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1.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1345119, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38694983

RESUMO

Objectives: Amidst the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, Italian policymakers mandated to exhibit evidence of vaccination or immunity (the Green Pass) as a condition to access retail premises and public offices. This study aims to offer evidence, in a quasi-experimental setting, suggesting that an unintended consequence of this policy was the emergence of moral hazard. Methods: Google visit duration data measured the time customers typically spend on retail premises or public offices. A pairwise comparison of median visit time per premise was performed at a six-week interval before and after the introduction of the Green Pass. Results: This study is the first to provide evidence of "ex-post" moral hazard associated with introducing a domestic Green Pass policy. The median visiting time on premises that required digital immunity control significantly increased after introducing the domestic Green Pass policy, contrary to other public premises where access remained free of limitations. The increase in median visit time in premises with faster customer turnaround, such as coffee shops (+49%) and fast-food restaurants (+45%), was lower than the increase observed for fine-dining restaurants (+74%) and pizzerias (+163%). No significant increase in median visit time was observed in premises where the Green Pass was not required, such as food supermarkets, retail non-food shops, post offices, banks, pharmacies, and gas stations. Conclusion: The evidence of moral hazard highlights the critical issue of unintended consequences stemming from public health policies. This discovery is pivotal for policymakers, indicating that unforeseen behavioral adjustments could offset the intended benefits despite the intent to reduce risk through measures like the Green Pass.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemias , Restaurantes , Política de Saúde , Princípios Morais , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 932: 173013, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38719041

RESUMO

As a highly effective broad-spectrum antibacterial agent, triclosan (TCS) is widely used in personal care and medical disinfection products, resulting in its widespread occurrence in aquatic and terrestrial environments, and even in the human body. Notably, the use of TCS surged during the COVID-19 outbreak, leading to increasing environmental TCS pollution pressure. From the perspective of environmental health, it is essential to systematically understand the environmental occurrence and behavior of TCS, its toxicological effects on biota and humans, and technologies to remove TCS from the environment. This review comprehensively summarizes the current knowledge regarding the sources and behavior of TCS in surface water, groundwater, and soil systems, focusing on its toxicological effects on aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Effluent from wastewater treatment plants is the primary source of TCS in aquatic systems, whereas sewage application and/or wastewater irrigation are the major sources of TCS in soil. Human exposure pathways to TCS and associated adverse outcomes were also analyzed. Skin and oral mucosal absorption, and dietary intake are important TCS exposure pathways. Reducing or completely degrading TCS in the environment is important for alleviating environmental pollution and protecting public health. Therefore, this paper reviews the removal mechanisms, including adsorption, biotic and abiotic redox reactions, and the influencing factors. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of the different techniques are compared, and development prospects are proposed. These findings provide a basis for the management and risk assessment of TCS and are beneficial for the application of treatment technology in TCS removal.

3.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1268, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Africa, approx. 675 million people were at risk of food insecurity. COVID-19 pandemic is likely to have exacerbated this situation, by damaging populations' access to and affordability of foods. This study is aimed at estimating the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on availability and prices of essential food commodities at 20 large markets in Ghana. METHODS: Data on food availability and food retail prices collected through weekly market-level data during the period from July 2017 to September 2020 were used in this study. We performed interrupted time-series analyses and estimated the percentage increases between the observed and predicted food prices by food group and by region to assess the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on food prices. RESULTS: As a result, the impact of COVID-19 on food availability was limited. However, the results of interrupted time-series analyses indicate a significant increase in overall mean food prices in Greater Accra, Eastern and Upper East regions. It was also found that mean price of starchy roots, tubers and plantains significantly increased across regions. DISCUSSION: The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on food availability and prices was significant but varied by food type and regions in Ghana. Continuous monitoring and responses are critical to maintain food availability and affordability.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Comércio , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Comércio/economia , Insegurança Alimentar/economia , Pandemias/economia
4.
Food Sci Nutr ; 12(5): 3552-3562, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38726461

