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1.
Univ. salud ; 26(2): D16-D27, mayo-agosto 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1553971

RESUMO

Introducción: La pandemia por COVID-19 ha afectado significativamente la calidad de los servicios de cuidado de la salud. Objetivo: Analizar los efectos en los atributos de la calidad en salud de los servicios de atención de enfermedades diferentes a la COVID-19 en Colombia, durante el periodo 2020-2022. Materiales y métodos: Se analizaron 24 artículos de alcance nacional y otros específicos de departamentos como Antioquia, Córdoba, Santander y Cundinamarca. Resultados: La pandemia por COVID-19 impactó la calidad de los servicios en la atención de enfermedades como cáncer, accidentes cerebrovasculares y de eventos como la interrupción voluntaria del embarazo. Conclusión: La calidad de la salud se vio afectada en todas sus dimensiones durante las fases de la pandemia, especialmente en la población con enfermedades crónicas y relacionadas con la salud infantil y materna. Además, se destacaron respuestas como el uso de la telemedicina y de la atención domiciliaria para contribuir a la calidad de la salud en Colombia.


Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly affected the quality of health care services. Objective: To analyze the effects of COVID-19 on the quality of health care services focused on treating diseases other than COVID-19 in Colombia during the 2020-2022 period. Materials and methods: 24 articles were analyzed, which included some studies focused on national issues and others specific to the departments of Antioquia, Cordoba, Santander, and Cundinamarca. Results: The COVID-19 pandemic affected the quality of health services caring for diseases such as cancer, strokes, and critical circumstances like voluntary termination of pregnancy. Conclusion: All dimensions of health care were affected during the pandemic, especially impacting populations with chronic diseases and diseases related to child and maternal health. It is important to highlight that telemedicine and home care contributed to improving the quality of health in Colombia.


