Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 74
Filtrar
1.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-9546

RESUMO

Fala sobre as estratégias para reforçar a identificação e atendimento precoce de casos leves da Covid-19, abordando também os serviços dos Centros de Formação à saúde.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Estratégias de Saúde Locais , COVID-19 , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Serviços de Saúde
2.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-9547

RESUMO

O vídeo fala sobre a atuação da Atenção Primária no enfrentamento a COVID-19. Além disso traz recomendações para adequação das Equipes de saúde no enfrentamento a Pandemia.


Assuntos
Atenção Primária à Saúde , COVID-19 , Estratégias de Saúde Locais , Protocolos Clínicos , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente
3.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-12-01.
Não convencional em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55239

RESUMO

La alimentación es parte central del desarrollo de las personas a lo largo de su vida. El hambre y la pobreza impiden el goce de derechos esenciales de las personas. Durante los últimos años, distintos factores han desviado al mundo del camino para lograr la erradicación del hambre, la inseguridad alimentaria y todas las formas de malnutrición para el año 2030, y la pandemia de la COVID-19 ha exacerbado esta tendencia. Nuestra región no es la excepción. En esta edición del Panorama regional de la seguridad alimentaria y la nutrición 2021: Estadísticas y tendencias, observamos un escenario sombrío de cara al futuro. En 2020, 59,7 millones de personas en nuestra región padecieron hambre y, entre 2019 y 2020, la prevalencia de hambre en América Latina y el Caribe aumentó 2 puntos porcentuales. El aumento de la inseguridad alimentaria moderada o grave de 2019 a 2020 fue aún más pronunciado que el del hambre: 9 puntos porcentuales. El 41 por ciento de la población regional sufre inseguridad alimentaria moderada o grave: son 267 millones de personas que han visto impactado su derecho humano a la alimentación. En la región, 1 de cada 4 adultos vive con obesidad. El sobrepeso infantil ha ido en aumento en los últimos 20 años y se encuentra por encima del promedio mundial: afectó al 7,5% de los menores de 5 años en 2020. El sobrepeso y la obesidad tiene un gran impacto económico, social y sanitario para los países, debido a la reducción de la productividad y el aumento de la discapacidad, la mortalidad prematura y los costos de la atención y los tratamientos médicos. Si las cosas no cambian con rapidez y profundidad, los países de la región incumplirán su compromiso de alcanzar las metas del Objetivo de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS) 2 “Poner fin al hambre, lograr la seguridad alimentaria y la mejora de la nutrición y promover la agricultura sostenible” y del ODS 3 “Garantizar una vida sana y promover el bienestar de toda la población a todas las edades”. Estas tendencias no se van a revertir si no avanzamos en la transformación de nuestros sistemas agroalimentarios para que sean más eficientes, resilientes, inclusivos y sostenibles, a fin de proporcionar dietas saludables para todos y todas, sin dejar a nadie atrás.


Assuntos
Alimentos, Dieta e Nutrição , Desnutrição , Fome , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Estatísticas de Saúde , Segurança Alimentar , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Estratégias de Saúde Globais , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , COVID-19
4.
Washington D.C; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; 1 ed; Dic. 2021. 51 p. ilus.
Monografia em Espanhol | LIPECS, MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1352627

RESUMO

La alimentación es parte central del desarrollo de las personas a lo largo de su vida. El hambre y la pobreza impiden el goce de derechos esenciales de las personas. Durante los últimos años, distintos factores han desviado al mundo del camino para lograr la erradicación del hambre, la inseguridad alimentaria y todas las formas de malnutrición para el año 2030, y la pandemia de la COVID-19 ha exacerbado esta tendencia. Nuestra región no es la excepción. El sobrepeso infantil ha ido en aumento en los últimos 20 años y se encuentra por encima del promedio mundial: afectó al 7,5% de los menores de 5 años en 2020. El sobrepeso y la obesidad tiene un gran impacto económico, social y sanitario para los países, debido a la reducción de la productividad y el aumento de la discapacidad, la mortalidad prematura y los costos de la atención y los tratamientos médicos. Estas tendencias no se van a revertir si no avanzamos en la transformación de nuestros sistemas agroalimentarios para que sean más eficientes, resilientes, inclusivos y sostenibles, a fin de proporcionar dietas saludables para todos y todas, sin dejar a nadie atrás