RESUMO

There is evidence that healthy diets improve the immune system and lessen the severity of infectious diseases such as COVID-19. We have investigated whether the dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and dietary approach to stop hypertension (DASH) score could be associated with the occurrence and clinical outcomes of COVID-19. This case-control study included 120 adults who were admitted to the hospital. Dietary TAC and DASH diet scores were determined by a 138-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Inflammation-related markers including C-reactive protein (CRP) and transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS-2) differential were measured. Also, using chest radiology criteria, the severity of the disease was evaluated. The mean CRP values in the lowest and highest tertiles of either dietary TAC or DASH diet scores were 9.44 ± 11.26 and 3.52 ± 4.83 mg/dL (p = .003) or 9.04 ± 11.23 and 4.40 ± 6.23 mg/dL (p = .013), respectively. Individuals with higher dietary TAC were at a lower risk of COVID-19 (OR: 0.06, p < ·0001). Individuals with greater DASH diet scores were also at decreased odds of COVID-19 (OR: 0.12, p < ·0001). No significant associations were found between dietary TAC and DASH diet scores with severity of COVID-19 disease, CRP, or TMPRSS-2 (p > 0.05). The study found that adherence to a diet with higher dietary TAC and DASH diet scores may be protective against COVID-19 and improve outcomes of the disease. More research is needed to corroborate these findings.

5.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 10: e47064, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smell disorders are commonly reported with COVID-19 infection. The smell-related issues associated with COVID-19 may be prolonged, even after the respiratory symptoms are resolved. These smell dysfunctions can range from anosmia (complete loss of smell) or hyposmia (reduced sense of smell) to parosmia (smells perceived differently) or phantosmia (smells perceived without an odor source being present). Similar to the difficulty that people experience when talking about their smell experiences, patients find it difficult to express or label the symptoms they experience, thereby complicating diagnosis. The complexity of these symptoms can be an additional burden for patients and health care providers and thus needs further investigation. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore the smell disorder concerns of patients and to provide an overview for each specific smell disorder by using the longitudinal survey conducted in 2020 by the Global Consortium for Chemosensory Research, an international research group that has been created ad hoc for studying chemosensory dysfunctions. We aimed to extend the existing knowledge on smell disorders related to COVID-19 by analyzing a large data set of self-reported descriptive comments by using methods from natural language processing. METHODS: We included self-reported data on the description of changes in smell provided by 1560 participants at 2 timepoints (second survey completed between 23 and 291 days). Text data from participants who still had smell disorders at the second timepoint (long-haulers) were compared with the text data of those who did not (non-long-haulers). Specifically, 3 aims were pursued in this study. The first aim was to classify smell disorders based on the participants' self-reports. The second aim was to classify the sentiment of each self-report by using a machine learning approach, and the third aim was to find particular food and nonfood keywords that were more salient among long-haulers than those among non-long-haulers. RESULTS: We found that parosmia (odds ratio [OR] 1.78, 95% CI 1.35-2.37; P<.001) as well as hyposmia (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.34-2.26; P<.001) were more frequently reported in long-haulers than in non-long-haulers. Furthermore, a significant relationship was found between long-hauler status and sentiment of self-report (P<.001). Finally, we found specific keywords that were more typical for long-haulers than those for non-long-haulers, for example, fire, gas, wine, and vinegar. CONCLUSIONS: Our work shows consistent findings with those of previous studies, which indicate that self-reports, which can easily be extracted online, may offer valuable information to health care and understanding of smell disorders. At the same time, our study on self-reports provides new insights for future studies investigating smell disorders.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Transtornos do Olfato , Autorrelato , Humanos , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Idoso , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302571, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38723060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several safety measures like movement restrictions, closure of educational institutions, and social distancing measures continue over the world including Bangladesh during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to examine the patterns of eating behaviors, physical activity, and lifestyle modifications among adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic residing in Bangladesh. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed among 490 adolescents in Bangladesh from December 2020 to May 2021. The survey was carried out through a semi-structured web-based questionnaire that asked questions about socio-demographics (i.e., age, sex, marital status, education, residence), perceived health status and quality of life, anthropometrics (i.e., height, weight), dietary habits (i.e., frequency of eating, daily intake of certain foods, number of meals eaten daily), and physical activity (i.e., modified version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form [IPAQ-SF]), as well as, pre- and during COVID-19 information on stress, and sleep. RESULTS: During the pandemic, 43.7% participants reported weight gain; and 23.5% reported an increased number of meals per day during COVID-19. Additionally, the participants' eating habits diverged from the local balanced diet principles and were more akin to 'unhealthy' eating patterns. Though, during the COVID-19 pandemic, physical exercise slightly increased (>3 times/ week: 8.2% vs. 13.5%; p<0.001) compared to pre-COVID-19 period, the screen time for entertainment increased drastically (>5 hours/ week: 12.2% vs. 27.3%; p<0.001). Compared to the pre-pandemic, a sizeable proportion of individuals experienced more physical tiredness, emotional exhaustion, irritation, and stress (p<0.001) during the pandemic. During the pandemic, 47.5% of participants experienced different sleep difficulties. CONCLUSIONS: Although lockdowns and social distancing are important safety measures to protect people from COVID-19, findings reveal that they might cause a variety of lifestyle changes, physical inactivity, and psychological issues in Bangladeshi adolescents.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Estilo de Vida , Pandemias , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , SARS-CoV-2 , Qualidade de Vida
7.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 12(9)2024 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38727433