Introdução: A pandemia de COVID-19 afetou significativamente a qualidade dos serviços de saúde. Objetivo: Analisar os efeitos da COVID-19 nos atributos de qualidade em saúde dos serviços de atenção a outras doenças além da COVID-19 na Colômbia, durante o período 2020-2022. Materiais e métodos: foram analisados 24 artigos de âmbito nacional e outros específicos de departamentos como Antioquia, Córdoba, Santander e Cundinamarca. Resultados: A pandemia da COVID-19 impactou a qualidade dos serviços no cuidado de doenças como câncer, acidente vascular cerebral e eventos como a interrupção voluntária da gravidez. Conclusão: A qualidade da saúde foi afetada em todas as suas dimensões durante as fases da pandemia, especialmente na população com doenças crônicas e doenças relacionadas à saúde infantil e materna. Além disso, foram destacadas respostas como o uso da telemedicina e do atendimento domiciliar para contribuir para a qualidade da saúde na Colômbia.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Atenção à Saúde , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde
3.
Lancet Public Health ; 9(5): e282-e294, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sex and gender shape health. There is a growing body of evidence focused on comprehensively and systematically examining the magnitude, persistence, and nature of differences in health between females and males. Here, we aimed to quantify differences in the leading causes of disease burden between females and males across ages and geographies. METHODS: We used the Global Burden of Disease Study 2021 to compare disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) rates for females and males for the 20 leading causes of disease burden for individuals older than 10 years at the global level and across seven world regions, between 1990 and 2021. We present absolute and relative differences in the cause-specific DALY rates between females and males. FINDINGS: Globally, females had a higher burden of morbidity-driven conditions with the largest differences in DALYs for low back pain (with 478·5 [95% uncertainty interval 346·3-632·8] more DALYs per 100 000 individuals among females than males), depressive disorders (348·3 [241·3-471·0]), and headache disorders (332·9 [48·3-731·9]), whereas males had higher DALY rates for mortality-driven conditions with the largest differences in DALYs for COVID-19 (with 1767·8 [1581·1-1943·5] more DALYs per 100 000 among males than females), road injuries (1012·2 [934·1-1092·9]), and ischaemic heart disease (1611·8 [1405·0-1856·3]). The differences between sexes became larger over age and remained consistent over time for all conditions except HIV/AIDS. The largest difference in HIV/AIDS was observed among those aged 25-49 years in sub-Saharan Africa with 1724·8 (918·8-2613·7) more DALYs per 100 000 among females than males. INTERPRETATION: The notable health differences between females and males point to an urgent need for policies to be based on sex-specific and age-specific data. It is also important to continue promoting gender-sensitive research, and ultimately, implement interventions that not only reduce the burden of disease but also achieve greater health equity. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Assuntos
Anos de Vida Ajustados por Deficiência , Carga Global da Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Adolescente , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Adulto Jovem , Longevidade , Criança , COVID-19/epidemiologia
4.
S Afr Fam Pract (2004) ; 66(1): e1-e7, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38708746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:  Stillbirths are a global public health challenge, predominantly affecting low- and middle-income countries. The causes of most stillbirths are preventable. OBJECTIVES:  this study reviewed perinatal clinical audit data from Kgapane Hospital over a 4-year period with a special focus on the factors associated with stillbirths. METHODS:  File audits were done for all stillbirths occurring at Kgapane Hospital and its catchment area from 2018 to 2021. The data from these audits were analysed to identify factors associated with stillbirths. RESULTS:  A total of 392 stillbirths occurred during the study period at Kgapane Hospital and its surrounding clinics, resulting in a stillborn rate of 19.06/1000 births. Of the 392 stillbirths recorded, audits were conducted on 354 of the maternal case records. The five most common causes of stillbirths identified were: hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (HDP) (29.7%), intrauterine growth restriction without HDP (11.6%), birth asphyxia (7.1%), premature labour ( 1000 g) (6.5%) and maternal infections (5.9%) including HIV with unsuppressed VL, intrauterine infection, coronavirus disease (COVID) and syphilis. Modifiable factors that can form the basis of improvement strategies should include training, timeous referral, plus improved resources and staffing. CONCLUSION:  Understanding the causes of stillbirths can guide improvement strategies to reduce this heart-breaking complication of pregnancy.Contribution: Family physicians working in rural hospitals are also responsible for perinatal care. Understanding the factors associated with stillbirths will guide them to develop improvement strategies to reduce these preventable deaths.


Assuntos
Natimorto , Humanos , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gravidez , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Adulto , Recém-Nascido , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/epidemiologia , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia
5.
Am J Public Health ; 114(6): 633-641, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38718333

RESUMO

Objectives. To evaluate the effects of a comprehensive traffic safety policy-New York City's (NYC's) 2014 Vision Zero-on the health of Medicaid enrollees. Methods. We conducted difference-in-differences analyses using individual-level New York Medicaid data to measure traffic injuries and expenditures from 2009 to 2021, comparing NYC to surrounding counties without traffic reforms (n = 65 585 568 person-years). Results. After Vision Zero, injury rates among NYC Medicaid enrollees diverged from those of surrounding counties, with a net impact of 77.5 fewer injuries per 100 000 person-years annually (95% confidence interval = -97.4, -57.6). We observed marked reductions in severe injuries (brain injury, hospitalizations) and savings of $90.8 million in Medicaid expenditures over the first 5 years. Effects were largest among Black residents. Impacts were reversed during the COVID-19 period. Conclusions. Vision Zero resulted in substantial protection for socioeconomically disadvantaged populations known to face heightened risk of injury, but the policy's effectiveness decreased during the pandemic period. Public Health Implications. Many cities have recently launched Vision Zero policies and others plan to do so. This research adds to the evidence on how and in what circumstances comprehensive traffic policies protect public health. (Am J Public Health. 2024;114(6):633-641. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2024.307617).