Assuntos
Estratégias de Saúde Globais , Coronavirus , Impactos na Saúde , Desnutrição , Dieta , Sobrepeso , Pandemias , Mortalidade Prematura , Erradicação de Doenças , Alimentos, Dieta e Nutrição , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Obesidade
5.
Confl Health ; 15(1): 94, 2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34930364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthcare associated infections (HAIs) are the most frequent adverse outcome in healthcare delivery worldwide. In conflict-affected settings HAIs, in particular surgical site infections, are prevalent. Effective infection prevention and control (IPC) is crucial to ending avoidable HAIs and an integral part of safe, effective, high quality health service delivery. However, armed conflict and widespread violence can negatively affect the quality of health care through workforce shortages, supply chain disruptions and attacks on health facilities and staff. To improve IPC in these settings it is necessary to understand the specific barriers and facilitators experienced locally. METHODS: In January and February of 2020, we conducted semi-structured interviews with hospital staff working for the International Committee of the Red Cross across eight conflict-affected countries (Central African Republic, South Sudan, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mali, Nigeria, Lebanon, Yemen and Afghanistan). We explored barriers and facilitators to IPC, as well as the direct impact of conflict on the hospital and its' IPC programme. Data was analysed thematically. RESULTS: We found that inadequate hospital infrastructure, resource and workforce shortages, education of staff, inadequate in-service IPC training and supervision and large visitor numbers are barriers to IPC in hospitals in this study, similar to barriers seen in other resource-limited settings. High patient numbers, supply chain disruptions, high infection rates and attacks on healthcare infrastructures, all as a direct result of conflict, exacerbated existing challenges and imposed an additional burden on hospitals and their IPC programmes. We also found examples of local strategies for improving IPC in the face of limited resources, including departmental IPC champions and illustrated guidelines for in-service training. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitals included in this study demonstrated how they overcame certain challenges in the face of limited resources and funding. These strategies present opportunities for learning and knowledge exchange across contexts, particularly in the face of the current global coronavirus pandemic. The findings are increasingly relevant today as they provide evidence of the fragility of IPC programmes in these settings. More research is required on tailoring IPC programmes so that they can be feasible and sustainable in unstable settings.

6.
Clin Med Res ; 19(4): 161-168, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34933948

RESUMO

Objective: Characterization of COVID-19 in the Latinx community is necessary for guiding public health initiatives, health system policy, clinical management practices, and improving outcomes. Our aim was to describe the socioeconomic background and clinical profile of patients with COVID-19 at a large public hospital in Los Angeles to improve health disparities leading to poor outcomes during the pandemic.Design, Setting and Participants: A single center retrospective cross-sectional study of all patients with a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) who presented to Los Angeles County (LAC)+University of Southern California (USC) Medical Center between March 15, 2020 and April 30, 2020.Methods: We describe patient characteristics, socioeconomic factors, laboratory findings, and outcomes of the first 278 patients to present to LAC+USC Medical Center with COVID-19.Results: Patients self-identified as Hispanic (82.4%) or non-Hispanic (17.6%). Hispanic patients presented later from symptom onset (6 days vs 3 days, P = 0.027) and had higher post-intubation mortality (40.9% vs. 33.3%, P = 1), intensive care unit (ICU) mortality (31.1% vs. 22.2%, P = 0.87), and overall mortality (11.1% vs 10.2%, P = 1). However, the difference in admission rates, mechanical ventilation rates, and overall mortality rates were not statistically significant. A majority of patients, 275/278 (98.9%), reported residency ZIP codes in areas of higher population density, higher percentage of Latinx, born outside the United States, lower median income, and lower high school graduation rate when compared to the rest of Los Angeles County. Regression analysis within the Hispanic cohort found that age, history of hypertension, history of diabetes, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were predictors of mechanical ventilation and mortality.Conclusion: We show the Latinx community has been disproportionally affected by the pandemic in Los Angeles and we identified multiple socioeconomic and clinical characteristics that predispose this population to COVID-19 infection. This study highlights the need for change in local and national strategies to protect vulnerable communities during public health outbreaks.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
7.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-9323

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic brought to light the shortcomings of health systems worldwide and the need to address the factors underpinning these flaws. In this webinar, we discuss the role of private sector and commercial determinants of health (#CDoH) in this global health crisis. Through their different perspectives, the panelists explore the role of private sector in the pandemic, the relationship between CDoH and COVID-19 on national and global levels and discuss the implications for global health. TIMESTAMPS: 00:00 | Welcome and Objective 02:35 | Opening Remarks 07:00 | COVID-19 as Commercial Determinant of Health 19:58 | Unhealthy Commodity Industries' Response to COVID-19 38:00 | Moderated Discussion and Q&A