RESUMO

The study focused on examining the relationship between well-being and various psychological factors such as loneliness, anxiety, depression, and stress, whilst also considering changes in lifestyle. A total of 108 elderly participants, with an average age of 70.38 years, were enrolled in this quantitative cross-sectional study. The research employed a battery of assessment tools including a Sociodemographic Data Questionnaire, Mini-Mental State Examination, Positive Mental Health Scale, Stress Perception Scale, Geriatric Anxiety Inventory, Geriatric Depression Scale (reduced version), Loneliness Scale, and International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Descriptive analysis was conducted in order to understand the distribution of scores across these variables, followed by the categorization of participants based on the reported alterations in eating and physical activity behaviors. Correlations between variables were assessed using Spearman correlation and an EBIC-LASSO network analysis. The findings indicated a potential detriment to the well-being of elderly individuals practicing social distancing, evidenced by heightened symptoms of loneliness, depression, anxiety, and stress, alongside the reported changes in dietary patterns and physical activity. The study underscores the importance of understanding the pandemic's impact on the well-being of older adults and advocates for longitudinal investigations to delineate the evolving effects of social distancing measures across different phases of the pandemic.

8.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 12(9)2024 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38727477

RESUMO

The challenge of reduced dental treatment and education infrastructure in the Tanzanian highlands affects the oral health situation of both the general population and local healthcare workers. The aim of this study was to investigate the oral health status of healthcare workers at Ilembula Lutheran Hospital (ILH), Tanzania, during the COVID-19 pandemic. In total, 134 healthcare workers (62 women, 72 men; mean age 36.48 ± 9.56 years, range 19-59 years; median age 35.00 years) participated in this cross-sectional study, conducted from 12 February to 27 February. A dental examiner trained in oral health screening performed the oral health data collection. Data collection was performed by probability sampling using the Ilembula Data Collection Form-Oral Health (IDCF-Oral Health) questionnaire distributed in paper form. Ethical approval was obtained from the National Institute for Medical Research/Tanzania. The decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMF/T) index proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) was used with the associated caries measurement method and the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S). Details regarding edentulism, nutritional habits, and socio-economic factors were collected. Statistical analysis was performed using linear regression (α = 0.05). The average DMF-T index was 3.33 ± 0.82, with age, gender, meal frequency, and soft drink consumption significantly influencing the index. No evidence of dental plaque was detected in 43.3% of the participants. Of the participants, 32.8% required prosthetic treatment (Kennedy Class III), while 16.4% needed it for acute malocclusions. Oral hygiene products were used in 97% of cases. A total of 35.8% of the participants had an OHI-S score of up to 1.0, with (p < 0.001) age and (p < 0.001) sex having a significant influence on the index. The current oral health situation of healthcare workers at ILH shows a moderate need for restorative and prosthetic treatment in rural Tanzania. Despite the COVID-19 pandemic, there was no change in the need for dental treatment, which may be explained by the generally restricted access to dental healthcare in the investigated region. The development of an interdisciplinary oral health prophylaxis system could help to reduce the need for future treatments.

