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1.
Univ. salud ; 26(2): D16-D27, mayo-agosto 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1553971

RESUMO

Introducción: La pandemia por COVID-19 ha afectado significativamente la calidad de los servicios de cuidado de la salud. Objetivo: Analizar los efectos en los atributos de la calidad en salud de los servicios de atención de enfermedades diferentes a la COVID-19 en Colombia, durante el periodo 2020-2022. Materiales y métodos: Se analizaron 24 artículos de alcance nacional y otros específicos de departamentos como Antioquia, Córdoba, Santander y Cundinamarca. Resultados: La pandemia por COVID-19 impactó la calidad de los servicios en la atención de enfermedades como cáncer, accidentes cerebrovasculares y de eventos como la interrupción voluntaria del embarazo. Conclusión: La calidad de la salud se vio afectada en todas sus dimensiones durante las fases de la pandemia, especialmente en la población con enfermedades crónicas y relacionadas con la salud infantil y materna. Además, se destacaron respuestas como el uso de la telemedicina y de la atención domiciliaria para contribuir a la calidad de la salud en Colombia.


Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly affected the quality of health care services. Objective: To analyze the effects of COVID-19 on the quality of health care services focused on treating diseases other than COVID-19 in Colombia during the 2020-2022 period. Materials and methods: 24 articles were analyzed, which included some studies focused on national issues and others specific to the departments of Antioquia, Cordoba, Santander, and Cundinamarca. Results: The COVID-19 pandemic affected the quality of health services caring for diseases such as cancer, strokes, and critical circumstances like voluntary termination of pregnancy. Conclusion: All dimensions of health care were affected during the pandemic, especially impacting populations with chronic diseases and diseases related to child and maternal health. It is important to highlight that telemedicine and home care contributed to improving the quality of health in Colombia.


Introdução: A pandemia de COVID-19 afetou significativamente a qualidade dos serviços de saúde. Objetivo: Analisar os efeitos da COVID-19 nos atributos de qualidade em saúde dos serviços de atenção a outras doenças além da COVID-19 na Colômbia, durante o período 2020-2022. Materiais e métodos: foram analisados 24 artigos de âmbito nacional e outros específicos de departamentos como Antioquia, Córdoba, Santander e Cundinamarca. Resultados: A pandemia da COVID-19 impactou a qualidade dos serviços no cuidado de doenças como câncer, acidente vascular cerebral e eventos como a interrupção voluntária da gravidez. Conclusão: A qualidade da saúde foi afetada em todas as suas dimensões durante as fases da pandemia, especialmente na população com doenças crônicas e doenças relacionadas à saúde infantil e materna. Além disso, foram destacadas respostas como o uso da telemedicina e do atendimento domiciliar para contribuir para a qualidade da saúde na Colômbia.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Atenção à Saúde , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde
2.
J Control Release ; 370: 516-527, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38718875

RESUMO

The success of mRNA vaccines against COVID-19 has enhanced the potential of lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) as a system for the delivery of mRNA. In this review, we describe our progress using a lipid library to engineer ionizable lipids and promote LNP technology from the viewpoints of safety, controlled biodistribution, and mRNA vaccines. These advancements in LNP technology are applied to cancer immunology, and a potential nano-DDS is constructed to evaluate immune status that is associated with a cancer-immunity cycle that includes the sub-cycles in tumor microenvironments. We also discuss the importance of the delivery of antigens and adjuvants in enhancing the cancer-immunity cycle. Recent progress in NK cell targeting in cancer immunotherapy is also introduced. Finally, the impact of next-generation DDS technology is explained using the MITO-Porter membrane fusion-based delivery system for the organelle targeting of the mitochondria. We introduce a successful example of the MITO-Porter used in a cell therapeutic strategy to treat cardiomyopathy.