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Medicaid , Pobreza , Ferimentos e Lesões , Humanos , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segurança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle
6.
Int J Equity Health ; 23(1): 93, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health disparities, starkly exposed and exacerbated by coronavirus disease 2019, pose a significant challenge to healthcare system access and health outcomes. Integrating health inequalities into health technology assessment calls for robust analytical methodologies utilizing disaggregated data to investigate and quantify the scope of these disparities. However, a comprehensive summary of population datasets that can be used for this purpose is lacking. The objective of this review was to identify publicly accessible health inequalities data repositories that are potential resources for healthcare decision-making and future health technology assessment submissions. METHODS: An environmental scan was conducted in June of 2023 of six international organizations (World Health Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Eurostat, United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation, the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, and World Bank) and 38 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. The official websites of 42 jurisdictions, excluding non-English websites and those lacking English translations, were reviewed. Screening and data extraction were performed by two reviewers for each data repository, including health indicators, determinants of health, and health inequality metrics. The results were narratively synthesized. RESULTS: The search identified only a limited number of country-level health inequalities data repositories. The World Health Organization Health Inequality Data Repository emerged as the most comprehensive source of health inequality data. Some country-level data repositories, such as Canada's Health Inequality Data Tool and England's Health Inequality Dashboard, offered rich local insights into determinants of health and numerous health status indicators, including mortality. Data repositories predominantly focused on determinants of health such as age, sex, social deprivation, and geography. CONCLUSION: Interactive interfaces featuring data exploration and visualization options across diverse patient populations can serve as valuable tools to address health disparities. The data they provide may help inform complex analytical methodologies that integrate health inequality considerations into healthcare decision-making. This may include assessing the feasibility of transporting health inequality data across borders.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomada de Decisões , Saúde Global , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde
7.
PLOS Glob Public Health ; 4(5): e0003000, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722816

RESUMO

Applying a positive outlier lens is one effective approach for generating evidence to inform global health policy, program, and funding decisions. Exemplars in Global Health (EGH) is a program that studies positive outlier countries that have made extraordinary progress in health outcomes (despite limited resources) and disseminates their successes through multiple types of outputs. To date, EGH has studied, or is studying, 14 global health topics in 28 countries. This paper aims to identify findings, summarized as themes and sub-themes, that appear among all completed EGH studies. We developed a conceptual framework and used a content analysis approach to identify the top thematic areas that appear as drivers for programmatic success across EGH studies that were completed between June 2020-May 2023. The EGH studies (N = 31) spanned six topics including under-five child mortality (n = 6), childhood stunting (n = 5), community health workers (CHW) (n = 4), vaccine delivery (n = 3), COVID-19 response (n = 6), and newborn and maternal mortality reduction (n = 7) across 19 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, South and Central Asia, and the Caribbean regions. Top drivers of success were defined as those critical or catalytic in achieving the intended outcome. Eight key drivers were identified: (1) efficient data collection and use for decision-making, (2) strong political commitment and health leadership, (3) effective stakeholder coordination, (4) a local, connected, and capacitated workforce, (5) intentional women's empowerment and engagement, (6) effective adoption and implementation of national policies, (7) effective and sustainable financing, and (8) equitable, efficient outreach and targeting. These cross-cutting drivers span a broad range of development outcomes, sectors, and populations, and indicate a need to effectively integrate people, systems, and sectors to improve global health outcomes. Findings from this study aim to support peer learning among countries and support evidence-based decision-making for funders, policymakers, and other key stakeholders.