9.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0297694, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has not only caused tremendous loss of life and health but has also greatly disrupted the world economy. The impact of this disruption has been especially harsh in urban settings of developing countries. We estimated the impact of the pandemic on the occurrence of food insecurity in a cohort of women living in Mexico City, and the socioeconomic characteristics associated with food insecurity severity. METHODS: We analyzed data longitudinally from 685 women in the Mexico City-based ELEMENT cohort. Food insecurity at the household level was gathered using the Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale and measured in-person during 2015 to 2019 before the pandemic and by telephone during 2020-2021, in the midst of the pandemic. Fluctuations in the average of food insecurity as a function of calendar time were modeled using kernel-weighted local polynomial regression. Fixed and random-effects ordinal logistic regression models of food insecurity were fitted, with timing of data collection (pre-pandemic vs. during pandemic) as the main predictor. RESULTS: Food insecurity (at any level) increased from 41.6% during the pre-pandemic period to 53.8% in the pandemic stage. This increase was higher in the combined severe-moderate food insecurity levels: from 1.6% pre-pandemic to 16.8% during the pandemic. The odds of severe food insecurity were 3.4 times higher during the pandemic relative to pre-pandemic levels (p<0.01). Socioeconomic status quintile (Q) was significantly related to food insecurity (Q2 OR = 0.35 p<0.1, Q3 OR = 0.48 p = 0.014, Q4 OR = 0.24 p<0.01, and Q5 OR = 0.17 p<0.01), as well as lack of access to social security (OR = 1.69, p = 0.01), and schooling (OR = 0.37, p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Food insecurity increased in Mexico City households in the ELEMENT cohort as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. These results contribute to the body of evidence suggesting that governments should implement well-designed, focalized programs in the context of economic crisis such as the one caused by COVID-19 to prevent families from the expected adverse health and well-being consequences associated to food insecurity, especially for the most vulnerable.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Insegurança Alimentar , Pandemias , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , México/epidemiologia , Feminino , Adulto , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Estudos de Coortes , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Longitudinais
10.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1351568, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38689767