3.
Cureus ; 16(4): e57891, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725752

RESUMO

Cancer clinical trials are instrumental in driving forward medical advancements and enhancing patient outcomes. However, despite their significance, only a small fraction of adult cancer patients, less than one in 20, participate in these trials, indicating significant obstacles in recruitment and engagement. These trials not only assess treatment effectiveness but also serve as vibrant platforms where scientific ingenuity converges with human resilience, fostering a culture of exploration and empowerment. Furthermore, they spur innovation in treatment methods, supportive care, and survivorship strategies, addressing the diverse needs of patients. Moreover, clinical trials prioritize diversity and inclusivity, ensuring that treatments are relevant across various demographic groups and promoting equity in healthcare access. Despite challenges, cancer clinical trials have showcased remarkable resilience and adaptability, particularly in navigating the complexities of the COVID-19 pandemic, underscoring their flexibility and ingenuity. By acknowledging the invaluable contributions of patients and researchers, we recommit to propelling cancer science forward and reshaping the landscape of cancer care for future generations.

4.
Glob J Qual Saf Healthc ; 7(2): 63-69, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725881

RESUMO

Introduction: The global pandemic was an emerging challenge that significantly impacted healthcare systems and the delivery of care. Prompt actions and adaptive techniques, such as the virtual clinic, were implemented to ensure the quality and continuity of the care provided. The aim of this quality improvement project was to ensure the smooth implementation and effectiveness of the virtual clinic during the COVID-19 crisis. Methods: A specialized team of multidisciplinary healthcare providers was established to systematically ensure the implementation of the virtual clinic within the Department of Oncology. The team used multiple Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles of the quality improvement model to achieve the final goal and facilitate the transition to the virtual clinic. Results: A total of 29 weekly virtual clinic sessions were conducted, covering various oncology services. From March to December 2020, 81% of the scheduled patients (3888) responded to virtual clinic calls. Physicians initiated 234 unplanned virtual clinic calls to follow up on a patient's condition. In addition, 916 medications were shipped to patients as needed. A patient satisfaction survey in May 2020 indicated an overall satisfaction rate of 92% with the virtual clinic process. Staff satisfaction was also high (91%), and 88% of the physicians believed that the virtual clinic would continue beyond the pandemic. Conclusion: Implementing the virtual clinic is achievable through following systematic steps and effectively addressing emerging challenges as required. The concept of the virtual clinic was well accepted by patients and staff.

5.
RSC Chem Biol ; 5(5): 418-425, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725905

RESUMO

Modified nucleosides are integral to modern drug development, serving as crucial building blocks for creating safer, more potent, and more precisely targeted therapeutic interventions. Nucleobase modifications often confer antiviral and anti-cancer activity as monomers. When incorporated into nucleic acid oligomers, they increase stability against degradation by enzymes, enhancing the drugs' lifespan within the body. Moreover, modification strategies can mitigate potential toxic effects and reduce immunogenicity, making drugs safer and better tolerated. Particularly, N1-methylpseudouridine modification improved the efficacy of the mRNA coding for spike protein of COVID-19. This became a crucial step for developing COVID-19 vaccine applied during the 2020 pandemic. This makes N1-methylpseudouridine, and its "parent" analogue pseudouridine, potent nucleotide analogues for future RNA therapy and vaccine development. This review focuses on the structure and properties of pseudouridine and N1-methylpseudouridine. RNA has a greater structural versatility, different conformation, and chemical reactivity than DNA. Watson-Crick pairing is not strictly followed by RNA that has more unusual base pairs and base-triplets. This requires detailed structural studies and structure-activity relationship analyses for RNA, also when modifications are incorporated. Recent successes in this direction are revised in this review. We describe recent successes with using pseudouridine and N1-methylpseudouridine in mRNA drug candidates. We also highlight remaining challenges that need to be solved to develop new mRNA vaccines and therapies.