8.
J Health Popul Nutr ; 43(1): 58, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly affected human social contact patterns, but there is limited understanding regarding the post-pandemic social contact patterns. Our objective is to quantitatively assess social contact patterns in Suzhou post-COVID-19. METHODS: We employed a diary design and conducted social contact surveys from June to October 2023, utilizing paper questionnaires. A generalized linear model was utilized to analyze the relationship between individual contacts and covariates. We examined the proportions of contact type, location, duration, and frequency. Additionally, age-related mixed matrices were established. RESULTS: The participants reported an average of 11.51 (SD 5.96) contact numbers and a total of 19.78 (SD 20.94) contact numbers per day, respectively. The number of contacts was significantly associated with age, household size, and the type of week. Compared to the 0-9 age group, those in the 10-19 age group reported a higher number of contacts (IRR = 1.12, CI: 1.01-1.24), while participants aged 20 and older reported fewer (IRR range: 0.54-0.67). Larger households (5 or more) reported more contacts (IRR = 1.09, CI: 1.01-1.18) and fewer contacts were reported on weekends (IRR = 0.95, CI: 0.90-0.99). School had the highest proportion of contact durations exceeding 4 h (49.5%) and daily frequencies (90.4%), followed by home and workplace. The contact patterns exhibited clear age-assortative mixing, with Q indices of 0.27 and 0.28. CONCLUSIONS: We assessed the characteristics of social contact patterns in Suzhou, which are essential for parameterizing models of infectious disease transmission. The high frequency and intensity of contacts among school-aged children should be given special attention, making school intervention policies a crucial component in controlling infectious disease transmission.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/transmissão , COVID-19/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Adolescente , Criança , Adulto Jovem , Pré-Escolar , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lactente , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , SARS-CoV-2 , Recém-Nascido , Características da Família , Pandemias , Idoso , Doenças Transmissíveis/transmissão , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia
9.
Indian J Psychol Med ; 46(2): 119-124, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725715

RESUMO

Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurobehavioral disorder among children, with an estimated prevalence of 1.3 per 1000 in India. The nationwide lockdown imposed due to the COVID-19 pandemic has led to the closure of schools for an indefinite period. After the reopening of schools, the lockdown period was feared to have caused a deterioration in symptoms of existing mental health conditions among school-going children. This field study aimed to probe the association of school closures due to lockdown with any change in symptoms of ADHD in aged 6-15 years in the largest tertiary care hospital in Kolkata. Methods: A longitudinal observational study was conducted involving 34 prediagnosed ADHD patients attending the Clinical Psychology outpatient department (OPD) of a tertiary hospital for follow-up. Data was collected by face-to-face interviews with the patients' parents using a predesigned, pretested structured study schedule. Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS) was used to assess the ADHD symptoms. Results: Twenty-three (67.65%) patients were observed to have worsened ADHD symptoms after lockdown. Significant worsening was observed in the ADHD indicator and the mood disorder indicator. Significant contributing factors were rural residence, nuclear family, non-attendance at school, and knowledge inadequacy among parents. Conclusion: There was a significant worsening of symptoms of ADHD owing to the school closure due to the lockdown.

10.
Front Psychol ; 15: 1339869, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725949

RESUMO

Background: Psychologists are at known risk of work-related stress, secondary trauma, and burnout. The COVID-19 pandemic increased stress and anxiety for communities worldwide and corresponded with an increased demand for mental health services. Our study investigated the impact of COVID-19 on psychologists' professional quality of life, psychological symptoms, and work-related stress in Aotearoa, New Zealand (NZ). Method: Ninety-nine registered psychologists were recruited via NZ professional psychology organizations, representing 3% of the total workforce. Survey data collected included symptoms of compassion fatigue and satisfaction, psychological symptoms, COVID-19-related stress and resilience, and professional and personal circumstances during the third year of the pandemic, 2022. Results: Seventy percent reported that their work stress had increased, and 60% reported that their caseload intensity had increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. Psychologists reported receiving little to no additional personal or professional support, while 55% reported increased personal responsibilities during the pandemic (for example, closed childcare and schools during lockdowns). High rates of compassion fatigue (burnout and secondary traumatic stress) and low resilience were reported. We observed that psychological distress was higher than the community averages before the pandemic and comparable with frontline healthcare professionals. Compassion fatigue was associated with COVID-related stress, psychological distress, years in practice, and more frequent supervision, but not with working with at-risk clients, levels of personal support, or having children at home. Despite these difficulties, high Compassion Satisfaction scores were also reported, with over 90% indicating they had no intention of leaving the profession in the foreseeable future. Conclusion: Psychologists' compassion fatigue appears to have worsened during the COVID-19 pandemic, as have their symptoms of psychological distress. Increased workplace and clinical demands, telehealth difficulties, stress relating to the pandemic, inadequate support, and increased personal responsibilities were reported by psychologists. Mental health workforces are not immune to the personal and professional impacts of crises and are at risk of burnout and secondary traumatic stress. We hope that increased awareness and understanding of psychologists' own difficulties during COVID-19 can be used to better tackle future crises and support mental health professionals.