RESUMO

Introduction: Physical and mental health problems among pilots affect their working state and impact flight safety. Although pilots' physical and mental health problems have become increasingly prominent, their health has not been taken seriously. This study aimed to clarify challenges and support needs related to psychological and physical health among pilots to inform development of a more scientific and comprehensive physical and mental health system for civil aviation pilots. Methods: This qualitative study recruited pilots from nine civil aviation companies. Focus group interviews via an online conference platform were conducted in August 2022. Colaizzi analysis was used to derive themes from the data and explore pilots' experiences, challenges, and support needs. Results: The main sub-themes capturing pilots' psychological and physical health challenges were: (1) imbalance between family life and work; (2) pressure from assessment and physical examination eligibility requirements; (3) pressure from worries about being infected with COVID-19; (4) nutrition deficiency during working hours; (5) changes in eating habits because of the COVID-19 pandemic; (6) sleep deprivation; (7) occupational diseases; (8) lack of support from the company in coping with stress; (9) pilots' yearly examination standards; (10) support with sports equipment; (11) respecting planned rest time; and (12) isolation periods. Discussion: The interviewed pilots experienced major psychological pressure from various sources, and their physical health condition was concerning. We offer several suggestions that could be addressed to improve pilots' physical and mental health. However, more research is needed to compare standard health measures for pilots around the world in order to improve their physical and mental health and contribute to overall aviation safety.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Grupos Focais , Pilotos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , COVID-19/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pilotos/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Saúde Mental , Nível de Saúde , Adaptação Psicológica , SARS-CoV-2 , Saúde Ocupacional
11.
J Health Popul Nutr ; 43(1): 65, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2) has caused worldwide panic in the global population taking people's lives, creating fear, and affecting mother-child relationships. Many questions were raised on the dangers of being infected with COVID-19 for newborns and safety concerns during feeding by COVID-19-positive mothers. Moreover, questions and doubts about the safety of the administration of vaccinations for nursing mothers are still open. This review attempts to fill the existing literature gap by exploring concepts concerning COVID-19 and breastfeeding mothers, the safety of vaccinations, the beneficial effects of breastfeeding on both mother and child, important hygiene recommendations for SARS-CoV-2 infected mothers, and possible solutions to optimize breastfeeding and safety precautions amidst the fear of emergence of novel variants. METHODS: All relevant publications from Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus search engines from December 2019 to October 2022 related to SARS-CoV-2, breastfeeding, COVID-19, lactating guidelines, and vaccination were included using 'Breastfeeding AND vaccine AND SARS-CoV-2' as MESH TERMS. Apart from the literature review, existing maternity protocols followed in Northern UAE were gathered from lactation consultants practicing in the UAE. RESULTS: Out of 19,391 records generated, only 24 studies were analyzed and summarized in this exhaustive review using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) flow chart. Previous studies suggest that breastmilk is predominantly the primary source of nutrition for neonates. Breast milk is a rich source of antibodies that help the baby to fight against infections including other benefits. Hygiene recommendations for suspected or confirmed COVID-19-infected mothers are required along with psychological and emotional support. CONCLUSIONS: The administration of vaccinations should be advised and encouraged to protect the mothers with antibodies and the neonates by the passive transmission of antibodies through breast milk. This is a significant reason for not stopping breastfeeding even in case of COVID-19 infection. With adherence to proper hygiene methods, breastfeeding is recommended to be continued as the benefits greatly outweigh the risks.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Emirados Árabes Unidos , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Gravidez , Mães/psicologia , Lactente
12.
AME Case Rep ; 8: 40, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38711897

RESUMO

Background: The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) at the end of 2019 caused the global pandemic. Oral and dermatological manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) such as xerostomia, aphthous-like lesions, ulcers, tongue depapillation, necrotizing gingivitis, and taste disorders, including the loss of taste and salivary gland infections are being reported. This study aims to describe a case of oral ulcers following COVID-19 infection. Case Description: We present the case of a 95-year-old male patient hospitalized in follow-up care and rehabilitation unit, of Minimes Geriatric Clinic, Toulouse, France. He had an alteration in his general health in the context of COVID-19 infection detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Six days after the admission, the patient complained of a strong burning sensation of the mouth, especially on the tongue and the lips' mucosa. Intraoral examination revealed painful erosive areas on the lateral edges of the tongue and the mucous side of the lower lip. The proposed treatment to reduce the burning sensation was based on general analgesics (morphine sulfate), mouthwash with sodium bicarbonate, the application of a lidocaine-based oral anesthetic and healing gel and a comfort-oriented diet. Thirteen days later, the patient reported a gradual improvement. Conclusions: A diverse range of oral manifestations has been observed in patients with a history of COVID-19 infection. These oral ulcers significantly impact the quality of life of the individual, causing intense pain, stress, and difficulties in eating, with repercussions on nutritional status, especially in older individuals. Our case underscores the importance of oral examinations and the role of dentists in the management of patients with SARS-CoV-2.