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/economia , Sistemas Públicos de Saúde , Política de Saúde , Estratégias de Saúde Globais , Capitalismo , Marketing de Serviços de Saúde , Racismo , Equidade em Saúde , Distanciamento Físico , Quarentena , Grupos de Risco , Teste para COVID-19 , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Promoção da Saúde , Setor Privado/economia , Indústria do Tabaco
8.
Santiago; PAHO; 2021-11-29.
Não convencional em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55213

RESUMO

Food is central to people's development throughout their lives. Hunger and poverty impede the enjoyment of this fundamental right. In recent years, various factors have diverted the world off the path to eradicating hunger, food insecurity and all forms of malnutrition by 2030 and the COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated this trend. Our region is no exception. This edition of the Regional Overview of Food Security and Nutrition 2021: Statistics and Trends reveals a bleak scenario for the future. In 2020, 59.7 million people in our region suffered from hunger, and between 2019 and 2020 the prevalence of hunger in Latin America and the Caribbean increased by 2 percentage points. The increases in moderate or severe food insecurity from 2019 to 2020 were even steeper than the increase in hunger at 9 percentage points. Forty-one percent of the regional population is moderately or severely food insecure: that is 267 million people whose human right to food is not being met. In the Region, one in four adults suffer from obesity. Childhood overweight has been increasing over the last 20 years and is above the world average: it affected 7.5 percent of children under five in 2020. Overweight and obesity have a significant economic, social and health impact on countries because of reduced productivity and increased disability, premature mortality, and medical care and treatment costs. If we do not make rapid and thorough changes, the countries of the region will fail to meet Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 2: “End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture” and SDG 3: “Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages.” These trends will not be reversed if we do not transform our agri-food systems to make them efficient, resilient, inclusive and sustainable enough to provide a healthy diet for everyone, leaving no one behind. That was the aim of the Food Systems Summit, convened by United Nations Secretary-General António Guterres, which brought together 23 Member States from Latin America and the Caribbean to discuss how they could bring about a transformation that would benefit the most vulnerable communities. The five United Nations agencies behind this publication want to contribute to this transformation by measuring and monitoring food and nutrition security indicators to promote the formulation and implementation of evidence-based policies. This publication contributes to the policy dialogue for post-pandemic recovery, which is fundamental to closing gaps in equality and to meeting the goals of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Estratégias de Saúde Globais , Alimentos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Programas de Nutrição , Alimentos, Dieta e Nutrição , Desnutrição , Fome , COVID-19
9.
Washington D.C; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; 1 ed; Nov. 2021. 21 p. ilus.(Serie Derechos Humanos y Salud, 2).
Monografia em Espanhol | LIPECS, MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1352630

RESUMO

En la presente publicación se describen los instrumentos internacionales y regionales de derechos humanos y los sistemas de protección de esos derechos instaurados por las Naciones Unidas y el Sistema Interamericano de Derechos Humanos, así como medidas para hacerlos efectivos, con especial hincapié en el derecho a la salud de las personas con alteraciones de la salud mental en los países de las Américas


Assuntos
Estratégias de Saúde Globais , Saúde Mental , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Direito à Saúde , Direitos Humanos , Transtornos Mentais
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639561

RESUMO

Given the continent's growing aging population and expanding prevalence of multimorbidity, polypharmacy is an increasingly dire threat to the health of persons living in Africa. The COVID-19 pandemic has only exacerbated these issues. Widespread misinformation, lack of vaccine access, and attempts to avoid being infected have resulted in increases in Africans' willingness to take multiple prescription and nonprescription medications and supplements. Issues with counterfeit pharmaceuticals and the relatively new recognition of emergency medicine as a specialty across the continent also create unique challenges for addressing this urgent public health need. Experts have called for more robust pharmaceutical regulation and healthcare/public health infrastructure investments across the continent. However, these changes take time, and more near-term strategies are needed to mitigate current health needs. In this commentary, we present a nonexhaustive set of immediately implementable recommendations that can serve as local strategies to address current polypharmacy-related health needs of Africans. Importantly, our recommendations take into consideration that not all healthcare providers are emergency medicine trained and that local trends related to polypharmacy will change over time and require ever-evolving public health initiatives. Still, by bolstering training to safeguard against provider availability biases, practicing evidence-based prescribing and shared decision making, and tracking and sharing local trends related to polypharmacy, African healthcare providers and public health practitioners can better position themselves to meet population needs. Furthermore, although these recommendations are tailored to Africans, they may also prove useful to providers and practitioners in other regions facing similar challenges.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Polimedicação , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias , Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2
11.
HIV Med ; 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34704331