11.
Front Psychol ; 15: 1302442, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725952

RESUMO

Introduction: Clinical psychologists in Austria shouldered a large part of the massive increase in demand for mental health services caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to find out how the pandemic affected their work and to gather information on how best to support the profession in the event of a crisis. Methods: N = 172 Austrian clinical psychologists participated in a cross-sectional online survey between 11 April 2022 and 31 May 2022, including both closed and open-ended questions about their work. Open-ended questions were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. A mixed-methods analysis was conducted to test correlations between the categories derived from the qualitative analysis and professional variables. Results: The analyses revealed that clinical psychologists, especially those with more years of experience, perceived an increased need for clinical psychological treatment, especially for children and adolescents, a lack of coverage for clinical psychological treatment by health insurance, a change to remote treatment formats, and a number of burdens associated with complying with COVID-19 measures. Discussion: Clinical psychologists reported an urgent need to increase resources in both outpatient and inpatient settings and to promote health insurance coverage. To support the clinical psychology profession in providing high-quality work in times of crisis, there is a need to facilitate more opportunities for team and peer exchange, as well as financial support in the event of loss of income.

12.
Front Pediatr ; 12: 1325471, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725989

RESUMO

Objective: This study aims to compare the changes in the disease spectrum of children admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Units (PICU) during the COVID-19 pandemic with the three years prior to the pandemic, exploring the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the disease spectrum of PICU patients. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on critically ill children admitted to the PICU of Hunan Children's Hospital from January 2020 to December 2022, and the results were compared with cases from the same period between January 2017 and December 2019. The cases were divided into pre-pandemic period (January 2017-December 2019) with 8,218 cases, and pandemic period (January 2020-December 2022) with 5,619 cases. General characteristics, age, and gender were compared between the two groups. Results: Compared to the pre-pandemic period, there was a 31.62% decrease in the number of admitted children during the pandemic period, and a 52.78% reduction in the proportion of respiratory system diseases. The overall mortality rate decreased by 87.81%. There were differences in age and gender distribution between the two periods. The length of hospital stay during the pandemic showed no statistical significance, whereas hospitalization costs exhibited statistical significance. Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic has exerted a certain influence on the disease spectrum of PICU admissions. Implementing relevant measures during the pandemic can help reduce the occurrence of respiratory system diseases in children. Considering the changes in the disease spectrum of critically ill PICU children, future clinical prevention and treatment in PICUs should continue to prioritize the respiratory, neurological, and hematological oncology systems.

13.
Front Pediatr ; 12: 1381104, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725986

RESUMO

Introduction: Limited evidence exists on management recommendations for neonates born to SARS-CoV-2-positive mothers. This study looked at transmission risk of neonates presenting for primary care in a large regional health system within New York during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This was a prospective, observational study of newborns born to SARS-CoV-2-positive mothers presenting at any of the 19 Northwell Health-Cohen Children's Medical Center primary care practices who underwent another oropharyngeal/nasopharyngeal swab for detection of SARS-CoV-2 by day of life (DOL) 14. Results: Among 293 newborns born to SARS-CoV-2-positive mothers who were negative at birth, 222 were retested at DOL 14, corresponding to times with different predominant strains. Of these, seven tested positive but had no symptoms. Conclusion: The overall low transmission rates and absence of symptomatic infection support the safety of direct breastfeeding after hospital discharge with appropriate hand and breast hygiene.