13.
Front Pharmacol ; 15: 1338235, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38711990

RESUMO

Introduction: Although post-COVID-19 syndrome (PCS) with cognitive impairment is increasingly encountered in primary care, evidence-based recommendations for its appropriate management are lacking. Methods: A systematic literature search evaluating the diagnosis and treatment of cognitive impairment associated with PCS was conducted. Practical recommendations for the management of PCS-associated cognitive impairment in primary care are summarized, based on an evaluation of pharmacological plausibility and clinical applications. Results: Currently, the pathology of cognitive impairment associated with PCS remains unclear with no high-quality data to support targeted interventions. Existing treatment approaches are directed towards symptom relief where counseling on the chronicity of the disease and regular reassessments at 4- to 8-week intervals is considered reasonable. Patients should be informed and encouraged to adopt a healthy lifestyle that centers around balanced nutrition and appropriate physical activities. They may also benefit from the intake of vitamins, micronutrients, and probiotics. The administration of Ginkgo biloba extract could offer a safe and potentially beneficial treatment option. Other non-pharmacological measures include physiotherapy, digitally supported cognitive training, and, if indicated, ergotherapy or speech therapy. In most patients, symptoms improve within 8 weeks. If serious, ambiguous, or when new symptoms occur, specialized diagnostic measures such as comprehensive neurocognitive testing or neuroimaging should be initiated. Very few patients would require inpatient rehabilitation. Conclusion: PCS with cognitive impairment is a debilitating condition that could affect daily functioning and reduce work productivity. Management in primary care should adopt a multidisciplinary approach, centering around physical, cognitive, and pharmacological therapies.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734493

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Compare prevalence and profile of post-intensive care patient (P-PICS) and family/caregiver (F-PICS) syndrome in two cohorts (COVID and non-COVID) and analyse risk factors for P-PICS. DESIGN: Prospective, observational cohort (March 2018-2023), follow-up at three months and one year. SETTING: 14-bed polyvalent Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Level II Hospital. PATIENTS OR PARTICIPANTS: 265 patients and 209 relatives. Inclusion criteria patients: age > 18 years, mechanical ventilation > 48 h, ICU stay > 5 days, delirium, septic shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome, cardiac arrest. Inclusion criteria family: those who attended. INTERVENTIONS: Follow-up 3 months and 1 year after hospital discharge. MAIN VARIABLES OF INTEREST: Patients: sociodemographic, clinical, evolutive, physical, psychological and cognitive alterations, dependency degree and quality of life. Main caregivers: mental state and physical overload. RESULTS: 64.9% PICS-P, no differences between groups. COVID patients more physical alterations than non-COVID (P = .028). These more functional deterioration (P = .005), poorer quality of life (P = .003), higher nutritional alterations (P = .004) and cognitive deterioration (P < .001). 19.1% PICS-F, more frequent in relatives of non-COVID patients (17.6% vs. 5.5%; P = .013). Independent predictors of PICS-P: first years of the study (OR: 0.484), higher comorbidity (OR: 1.158), delirium (OR: 2.935), several reasons for being included (OR: 3.171) and midazolam (OR: 4.265). CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence PICS-P and PICS-F between both cohorts was similar. Main factors associated with the development of SPCI-P were: higher comorbidity, delirium, midazolan, inclusion for more than one reason and during the first years.

15.
Heliyon ; 10(9): e30200, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38707357

RESUMO

Acknowledging that violent communal conflicts can lead to increased displacement and overcrowding in IDP camps, this study investigates the impact of such conflicts on internally displaced persons (IDPs) and their camps in Benue State, Nigeria, amid the COVID-19 pandemic. Employing a mixed-method approach, 386 IDPs and 20 stakeholders were purposively selected. Based on the research objectives, descriptive and inferential statistics were employed to analyze the research objectives. Employing logistics and multi-linear regressions, the data reveal that unregulated access to IDP camps resulted in overcrowding, straining resources like food and shelter. The study identifies economic losses and various challenges stemming from communal conflict and COVID-19, causing chaos, anxiety, and uncertainty in the IDP camps. These findings highlight the urgent need for ongoing humanitarian assistance to alleviate the precarious conditions faced by IDPs and their camps nationwide and recommend that the IDPs camps across the country need constant humanitarian aid to mitigate the various precarious conditions in the camps.