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: People living with HIV (PLWH) are at higher risk of poorer COVID-19 outcomes. Vaccination is a safe and effective method of prevention against many infectious diseases, including COVID-19. Here we investigate the strategies for national COVID-19 vaccination programmes across central and eastern Europe and the inclusion of PLWH in vaccination programmes. METHODS: The Euroguidelines in Central and Eastern Europe Network Group consists of experts in the field of infectious diseases from 24 countries in the region. Between 1 November 2020 and 19 March 2021 the group proceeded an on-line survey consisting of 20 questions. RESULTS: Twenty-two countries (out of 24 invited) participated in the survey and 20/22 countries in the period between December 2020 and March 2021 had already started their COVID-19 vaccination programme. In total, seven different vaccines were used by participating countries. In 17/21 countries (81%), vaccinated persons were centralized within the national registry. In 8/21 countries (38%) PLWH were prioritized for vaccination (the Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Lithuania, Montenegro, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia) and the Czech Republic, Greece and Serbia had put in place national guidelines for vaccination of PLWH. In 14/20 countries (70%) vaccination was only provided by designated centres. Eighteen respondents (18/21; 85.7%) reported that they planned to follow up HIV patients vaccinated against COVID-19, mainly by measuring antibody levels and checking COVID-19 incidence (11/21; 52.3%). CONCLUSIONS: This survey-based study suggests that there are significant differences in terms of prioritizing PLWH, the types of vaccines used, vaccination coverage, and the development and implementation of a vaccination programmes within the region. Regardless of heterogenicity and existing barriers within the region, systematic vaccination in PLWH should have the highest priority, especially in those with severe immunodeficiency, risk factors, and in the elderly, aiming for prompt and high vaccination coverage.

12.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-10-06.
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54953

RESUMO

En el Informe anual del Director de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana correspondiente al 2021 sobre la labor de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana, Oficina Regional de la Organización Mundial de la Salud para las Américas, se pone de relieve la cooperación técnica que prestó la Oficina en el período comprendido entre julio del 2020 y junio del 2021, en el marco del Plan Estratégico de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud 2020-2025. Este informe, cuyo tema central es "Seguir trabajando para superar la pandemia de COVID-19", abarca el período más difícil que la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) haya tenido que enfrentar jamás. La pandemia, y sus devastadoras consecuencias en los ámbitos de la economía y la salud, ha tenido un impacto profundo en la vida y los medios de subsistencia de las personas, y ha causado graves trastornos en los países, la sociedad, la economía y el desarrollo. Esto ha ocurrido a la par de los desafíos inevitables en el camino hacia un desarrollo equitativo y sostenible, y hacia el logro de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible fijados para el 2030 y los objetivos de la Agenda de Salud Sostenible para las Américas 2018-2030.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Pandemias , Epidemias , Controle de Infecções , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Estratégias de Saúde Globais , Estratégias de Saúde Globais
13.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-9246

RESUMO

Grabado durante el encuentro de Ulysses Panisset con estudiantes del Diploma de Salud Internacional de la Escuela de Gobierno en Salud Floreal Ferrara de la Provincia de Buenos y la Universidad Nacional de José C. Paz, que se suma a la Semana de la Salud internacional organizada por la misma Diplomatura. Ulysses Panisset es profesor de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Minas Gerais y miembro del Comité Científico de Salud Reproductiva de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Médico sanitarista, profesor e investigador, es doctorado en Relaciones Internacionales de la Universidad Johns Hopkins, y autor de una vasta obra de referencia sobre política exterior, salud pública y construcción de un sistema de salud internacional, En la siguiente entrevista, Ulises nos presenta sus opinión certera y autorizada sobre la pandemia, las vacunas, la salud colectiva, la cooperación y la salud internacional, entre otros temas


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Estratégias de Saúde Globais , Cooperação Internacional , Sistemas Nacionais de Saúde , COVID-19
14.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-9234