14.
J Educ Health Promot ; 13: 96, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38726077

RESUMO

COVID-19 has caused a wide range of psychological problems, such as panic disorders, anxiety, and depression. Knowing what others have researched on, what constructs they have focused on, will (a) summarize published information, (b) help identify research gaps, and (c) encourage future research that addresses these gaps. The aim of the study was to analyze the bibliometric indicators of scientific productivity of the impact of COVID-19 on constructs affecting undergraduate happiness. A bibliometric study was conducted. The PubMed database was used. Data summarized were: authors, year of publication, journal name, country, language of publication, and subtopic addressed. A total of 16 English-language studies were identified between April 2022 and December 2022. There were 12 countries that have published on the impact of COVID-19 on constructs affecting college students' happiness. Most of the studies were developed in the United States (n = 4, 25%) and China (n = 2, 12.5%). Thirteen journals publishing these topics were detected. The subtopics considered were organized into nine categories (e.g., a: Psychological impact, b: Adverse childhood experiences, c: Stress, d: Personality traits, e: Perception of the educational environment, f: Spiritual health, g: Distress, h: Uncertainty and socioemotional learning, i: Satisfaction with life). This study suggests that the number of countries and scientific journals that have published on the impact of COVID-19 on constructs affecting college students' happiness is small. In addition, the most discussed subtopics during the pandemic were related to constructs such as psychological impact and stress affecting college students' happiness.

15.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1383399, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38726230

RESUMO

Background: Various psychological theories suggest that a supportive family environment protects the mental health of young adults during stressful life events. However, evidence is limited regarding the protective role of family support during a major public health crisis. Objective: To examine the role of family functioning on mental health among Chinese college students during first stage of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Between January-March 2020, 1,555 college students (44% female, on average 19 years old) from five Chinese universities participated. Participants rated their family functioning on the Family APGAR Index and their mental health on the Psychological Questionnaires for Emergent Events of Public Health, measuring depression, neurasthenia, fear, obsessive-anxiety and hypochondriasis. Results: Better family functioning was associated with having fewer psychological symptoms. In addition, we identified three mental health profiles related to the severity across the psychological symptoms: Low-level, medium-level and high-level symptom clusters. Latent profile analysis showed that as family function improved, students were, respectively, 16 to 24% more likely to be in the low-level symptom group, compared to being in the medium symptom group or the high-level symptom group. Conclusion: These results support the notion that family support may act as a psychological buffer for young adults during a large-scale public health crisis like the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde Mental , Estudantes , Humanos , COVID-19/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem , Universidades , China/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , SARS-CoV-2 , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Adolescente , Pandemias , Relações Familiares/psicologia
16.
Telemed J E Health ; 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728091

RESUMO

Background: Increased availability of telehealth can improve access to health care. However, there is evidence of persistent disparities in telehealth usage, as well as among people from minoritized racial and ethnic groups and rural residents. The objective of our work was to explore the degree to which disparities in telehealth use for behavioral health (BH) and musculoskeletal (MSK) related services during the COVID-19 pandemic are explained by observed beneficiary- and area-level characteristics. Methods: Using North Carolina Medicaid claims data of Medicaid beneficiaries with BH or MSK conditions, we apply nonlinear regression-based decomposition analysis-based models developed by Kitagawa, Oaxaca, and Blinder to determine which observed variables are associated with racial, ethnic, and rural inequalities in telehealth usage. Results: In the BH cohort, we found statistically significant differences in telehealth usage by race in the adult population, and by race, Hispanic ethnicity, and rurality in the pediatric population. In the MSK cohort, we found significant inequities by Hispanic ethnicity and rurality among adults, and by race and rurality among children. Inequalities in telehealth use between groups were small, ranging from 0.7 percentage points between urban and rural adults with MSK conditions to 3.8 percentage points between white adults and people of color among those with BH conditions. Overall, we found that racial and ethnic inequalities in telehealth use are not well explained by the observed variables in our data. Rural disparities in telehealth use are better explained by observed variables, particularly area-level broadband internet use. Conclusions: For inequalities between rural and urban residents, our analysis provides observational evidence that infrastructure such as broadband internet access is an important driver of differences in telehealth use. For racial and ethnic inequalities, the pathways may be more complex and difficult to measure, particularly when relying on administrative data sources in place of more detailed data on individual-level socioeconomic factors.