16.
Heliyon ; 10(9): e29921, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38707393

RESUMO

Background: Although obesity is known to be related to allergic diseases, few studies have investigated the prevalence of allergic diseases in individuals with obesity, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, this study aimed to analyze national trends of allergic diseases among individuals with obesity and sociodemographic factors. Methods: This study used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to examine the prevalence of allergic diseases among individuals with obesity in South Korea from 2005 to 2021. A nationally representative sample of 118,275 participants aged over 2 years or above was divided into six groups for analysis. This study used weighted multivariate regression analysis to examine the estimates of related factors. It assessed the weighted odds ratios or ß-coefficients for these factors across different categories, including age, sex, region of residence, education level, household income, and body mass index for the entire population. Results: All allergic diseases showed a general upward trend from 2005 to 2021, but each disease showed different prevalence trends when compared by age. Before the pandemic, those aged ≤39 years had an increasing trend for asthma and AD, but those aged ≥40 years had a decreasing trend. For asthma, ß-coefficients were 0.629 (95 % CI, 0.299 to 0.958) for 19-39 years, -0.245 (-0.450 to -0.040) for 40-59 years, and -0.668 (-1.024 to -0.313) for ≥60 years. For AD, ß-coefficients were 2.514 (1.258-3.769) in those aged 2-18 years, 0.630 (0.173-1.086) in those aged 19-39 years, -0.458 (-0.648 to -0.268) in those aged 40-59 years, and -0.253 (-0.454 to -0.052) in those aged ≥60 years. However, for both asthma and AD, there were no significant changes in prevalence during the pandemic. In the case of AR, trends were different from those of asthma and AD. Before the pandemic, AR showed an increasing trend in those aged ≤39 years and those aged ≥40 years: ß-coefficients were 3.067 (2.344-3.790) in 19-39 years, 2.051 (1.609-2.493) in 40-59 years, and 1.173 (0.820-1.526) in ≥60 years. During the pandemic, there was an increasing trend only among those aged 40-59, with no significant changes in other age groups: ß-coefficients were 1.438 (0.065-2.811) in 40-59 years. Conclusions: From 2005 to 2021, all allergic diseases (asthma, AD, and AR) increased overall, but with different age-related trends. No significant link was found between COVID-19 and allergic diseases, possibly due to preventive measures like mask-wearing and social distancing. Anxiety about accessing healthcare during the pandemic likely contributed to a decline in allergy diagnoses, highlighting the need for comprehensive strategies to manage and prevent allergic diseases.

17.
Heliyon ; 10(9): e29406, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38707426

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused major problems in many areas of the world and has deeply affected many sectors and industries. The food and beverage industry is one of the industries that has been severely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to explore the impact of the pandemic on the Turkish fruit juice industry and the attitudes and behaviors of companies. In addition, the study seeks to identify the changes in the industry caused by the pandemic and discuss its long-term effects. The material used for the study consists of the data obtained from the surveys conducted among the companies producing fruit juices in Türkiye. The results show that the pandemic had a significant impact on companies' logistics activities, while supply activities were moderately affected. However, the effects of the pandemic on exports, sales, production, total profit, and R&D activities were comparatively limited. When comparing the pre-pandemic period with the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, it was observed that some companies in the industry experienced declines in production, sales, exports, and overall profit, whereas others experienced increases in these metrics. These variations were not associated with company size or length of operation, suggesting that the impact of the pandemic on individual companies was unique. Interestingly, some companies reported positive effects from the pandemic, such as increased demand for certain products, new export markets, improved food safety practices, new suppliers and improved crisis management skills. However, the fruit juice industry in Türkiye was found to be vulnerable in the areas of logistics and supply chain management. The study suggests that companies should strengthen supply chain management, improve stock management, and create online marketing plans to reduce potential problems in future crises. Additionally, it contributes to the development of strategies to mitigate the impact of future pandemics or bottlenecks that may emerge in the future, thereby promoting the efficiency and sustainability of the fruit juice industry as a whole.