6.
Front Pediatr ; 12: 1325471, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725989

RESUMO

Objective: This study aims to compare the changes in the disease spectrum of children admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Units (PICU) during the COVID-19 pandemic with the three years prior to the pandemic, exploring the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the disease spectrum of PICU patients. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on critically ill children admitted to the PICU of Hunan Children's Hospital from January 2020 to December 2022, and the results were compared with cases from the same period between January 2017 and December 2019. The cases were divided into pre-pandemic period (January 2017-December 2019) with 8,218 cases, and pandemic period (January 2020-December 2022) with 5,619 cases. General characteristics, age, and gender were compared between the two groups. Results: Compared to the pre-pandemic period, there was a 31.62% decrease in the number of admitted children during the pandemic period, and a 52.78% reduction in the proportion of respiratory system diseases. The overall mortality rate decreased by 87.81%. There were differences in age and gender distribution between the two periods. The length of hospital stay during the pandemic showed no statistical significance, whereas hospitalization costs exhibited statistical significance. Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic has exerted a certain influence on the disease spectrum of PICU admissions. Implementing relevant measures during the pandemic can help reduce the occurrence of respiratory system diseases in children. Considering the changes in the disease spectrum of critically ill PICU children, future clinical prevention and treatment in PICUs should continue to prioritize the respiratory, neurological, and hematological oncology systems.

7.
J Educ Health Promot ; 13: 95, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38726092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to the effect of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak on the continuation, schedule, and efficiency of radiation therapy, this study aimed to investigate the reliability and validity of the COVID-19 Safety Measures (CSM) questionnaire at the radiation therapy center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this analytical cross-sectional study, which all personnel of the radiation therapy center (20 people) participated, the validity and reliability of the 16-item CSM questionnaire were investigated. Cultural adaptation, face validity, content validity, test-retest reliability, and internal consistency were evaluated. For face and content validity, impact score, content validity ratio, and content validity index (CVR and CVI) were calculated, respectively. Also, internal consistency and stability reliability were calculated with Kuder-Richardson (KR20) alpha and Pearson correlation coefficient and intraclass correlation (ICC), respectively. Data analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 24 with a significant level of 5%. RESULTS: Out of 20 employees, 70% (14 people) were female, 75% (15 people) were married and the mean age (SD) was 32.4 (6.35) years. Scale-based Kuder-Richardson alpha, S-CVI, ICC, and confidence interval were 0.79, 0.97, 0.68, and 0.38-0.89, respectively. CONCLUSION: The validity and reliability of the 16-item CSM questionnaire were confirmed. Therefore, the application of this scale is recommended.

8.
J Educ Health Promot ; 13: 93, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38726097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The growing number of breast cancer patients in Iran, following the lower referrals of women to screening centers after the outbreak of the COVID-19, suggests the need for designing virtual educational interventions to teach self-care methods to women. The aim of this study is to design a virtual training program for the prevention of breast cancer in women based on the steps of the ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation) educational design model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This developmental study will be conducted based on the steps of the ADDIE model. In the first step (analysis), a qualitative study, literature review, and a panel of experts will be conducted to analyze the situation (learners, content, platforms, and media for the electronic presentation of the program). In the design step, the learning objectives, educational strategies, and the way of program's implementation and evaluation will be specified. In the third step, not only are the content, storyboard, and educational program developed, but the pilot study is also conducted and formative assessment is performed. In the fourth step, the program will be provided to the audience and will be implemented as a preliminary program. In the final step, the final virtual education program for the prevention of breast cancer in women will be presented based on the results of the evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Using a comprehensive and systematic educational design model can be a step toward making changes and encouraging innovations in breast cancer prevention education programs in women based on virtual education. Given the existing needs and conditions, this program can promote cancer preventive behaviors as much as possible, reduce the costs imposed on the family and healthcare systems, and lower the complications and mortality rate caused by the delayed diagnosis of the disease.

9.
Am J Cancer Res ; 14(4): 1466-1481, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38726281

RESUMO

Angiotensin-converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) collaborates with Angiotensin (Ang) 1-7 and Mas receptors to establish the ACE2-Ang (1-7)-Mas receptor axis. ACE2 impacts lung function and can cause lung injury due to its inflammatory effects. Additionally, ACE2 contributes to pulmonary vasculature dysfunction, resulting in pulmonary hypertension. In addition, ACE2 is a receptor for coronavirus entry into host cells, leading to coronavirus infection. Lung cancer, one of the most common respiratory diseases worldwide, has a high rate of infection. Elevated levels of ACE2 in lung cancer patients, which increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe disease, have been demonstrated in clinical studies and by molecular mechanisms. The association between lung cancer and SARS-CoV-2 is closely linked to ACE2. This review examines the basic pathophysiological role of ACE2 in the lung, the long-term effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on lung function, the development of pulmonary fibrosis, chronic inflammation in long-term COVID patients, and the clinical research and mechanisms underlying the increased susceptibility of lung cancer patients to the virus. Possible mechanisms of lung cancer in SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals and the potential role of ACE2 in this process are also explored in this review. The role of ACE2 as a therapeutic target in the novel coronavirus infection process is also summarized. This will help to inform prevention and treatment of long-term pulmonary complications in patients.