17.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0294480, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722922

RESUMO

Despite the significant success of India's COVID-19 vaccination program, a sizeable proportion of the adult population remains unvaccinated or has received a single dose of the vaccine. Despite the recommendations of the Government of India for the two doses of the COVID-19 vaccine and the precautionary booster dose, many people were still hesitant towards the COVID-19 full vaccination. Hence, this study aimed to identify the primary behavioral and psychological factors contributing to vaccine hesitancy. Cross-sectional data was collected via a multi-stage sampling design by using a scheduled sample survey in the Gorakhpur district of Uttar Pradesh, India, between 15 July 2022 to 30 September 2022. This study has utilized three health behavior models-the Health Belief Model (HBM), the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), and the 5C Psychological Antecedents of vaccination, and employed bivariate and multivariable binary logistic regression model to assess the level of vaccine hesitancy and predictive health behavior of the respondents. Results indicate that among the constructs of the HBM and 5C Antecedents models, "perceived benefits", "confidence" and "collective responsibility" showed a lesser likelihood of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. However, in the TPB model constructs, a 'negative attitude towards the vaccine' showed a four times higher likelihood of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. From the future policy perspective, this study suggested that addressing the issue of 'negative attitudes towards the vaccine' and increasing the trust or confidence for the vaccine through increasing awareness about the benefits of the vaccination in India may reduce vaccine hesitancy.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Hesitação Vacinal , Humanos , Índia , Adulto , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Feminino , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Hesitação Vacinal/psicologia , Hesitação Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto Jovem , Vacinação/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adolescente , Inquéritos e Questionários , Modelo de Crenças de Saúde
18.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302995, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722991