18.
Aging Ment Health ; : 1-9, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38726552

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Longitudinal studies on chronic loneliness and before and during the COVID-19 pandemic are lacking in Africa. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of loneliness and chronic loneliness using cross-sectional and longitudinal data from middle-aged and older adults from rural South Africa. METHOD: The analysis utilized data from the South African 7-year longitudinal Health and Ageing in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH Community in South Africa (HAALSI) (analytic sample: n = 3,418, aged 40 years and older). Loneliness was assessed with a single and 3-item measure. RESULTS: The proportion of loneliness was 19.5% in the 2021/2022 survey, the incidence of chronic loneliness (having loneliness in wave 2 and 3, and free of loneliness in wave 1) was 18.9%, and the 7-year incidence of loneliness was 41.0%. Comparing the 2019 (pre-COVID-19) to 2021/2022 (during COVID-19 pandemic) surveys participants experienced a significant reduction of loneliness. In cross-sectional and/or longitudinal analyses, we found that younger age, living alone, food insecurity, lack of social engagement, depressed mood, poor life satisfaction, poor sleep quality, impaired cognition, poor self-rated health, functional disability, underweight, obesity, and not living with HIV were associated with a higher prevalence, incidence and/or increases in loneliness. CONCLUSION: One in five aging adults had acute or chronic loneliness. Several social, mental, and physical health factors were identified as associated with loneliness.

19.
Psychol Health ; : 1-26, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38726556

RESUMO

Ojective: Covid-19 pandemic has exerted deleterious effects on several aspect of mental health worldwide. The detrimental medical complications, the increased prevalence of morbidity and the rapid international spread of Covid-19 have resulted in urgent public health concerns and political measures across the world. This comparative, cross-sectional study aims to assess the changes that were established in sociodemographic, anthropometric and lifestyle parameters and several aspects of mental health of older adults due to Covid-19 pandemic by comparing the pre-Covid period with the post-Covid period. Methods: Qualified questionnaires were applied for assessing the prevalence of depression, quality of life, cognitive status, and Mediterranean Diet (MD) adherence, as well as sociodemographic, anthropometric and lifestyle parameters in 3388 older adults in the pre- and post-Covid period. Results: Covid-19 pandemic independently affected type of residence, smoking habits, BMI and WHR status, risk of depression, quality of life, cognitive status, physical activity levels, and MD adherence. Conclusions: Covid -19 pandemic has exerted persistent detrimental effects on daily quality of life and mental health of older adults in the post-Covid period. Future strategies and public policies should develop healthcare programs to provide psychological and nutritional counseling and support to older adults to minimize the detrimental effects of Covid pandemic.

20.
Epidemiol Health ; : e2024048, 2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38697860

RESUMO

The Korea Nurses' Health Study (KNHS) is an ongoing, large-scale, prospective cohort study of female nurses, focusing on the effects of occupational, environmental, and lifestyle factors on the health of women. The first KNHS survey was performed in 2013-2014 (n=20,613). As of December 2023, 11 follow-up surveys have been conducted. Participants who were pregnant were asked to participate in the early pregnancy survey (n=2,179) and postpartum survey after giving birth (n=2,790). The main variables included sociodemographic, work-related, lifestyle, physical, mental, and women's health factors. Blood, urine, and toenail samples were collected from a participant subgroup of the first survey (n=1,983). The subgroups of the second survey completed a food frequency questionnaire in 2019 (n=300) and 2021 (n=871). In 2020, a subgroup of the first survey answered a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related survey (n=975). To examine various health-related factors in young adults, new participants were added to the KNHS cohort in the 11th (n=1,000) and 12th (n=1,002) surveys. The KNHS cohort will help identify health and illness determinants in Korean women. Data can be accessed at https://coda.nih.go.kr/frt/index.do.

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