10.
Biomed Res Int ; 2024: 3325321, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38726292

RESUMO

Introduction: Many COVID-19 patients display adverse symptoms, such as reduced physical ability, poor quality of life, and impaired pulmonary function. Therefore, this systematic review is aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of physical exercise on various psychophysiological indicators among COVID-19 patients who may be at any stage of their illness (i.e., critically ill, hospitalized, postdischarge, and recovering). Methods: A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, and Google Scholar from 2019 to 2021. Twenty-seven studies, which assessed a total of 1525 patients, were included and analysed. Results: Overall, data revealed significant improvements in the following parameters: physical function, dyspnoea, pulmonary function, quality of life (QOL), lower limb endurance and strength, anxiety, depression, physical activity level, muscle strength, oxygen saturation, fatigue, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), lymphocyte, leukocytes, and a fibrin degradation product (D-dimer). Conclusions: Physical training turns out to be an effective therapy that minimises the severity of COVID-19 in the intervention group compared to the standard treatment. Therefore, physical training could be incorporated into conventional treatment of COVID-19 patients. More randomized controlled studies with follow-up evaluations are required to evaluate the long-term advantages of physical training. Future research is essential to establish the optimal exercise intensity level and assess the musculoskeletal fitness of recovered COVID-19 patients. This trial is registered with CRD42021283087.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , COVID-19/psicologia , COVID-19/terapia , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Ansiedade/terapia , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia
11.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1322487, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38726342

RESUMO

Introduction: Coronavirus diasease 2019 (COVID-19) can cause both pulmonary and systemic inflammation, potentially determining multi-organ dysfunction. The thyroid gland is a neuroendocrine organ that plays an important role in regulating immunity and metabolism. Low serum levels of thyroid hormones are common in critical disease situations. The association between low thyroid hormone levels and mortality in COVID-19 intensive care patients has yet to be studied. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare thyroid hormone levels between patients in the general intensive care unit (ICU) to patients in the COVID-19 ICU. Methods: This was a retrospective comparative study of 210 patients who were hospitalized at Ziv Medical Center in the general ICU and in the COVID-19 ICU. Clinical and demographic data were collected from patient's electronic medical records. Results: Serum thyroid hormone levels of Thyroid Simulating Hormone (TSH), T4, and T3 were significantly lower in COVID-19 intensive care unit patients compared to the patients from the general intensive care unit (p < 0.05). The mortality rate in the COVID-19 ICU (44.4%) was higher compared to that in the general ICU (27.3%) (p < 0.05). No significant statistical difference was observed between the two groups in terms of gender and recorded comorbidities of diabetes mellitus, cerebral vascular accident, kidney disease, and cancer. Conclusions: Low serum thyroid hormone levels-T3, T4, and TSH-in COVID-19 ICU patients are associated with higher mortality and could possibly be used as a prognostic factor for mortality among COVID-19 ICU patients. Thyroid hormone levels should be a part in the routine evaluation of COVID-19 ICU patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tireotropina , Tri-Iodotironina , Humanos , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Tireotropina/sangue , Idoso , Tri-Iodotironina/sangue , SARS-CoV-2 , Cuidados Críticos , Adulto
12.
Int J Cancer ; 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728107

