolution in a benign aquatic environment, where external surfaces were not exposed to concentrated neurotoxins.

16.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(1): 68-73, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35799511

RESUMO

Defects in the endothelial cell barrier accompany diverse malfunctions of the central nervous system such as neurodegenerative diseases, stroke, traumatic brain injury, and systemic diseases such as sepsis, viral and bacterial infections, and cancer. Compromised endothelial sealing leads to leaking blood vessels, followed by vasogenic edema. Brain edema as the most common complication caused by stroke and traumatic brain injury is the leading cause of death. Brain microvascular endothelial cells, together with astrocytes, pericytes, microglia, and neurons form a selective barrier, the so-called blood-brain barrier, which regulates the movement of molecules inside and outside of the brain. Mechanisms that regulate blood-brain barrier permeability in health and disease are complex and not fully understood. Several newly discovered molecules that are involved in the regulation of cellular processes in brain microvascular endothelial cells have been described in the literature in recent years. One of these molecules that are highly expressed in brain microvascular endothelial cells is protocadherin gamma C3. In this review, we discuss recent evidence that protocadherin gamma C3 is a newly identified key player involved in the regulation of vascular barrier function.

17.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(1): 74-80, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35799512

RESUMO

Regulated cell death predominantly involves apoptosis, autophagy, and regulated necrosis. It is vital that we understand how key regulatory signals can control the process of cell death. Pin1 is a cis-trans isomerase that catalyzes the isomerization of phosphorylated serine or threonine-proline motifs of a protein, thereby acting as a crucial molecular switch and regulating the protein functionality and the signaling pathways involved. However, we know very little about how Pin1-associated pathways might play a role in regulated cell death. In this paper, we review the role of Pin1 in regulated cell death and related research progress and summarize Pin1-related pathways in regulated cell death. Aside from the involvement of Pin1 in the apoptosis that accompanies neurodegenerative diseases, accumulating evidence suggests that Pin1 also plays a role in regulated necrosis and autophagy, thereby exhibiting distinct effects, including both neurotoxic and neuroprotective effects. Gaining an enhanced understanding of Pin1 in neuronal death may provide us with new options for the development of therapeutic target for neurodegenerative disorders.

18.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(1): 81-86, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35799513

RESUMO

Gangliosides, sialic acid-containing sphingolipids, are major constituents of neuronal membranes. According to the number of sialic acids and the structure of the oligosaccharide chain, gangliosides can be classified as simple or complex and grouped in different ganglio-series. Hundreds of gangliosides have been identified in vertebrate cells, with different expression patterns during development and related to several physiological processes, especially in the nervous system. While GD3 and its O-acetylated form, 9acGD3, are highly expressed in early developmental stages, GM1, GD1a, GD1b, and GT1b are the most abundant ganglioside species in the mature nervous system. Mutations in enzymes involved in ganglioside metabolism can lead to the accumulation of specific species, a condition termed gangliosidosis and usually marked by severe neurological impairment. Changes in ganglioside levels have also been described in several neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. In this review, we summarized recent information about the roles of GD3, 9acGD3, GM1, GD1a, GD1b, GT1b, and other ganglioside species in nervous system development and regeneration, as well as clinical trials evaluating possible therapeutic applications of these molecules.

19.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(1): 87-93, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35799514

RESUMO

Normal tension glaucoma (NTG) is a multifactorial optic neuropathy characterized by normal intraocular pressure, progressive retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death, and glaucomatous visual field loss. Recent studies have described the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of NTG. In addition to controlling intraocular pressure, neuroprotection and reduction of RGC degeneration may be beneficial therapies for NTG. In this review, we summarized the main regulatory mechanisms of RGC death in NTG, including autophagy, glutamate neurotoxicity, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, immunity, and vasoconstriction. Autophagy can be induced by retinal hypoxia and axonal damage. In this process, ischemia can cause mutations of optineurin and activate the nuclear factor-kappa B pathway. Glutamate neurotoxicity is induced by the over-stimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate membrane receptors by glutamate, which occurs in RGCs and induces progressive glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Oxidative stress also participates in NTG-related glaucomatous optic neuropathy. It impairs the mitochondrial and DNA function of RGCs through the apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-JUN N-terminal kinase pathway. Moreover, it increases inflammation and the immune response of RGCs. Endothelin 1 causes endothelial dysfunction and impairment of ocular blood flow, promoting vasospasm and glaucomatous optic neuropathy, as a result of NTG. In conclusion, we discussed research progress on potential options for the protection of RGCs, including TANK binding kinase 1 inhibitors regulating autophagy, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists inhibiting glutamate toxicity, ASK1 inhibitors regulating mitochondrial function, and antioxidants inhibiting oxidative stress. In NTG, RGC death is regulated by a network of mechanisms, while various potential targets protect RGCs. Collectively, these findings provide insight into the pathogenesis of NTG and potential therapeutic strategies.

20.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(1): 94-101, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35799515

RESUMO

At the present, association of mitochondrial dysfunction and progression of neurological disorders has gained significant attention. Defects in mitochondrial network dynamics, point mutations, deletions, and interaction of pathogenomic proteins with mitochondria are some of the possible underlying mechanisms involved in these neurological disorders. Mitochondrial genetics, defects in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation machinery, and reactive oxygen species production might share common crosstalk in the progression of these neurological disorders. It is of significant interests to explore and develop therapeutic strategies aimed at correcting mitochondrial abnormalities. This review provided insights on mitochondrial dysfunction/mutations involved in the progression of Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, and epilepsy with a special focus on Parkinson's disease pathology. Along with the deleterious effects of mitochondrial mutations in aforesaid neurological disorders, this paper unraveled the available therapeutic strategy, specifically aiming to improve mitochondrial dysfunction, drugs targeting mitochondrial proteins, gene therapies aimed at correcting mutant mtDNA, peptide-based approaches, and lipophilic cations.

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