RESUMO

Adriana Rossi (Doctora en Filosofía. Especialista en Geopolítica del narcotráfico y los conflictos armados), José Carlos Escudero (Médico sanitarista, Diplomado en Estadísticas de Salud y Magíster en Sociología. Profesor de la UNLu y de la UNLP.) y Jorge Rachid (Médico. Profesor en Ciencias Sociales en la UNLZ. Integrante del Instituto Patria Salud y del Movimiento "Primero la Patria"), moderados por Giglio Prado (Asesor de la presidencia del IOMA. Docente de la UNPaz) abren el debate sobre los cambios geopolíticos a partir de la pandemia de Covid-19, en el marco de la Semana de la Salud internacional, organizada por la Escuela de Gobierno en Salud Floreal Ferrara de la Provincia de Buenos Aires y la Universidad Nacional de José C. Paz


Assuntos
COVID-19/economia , Pandemias , Estratégias de eSaúde , Sistemas Políticos , Estratégias de Saúde Globais , Saúde Global
15.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(8): 1107-1116, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516418

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: National strategies to control COVID-19 pandemic consisted mostly of social distancing measures such as lockdowns, curfews, and stay-home guidelines, personal protection such as hand hygiene and mask wearing, as well as contact tracing, isolation and quarantine. Whilst policy interventions were broadly similar across the globe, there were some differences in individual and community responses. This study explored community responses to COVID-19 containment measures in different countries and synthesized a model. This exaplains the community response to pandemic containment measures in the local context, so as to be suitably prepared for future interventions and research. METHODOLOGY: A mutlinational study was conducted from April-June 2020 involving researchers from 12 countries (Japan, Austria, U.S., Taiwan, India, Sudan, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Myanmar, Vietnam and Thailand). Steps in this research consisted of carrying out open-ended questionnaires, qualitative analyses in NVivo, and a multinational meeting to reflect, exchange, and validate results. Lastly, a commuinty response model was synthesized from multinational experiences. RESULTS: Effective communication is key in promoting collective action for preventing virus transmission. Health literacy, habits and social norms in different populations are core components of public health interventions. To enable people to stay home while sustaining livelihoods, economic and social support are essential. Countries could benefit from previous pandemic experience in their community response. Whilst contact tracing and isolation are crucial intervention components, issues of privacy and human rights need to be considered. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding community responses to containment policies will help in ending current and future pandemics in the world.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Internacionalidade , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Busca de Comunicante , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Pública/métodos , Quarentena
16.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-09-22. (PAHO/EIH/KM/21-025).
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54870

RESUMO

The Region of the Americas has benefited from the support of collaborating centres (CCs) of the World Health Organization (WHO) since 1950. Since then, CCs have supported the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) in several technical areas, such as nursing, communicable diseases, health promotion, information systems for health, mental health, emergency response, and many others. PAHO has worked to ensure that CC work plans are aligned with the regional priorities and mandates agreed upon by its Member States. This alignment ensures high-quality support from CCs to improve the technical cooperation provided by PAHO to the Member States. In addition, it assures that this collaborative work is linked to the Organization’s response to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In April 2021, PAHO convened all 183 CCs located in the Region for a webinar with the overall goal of recognizing the importance of CCs in achieving the SDGs. It also aimed to showcase the importance of international cooperation during challenging times, as experienced with COVID-19. The webinar was a starting point for PAHO to reengage with CCs. It included the participation of Executive Management, department directors, PAHO/WHO Representatives, and key PAHO personnel. This report provides an overview of the panel discussions and key recommendations made by participants to improve the technical relationships between PAHO and CCs. Addressing the recommendations stemming from this webinar and the previous evaluations will prove to be an important building block toward advancing the CC mechanism and PAHO technical cooperation.


Assuntos
Cooperação Técnica , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Estratégias de Saúde Globais , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Promoção da Saúde , Sistemas de Informação , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde , Emergências , Saúde Mental , Enfermagem , América , Região do Caribe
17.
Diagn. tratamento ; 26(3): 130-6, jul-set. 2021. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291207