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a profound decline in cancer diagnoses in 2020 in Belgium. Disruption in diagnostic and screening services and patient reluctance to visit health facilities led to fewer new cases and concerns that cancers may be diagnosed at more advanced stages and hence have poorer prognosis. Using data from mandatory cancer registration covering all of Belgium, we predicted cancer incidence, stage distribution and 1-year relative survival for 2020 using a Poisson count model over the preceding years, extrapolated to 2020 for 11 common cancer types. We compared these expected values to the observed values in 2020 to specifically quantify the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, accounting for background trends. A significantly lower incidence was observed for cervical, prostate, head and neck, colorectal, bladder and breast cancer, with limited or no recovery of diagnoses in the second half of 2020 for these cancer types. Changes in stage distribution were observed for cervical, prostate, bladder and ovarian and fallopian tube tumours. Generally, changes in stage distribution mainly represented decline in early-stage than in late-stage tumours. One-year relative survival was lower than predicted for lung cancer and colorectal cancer. Stage shifts are hypothesised to result from alterations in access to diagnosis, potentially due to prioritisation of symptomatic patients, and patient reluctance to contact a physician. Since there were over 5000 fewer cancer diagnoses than expected by the end of 2020, it is critical to monitor incidence, stage distribution and survival for these cancers in the coming years.

13.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303244, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728294

RESUMO

To predict protective immunity to SARS-CoV-2, cellular immunity seems to be more sensitive than humoral immunity. Through an Interferon-Gamma (IFN-γ) Release Assay (IGRA), we show that, despite a marked decrease in total antibodies, 94.3% of 123 healthcare workers have a positive cellular response 6 months after inoculation with the 2nd dose of BNT162b2 vaccine. Despite the qualitative relationship found, we did not observe a quantitative correlation between IFN-γ and IgG levels against SARS-CoV-2. Using stimulated whole blood from a subset of participants, we confirmed the specific T-cell response to SARS-CoV-2 by dosing elevated levels of the IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α. Through a 20-month follow-up, we found that none of the infected participants had severe COVID-19 and that the first positive cases were only 12 months after the 2nd dose inoculation. Future studies are needed to understand if IGRA-SARS-CoV-2 can be a powerful diagnostic tool to predict future COVID-19 severe disease, guiding vaccination policies.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais , Vacina BNT162 , COVID-19 , Pessoal de Saúde , Testes de Liberação de Interferon-gama , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Vacina BNT162/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Interferon gama/sangue , Vacinação , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Imunidade Celular , Interleucina-10/sangue , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Interleucina-6/sangue , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
14.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302746, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term health conditions can affect labour market outcomes. COVID-19 may have increased labour market inequalities, e.g. due to restricted opportunities for clinically vulnerable people. Evaluating COVID-19's impact could help target support. AIM: To quantify the effect of several long-term conditions on UK labour market outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic and compare them to pre-pandemic outcomes. METHODS: The Understanding Society COVID-19 survey collected responses from around 20,000 UK residents in nine waves from April 2020-September 2021. Participants employed in January/February 2020 with a variety of long-term conditions were matched with people without the condition but with similar baseline characteristics. Models estimated probability of employment, hours worked and earnings. We compared these results with results from a two-year pre-pandemic period. We also modelled probability of furlough and home-working frequency during COVID-19. RESULTS: Most conditions (asthma, arthritis, emotional/nervous/psychiatric problems, vascular/pulmonary/liver conditions, epilepsy) were associated with reduced employment probability and/or hours worked during COVID-19, but not pre-pandemic. Furlough was more likely for people with pulmonary conditions. People with arthritis and cancer were slower to return to in-person working. Few effects were seen for earnings. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 had a disproportionate impact on people with long-term conditions' labour market outcomes.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Emprego , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/economia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/economia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Inquéritos e Questionários , Idoso , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
bioRxiv ; 2024 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38712082