RESUMO

In the earlier phases of the COVID-19 pandemic, studies in Germany and elsewhere found an overall reduction in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among students. However, there is little evidence on later pandemic stages as well as socioeconomic influencing factors. We aimed to (1) describe HRQoL in a Berlin student cohort at two time points in mid-2021, and to (2) analyze the effects of household income and education. We assessed HRQoL of students from 24 randomly selected primary and secondary schools in Berlin, Germany, with the KIDSCREEN-10 index in June and September 2021. To adjust for non-response bias, inverse probability weighting was applied. The potential effects of both household income and education (lower vs. higher) were estimated in generalized linear mixed models, based on prior assumptions presented in directed acyclic graphs. Our cohort comprised 660 students aged 7-19 years. In June 2021, 11.3% [95% CI = 9.0% - 14.0%] reported low HRQoL, whereas in September 2021, this increased to 13.7% [95% CI = 11.1% - 16.5%], with adolescent girls more frequently reporting low HRQoL at both time points (20% [95% CI = 17.1% - 23.3%] and 29% [95% CI = 25.5% - 32.5%]) compared to boys and younger children. While there was no statistically significant total effect of lower household income on HRQoL, a negative effect of lower household education was statistically significant (ß = -2.15, SE 0.95, 95% CI = -4.01 to -0.29, p = 0.024). In summary, students' HRQoL in mid-2021 was better than that documented in other studies conducted at pandemic onset using KIDSCREEN-10. Female adolescents reported low HRQoL more often, and lower household education significantly reduced children's HRQoL. Support strategies for psychosocial wellbeing should consider socioeconomically disadvantaged children as important target groups.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Qualidade de Vida , Instituições Acadêmicas , Classe Social , Estudantes , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Masculino , Estudantes/psicologia , Criança , Adulto Jovem , Berlim/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Renda , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302571, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38723060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several safety measures like movement restrictions, closure of educational institutions, and social distancing measures continue over the world including Bangladesh during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to examine the patterns of eating behaviors, physical activity, and lifestyle modifications among adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic residing in Bangladesh. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed among 490 adolescents in Bangladesh from December 2020 to May 2021. The survey was carried out through a semi-structured web-based questionnaire that asked questions about socio-demographics (i.e., age, sex, marital status, education, residence), perceived health status and quality of life, anthropometrics (i.e., height, weight), dietary habits (i.e., frequency of eating, daily intake of certain foods, number of meals eaten daily), and physical activity (i.e., modified version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form [IPAQ-SF]), as well as, pre- and during COVID-19 information on stress, and sleep. RESULTS: During the pandemic, 43.7% participants reported weight gain; and 23.5% reported an increased number of meals per day during COVID-19. Additionally, the participants' eating habits diverged from the local balanced diet principles and were more akin to 'unhealthy' eating patterns. Though, during the COVID-19 pandemic, physical exercise slightly increased (>3 times/ week: 8.2% vs. 13.5%; p<0.001) compared to pre-COVID-19 period, the screen time for entertainment increased drastically (>5 hours/ week: 12.2% vs. 27.3%; p<0.001). Compared to the pre-pandemic, a sizeable proportion of individuals experienced more physical tiredness, emotional exhaustion, irritation, and stress (p<0.001) during the pandemic. During the pandemic, 47.5% of participants experienced different sleep difficulties. CONCLUSIONS: Although lockdowns and social distancing are important safety measures to protect people from COVID-19, findings reveal that they might cause a variety of lifestyle changes, physical inactivity, and psychological issues in Bangladeshi adolescents.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Estilo de Vida , Pandemias , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , SARS-CoV-2 , Qualidade de Vida
20.
BMJ Open ; 14(5): e079022, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724053

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess whether increasing levels of hospital stress-measured by intensive care unit (ICU) bed occupancy (primary), ventilators in use and emergency department (ED) overflow-were associated with decreasing COVID-19 ICU patient survival in Colorado ICUs during the pre-Delta, Delta and Omicron variant eras. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study using discrete-time survival models, fit with generalised estimating equations. SETTING: 34 hospital systems in Colorado, USA, with the highest patient volume ICUs during the COVID-19 pandemic. PARTICIPANTS: 9196 non-paediatric SARS-CoV-2 patients in Colorado hospitals admitted once to an ICU between 1 August 2020 and 1 March 2022 and followed for 28 days. OUTCOME MEASURES: Death or discharge to hospice. RESULTS: For Delta-era COVID-19 ICU patients in Colorado, the odds of death were estimated to be 26% greater for patients exposed every day of their ICU admission to a facility experiencing its all-era 75th percentile ICU fullness or above, versus patients exposed for none of their days (OR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.54; p=0.0102), adjusting for age, sex, length of ICU stay, vaccination status and hospital quality rating. For both Delta-era and Omicron-era patients, we also detected significantly increased mortality hazard associated with high ventilator utilisation rates and (in a subset of facilities) states of ED overflow. For pre-Delta-era patients, we estimated relatively null or even protective effects for the same fullness exposures, something which provides a meaningful contrast to previous studies that found increased hazards but were limited to pre-Delta study windows. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, and especially during the Delta era (when most Colorado facilities were at their fullest), increasing exposure to a fuller hospital was associated with an increasing mortality hazard for COVID-19 ICU patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Colorado/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Ocupação de Leitos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos
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