RESUMO

Contextualização: A pandemia do novo coronavírus causou até o momento cerca de 3 milhões de mortes no mundo e mudanças significativas na rotina da população. O distanciamento social, o uso de máscaras e as restrições gerais são preconizadas pelos governos como estratégias primárias obrigatórias não medicamentosas, que devem ser incorporadas à sociedade por muito tempo. Objetivo: O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a eficácia das estratégias governamentais não medicamentosas para COVID­19. Desenho de estudo: Trata­se de scoping review. Metodologia: Procedeu­se à busca por estudos no Medline/PubMed, na Cochrane Library e na EMBASE. Foram utilizados descritores do DECS e não houve restrição geográfica e temporal das publicações. Os critérios de inclusão envolveram estudos em humanos abrangendo a exposição às estratégias governamentais não medicamentosas, sendo prioridade o distanciamento social, o uso de máscaras e o lockdown. Resultados: A estratégia de busca recuperou 377 citações e, destas, 10 estudos foram incluídos nessa revisão. Discussão: A maioria dos estudos envolve estudos observacionais e sugerem que o distanciamento social, o lockdown e o uso de máscaras faciais podem reduzir a incidência de novos casos de COVID­19. Conclusão: As estratégias de distanciamento físico, de lockdown e o uso de máscaras faciais apresentaram resultado benéfico na maioria dos estudos analisados, contribuindo para a redução de novos casos de COVID­19.


Assuntos
Estratégias de Saúde Nacionais , Prevenção de Doenças , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Distanciamento Físico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Máscaras , Eficácia
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444371

RESUMO

The multitude of national strategies used against the COVID-19 pandemic makes it necessary to review and synthesize them in order to identify potential gaps and shortcomings, and to help prioritize future control efforts. This systematic mapping review is aimed at identifying the coronavirus pandemic management strategies adopted by France, Tunisia, and Germany during the early stage of the COVID-19 outbreak. A set of government websites in addition to the PubMed and Google Scholar databases were searched to identify scientific articles and institutional documents related to the national strategies of the three countries up until July 2020. The references included were mapped and narratively synthesized based on the pillars of the Monitoring and Evaluation Framework of the Strategic Preparedness and Response Plan defined by the World Health Organization. Of the 2765 records screened, 65 documents were included in the study. The analysis of these documents showed that Germany was the first country to implement mass screening of cases and that France was the first country to implement measures to impose general containment at the national level. It also showed that Tunisia was the only country to have imposed the confinement of passengers on repatriation flights in dedicated containment centers and at the expense of the state.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Surtos de Doenças , França/epidemiologia , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Tunísia/epidemiologia
19.
Preprint em Inglês | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21261333

RESUMO

ObjectivePublic health control measures at borders have long been central to national strategies for the prevention and containment of infectious diseases. Travel was inevitably associated with the rapid global transmission of COVID-19. In the UK, public health authorities took action to reduce risks of travel-associated spread by providing public health information at ports of entry. This study aims to understand individual risk assessment processes, decision making, and adherence to official advice among international travellers; to provide evidence to inform future policy on the presentation of public health information to facilitate safer international travel. Study designThis study is a qualitative study evaluation. MethodSemi-structured interviews were conducted to investigate risk assessment processes, decision making, and adherence to official Public Health England (PHE) advice among travellers. ResultsParticipants regarded official advice as adequate at the time, despite observing differences between the intervention measures implemented in the countries of departure. Participants however also described adopting precautionary measures including self-isolation and the use of face coverings that went beyond official advice, and variability in the extent to which they adhered to guidance on contacting health authorities. Adherence to official guidance was informed by the perceived salience of specific transmission possibilities and containment measures assessed in relation to participants social and institutional environments. ConclusionAnalysis of travellers reported motivations demonstrates that responses to public health advice constitute a proactive process of risk assessment and rationalised decision-making that incorporates consideration of living situation, trust in information sources, correspondence with cultural logics, and willingness to accept potential risk to self and significant others in guiding preventive action. Our findings concerning international passengers understanding of, and compliance with, official advice and mitigation measures provide valuable evidence to inform future policy and we provide recommendations on the presentation of public health information to facilitate safer international travel. Access to a central source of regularly updated official information would help minimise confusion between different national guidelines. Greater attention to the differentiated information needs of diverse groups in creating future public-facing guidance would help to minimise the uncertainties generated by receipt of generic information.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299929

RESUMO

The unprecedented outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has forced governments to devise national strategies to curtail its spread. The present study analyzes the national strategies of India and the United States for the COVID-19 vaccine roll out. The paper presents an ontology of COVID-19 vaccine roll out, maps the national strategies, identifies, analyzes the emphases and gaps in them, and proposes corrections to the same. The analysis shows that the national strategies are selective in their focus and siloed in their approach. They must be systematized to address the emerging challenges effectively. Thus, there is need for a systemic understanding and analysis to reinforce the effective pathways to manage vaccine roll out, reposition the ineffective ones, and engineer new ones through feedback and learning.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...