RESUMO

PARP14 is a 203 kDa multi-domain protein that is primarily known as an ADP-ribosyltransferase, and is involved in a variety of cellular functions including DNA damage, microglial activation, inflammation, and cancer progression. In addition, PARP14 is upregulated by interferon (IFN), indicating a role in the antiviral response. Furthermore, PARP14 has evolved under positive selection, again indicating that it is involved in host-pathogen conflict. We found that PARP14 is required for increased IFN-I production in response to coronavirus infection lacking ADP-ribosylhydrolase (ARH) activity and poly(I:C), however, whether it has direct antiviral function remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that the catalytic activity of PARP14 enhances IFN-I and IFN-III responses and restricts ARH-deficient murine hepatitis virus (MHV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) replication. To determine if PARP14's antiviral functions extended beyond CoVs, we tested the ability of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and several negative-sense RNA viruses, including vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), Ebola virus (EBOV), and Nipah virus (NiV), to infect A549 PARP14 knockout (KO) cells. HSV-1 had increased replication in PARP14 KO cells, indicating that PARP14 restricts HSV-1 replication. In contrast, PARP14 was critical for the efficient infection of VSV, EBOV, and NiV, with EBOV infectivity at less than 1% of WT cells. A PARP14 active site inhibitor had no impact on HSV-1 or EBOV infection, indicating that its effect on these viruses was independent of its catalytic activity. These data demonstrate that PARP14 promotes IFN production and has both pro- and anti-viral functions targeting multiple viruses.

16.
bioRxiv ; 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38712252

RESUMO

The initial objective of this study was to shed light on the evolution of small DNA tumor viruses by analyzing de novo assemblies of publicly available deep sequencing datasets. The survey generated a searchable database of contig snapshots representing more than 100,000 Sequence Read Archive records. Using modern structure-aware search tools, we iteratively broadened the search to include an increasingly wide range of other virus families. The analysis revealed a surprisingly diverse range of chimeras involving different virus groups. In some instances, genes resembling known DNA-replication modules or known virion protein operons were paired with unrecognizable sequences that structural predictions suggest may represent previously unknown replicases and novel virion architectures. Discrete clades of an emerging group called adintoviruses were discovered in datasets representing humans and other primates. As a proof of concept, we show that the contig database is also useful for discovering RNA viruses and candidate archaeal phages. The ancillary searches revealed additional examples of chimerization between different virus groups. The observations support a gene-centric taxonomic framework that should be useful for future virus-hunting efforts.

17.
Support Care Cancer ; 32(6): 338, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since the onset of the pandemic, breast cancer (BC) services have been disrupted in most countries. The purpose of this qualitative study is to explore the unmet needs, patient-priorities, and recommendations for improving BC healthcare post-pandemic for women with BC and to understand how they may vary based on social determinants of health (SDH), in particular socio-economic status (SES). METHODS: Thirty-seven women, who were purposively sampled based on SDH and previously interviewed about the impact of COVID-19 on BC, were invited to take part in follow-up semi-structured qualitative interviews in early 2023. The interviews explored their perspectives of BC care since the easing of COVID-19 government restrictions, including unmet needs, patient-priorities, and recommendations specific to BC care. Thematic analysis was conducted to synthesize each topic narratively with corresponding sub-themes. Additionally, variation by SDH was analyzed within each sub-theme. RESULTS: Twenty-eight women (mean age = 61.7 years, standard deviation (SD) = 12.3) participated in interviews (response rate = 76%). Thirty-nine percent (n = 11) of women were categorized as high-SES, while 61% (n = 17) of women were categorized as low-SES. Women expressed unmet needs in their BC care including routine care and mental and physical well-being care, as well as a lack of financial support to access BC care. Patient priorities included the following: developing cohesion between different aspects of BC care; communication with and between healthcare professionals; and patient empowerment within BC care. Recommendations moving forward post-pandemic included improving the transition from active to post-treatment, enhancing support resources, and implementing telemedicine where appropriate. Overall, women of low-SES experienced more severe unmet needs, which in turn resulted in varied patient priorities and recommendations. CONCLUSION: As health systems are recovering from the COVID-19 pandemic, the emphasis should be on restoring access to BC care and improving the quality of BC care, with a particular consideration given to those women from low-SES, to reduce health inequalities post-pandemic.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , COVID-19 , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Humanos , Feminino , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde , Adulto , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Entrevistas como Assunto
18.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10696, 2024 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730068

RESUMO

COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, affects neuronal cells, causing several symptoms such as memory loss, anosmia and brain inflammation. Curcuminoids (Me08 e Me23) and curcumin (CUR) are derived from Curcuma Longa extract (EXT). Many therapeutic actions have been linked to these compounds, including antiviral action. Given the severe implications of COVID-19, especially within the central nervous system, our study aims to shed light on the therapeutic potential of curcuminoids against SARS-CoV-2 infection, particularly in neuronal cells. Here, we investigated the effects of CUR, EXT, Me08 and Me23 in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y. We observed that Me23 significantly decreased the expression of plasma membrane-associated transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and TMPRSS11D, consequently mitigating the elevated ROS levels induced by SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, Me23 exhibited antioxidative properties by increasing NRF2 gene expression and restoring NQO1 activity following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Both Me08 and Me23 effectively reduced SARS-CoV-2 replication in SH-SY5Y cells overexpressing ACE2 (SH-ACE2). Additionally, all of these compounds demonstrated the ability to decrease proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-17, while Me08 specifically reduced INF-γ levels. Our findings suggest that curcuminoid Me23 could serve as a potential agent for mitigating the impact of COVID-19, particularly within the context of central nervous system involvement.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios , Antioxidantes , Antivirais , Tratamento Farmacológico da COVID-19 , Curcumina , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Curcumina/farmacologia , Curcumina/análogos & derivados , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Curcuma/química , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , COVID-19/virologia , COVID-19/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , NAD(P)H Desidrogenase (Quinona)/metabolismo , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/virologia
19.
Cancers (Basel) ; 16(9)2024 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730625

RESUMO

Overdiagnosis, associated with mass testing in healthy populations, is a significant issue for breast, prostate, renal, and thyroid cancers. During the lockdowns caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, the intensity of cancer screening was expected to go down. In this study, we analyzed the impact of the expected reduction in screening intensity on morbidity and mortality from certain malignancies. Cumulative data from the Russian National Cancer Registry available from 2000 to 2022 were analyzed. It was noted that there has been no noticeable effect of the COVID-19 lockdowns on mortality rates from breast, prostate, renal, or thyroid cancers. At the same time, the detectable incidence decreased markedly in 2020 at the time of the lockdowns and then returned to pre-pandemic levels in 2022. At the moment, there is no sufficient reason to believe that skipping screening tests in 2020 could have any impact on breast, prostate, renal, or thyroid cancer mortality two years later (2022). The data presented further confirm that the overdiagnosis of these types of malignancies is caused by widespread screening among a generally healthy population.

20.
Cancers (Basel) ; 16(9)2024 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730690

RESUMO

To avoid delay in oncological treatment, a 6-weeks norm for time to treatment has been agreed on in The Netherlands. However, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on health systems resulted in reduced capacity for regular surgical care. In this study, we investigated the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on time to treatment in surgical oncology in The Netherlands. METHODS: A population-based analysis of data derived from five surgical audits, including patients who underwent surgery for lung cancer, colorectal cancer, upper gastro-intestinal, and hepato-pancreato-biliary (HPB) malignancies, was performed. The COVID-19 cohort of 2020 was compared to the historic cohorts of 2018 and 2019. Primary endpoints were time to treatment initiation and the proportion of patients whose treatment started within 6 weeks. The secondary objective was to evaluate the differences in characteristics and tumour stage distribution between patients treated before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: A total of 14,567 surgical cancer patients were included in this study, of these 3292 treatments were started during the COVID-19 pandemic. The median time to treatment decreased during the pandemic (26 vs. 27 days, p < 0.001) and the proportion of patients whose treatment started within 6 weeks increased (76% vs. 73%, p < 0.001). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, adjusting for patient characteristics, no significant difference in post-operative outcomes between patients who started treatment before or after 6 weeks was found. Overall, the number of procedures performed per week decreased by 8.1% during the pandemic. This reduction was most profound for patients with stage I lung carcinoma and colorectal carcinoma. There were fewer patients with pulmonary comorbidities in the pandemic cohort (11% vs. 13%, p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Despite pressure on the capacity of the healthcare system during the COVID-19 pandemic, a larger proportion of surgical oncological patients started treatment within six weeks, possibly due to prioritisation of cancer care and reductions in elective procedures. However, during the pandemic, a decrease in the number of surgical oncological procedures performed in The Netherlands was observed, especially for patients with stage I disease.

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