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1.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2964, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580638

RESUMO

The high sequencing error rate has impeded the application of long noisy reads for diploid genome assembly. Most existing assemblers failed to generate high-quality phased assemblies using long noisy reads. Here, we present PECAT, a Phased Error Correction and Assembly Tool, for reconstructing diploid genomes from long noisy reads. We design a haplotype-aware error correction method that can retain heterozygote alleles while correcting sequencing errors. We combine a corrected read SNP caller and a raw read SNP caller to further improve the identification of inconsistent overlaps in the string graph. We use a grouping method to assign reads to different haplotype groups. PECAT efficiently assembles diploid genomes using Nanopore R9, PacBio CLR or Nanopore R10 reads only. PECAT generates more contiguous haplotype-specific contigs compared to other assemblers. Especially, PECAT achieves nearly haplotype-resolved assembly on B. taurus (Bison×Simmental) using Nanopore R9 reads and phase block NG50 with 59.4/58.0 Mb for HG002 using Nanopore R10 reads.


Assuntos
Diploide , Nanoporos , Alelos , Haplótipos , Heterozigoto , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos
2.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 56(2): 352-356, 2024 Apr 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38595257

RESUMO

The Rh blood grouping system is a critical standardized test in transfusion medicine, especially for the cases related to haemolytic transfusion reactions and neonatal haemolytic disease caused by clinical RhD blood group incompatibility. In the present case report, we presented two cases with the uncommon RHD gene variation RHD*DEL37. The blood samples of the two subjects were mistakenly identified as RhD-negative through conventional serological testing. Firstly, both blood samples were tested negative for the RhD antigen using traditional tube test and gel microcolumn methods. The phenotyping of RhCE were identified as ccEe and ccee for each sample, respectively. Secondly, genetic analysis was performed using polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific prime (PCR-SSP) which revealed that neither sample belonging to the several common RHD gene variants which was found in Asia. Moreover, they turned out to be positive for the RHD haplotype, which indicated that exons 1-10 on one of the RHD alleles were entirely absent. In addition, a T>C mutation was observed at bases 1154-31 in intron 8 of the other allele, which was located at the intron 8 breakpoint. This result was obtained after further Sanger sequencing of exons 1-10 of the RHD gene. The mutant allele was designated as RHD*DEL37 by the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) and was identified as D-elute(Del) by phenotype ana-lysis. Both samples were genotyped as RHD*DEL37 and showed positive results. In summary, the true genotype of the two blood samples, of which the screening results only using serological testing method was negative, were RHD*DEL37 /RHD-(RHD*01N.01). Notably, this kind of genotype was reported for the first time in Chinese population. Moreover, the two individuals did not have ties of consanguinity, indicating that some of the Chinese individuals could be carriers of the genetic mutation. Therefore, it might be necessary to further confirm the frequency of this mutation in the Chinese population and the possibility of homozygosity for this mutation. This report identifies infrequent RHD gene mutation samples by coupling molecular biology and serological methods to prevent misclassification of blood groups. Combining serological and molecular biology test results to determine blood group is critical in protecting patients during clinical transfusion procedures.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Grupos Sanguíneos , Sistema do Grupo Sanguíneo Rh-Hr , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Sistema do Grupo Sanguíneo Rh-Hr/genética , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Alelos , Biologia Molecular
3.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0299525, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598526

RESUMO

While combinatorial genetic data collection from biological systems in which quantitative phenotypes are controlled by active and inactive alleles of multiple genes (multi-gene systems) is becoming common, a standard analysis method for such data has not been established. The currently common approaches have three major drawbacks. First, although it is a long tradition in genetics, modeling the effect of an inactive allele (a null mutant allele) contrasted against that of the active allele (the wild-type allele) is not suitable for mechanistic understanding of multi-gene systems. Second, a commonly-used additive model (ANOVA with interaction) mathematically fails in estimation of interactions among more than two genes when the phenotypic response is not linear. Third, interpretation of higher-order interactions defined by an additive model is not intuitive. I derived an averaging model based on algebraic principles to solve all these problems within the framework of a general linear model. In the averaging model: the effect of the active allele is contrasted against the effect of the inactive allele for easier mechanistic interpretations; there is mathematical stability in estimation of higher-order interactions even when the phenotypic response is not linear; and interpretations of higher-order interactions are intuitive and consistent-interactions are defined as the mean effects of the last active genes added to the system. Thus, the key outcomes of this study are development of the averaging model, which is suitable for analysis of multi-gene systems, and a new, intuitive, and mathematically and interpretationally consistent definition of a genetic interaction, which is central to the averaging model.


Assuntos
Gravidez Múltipla , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Fenótipo , Alelos
4.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 53(2): 229-236, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604958

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of polymorphisms in SEC16B rs633715, DNAJC27 rs713586, FTO rs11642015 and MC4R rs6567160 with overweight and obesity in Han Chinese preschool children. METHODS: A total of 749 Han Chinese preschool children from Henan and Guizhou Province of Long-term Health Effects Assessment Project of Infants and Toddlers Nutritional Pack were selected for the study and divided into an overweight and obese group and a normal control group in 2022. rs633715, rs713586, rs11642015 and rs6567160 were genotyped using Kompetitive allele-specific PCR(KASP) technology. The distribution of genotypic polymorphisms was compared using the χ~2 test. The association between the four loci and overweight and obesity in preschool children was analyzed using a multifactorial logistic regression model. RESULTS: The statistical analysis revealed a significant disparity(P<0.05) in the distribution of genotypic polymorphisms of rs633715 and rs6567160 among preschoolers in Henan and Guizhou Province. CC heterozygous mutant and recessive models at rs633715 locus were associated with susceptibility to overweight and obesity in preschool children [OR and 95% CI 2.915(1.163-7.305), and 2.997(1.226-7.323), respectively, both P<0.05]. TC heterozygous mutant and dominant models at rs713586 locus were also associated susceptibility to overweight and obesity in preschool children(OR and 95% CI were 2.362(1.054-5.289)and 2.362(1.054-5.289), respectively, both P<0.05). rs11642015 and rs6567160 loci were not associated with susceptibility to overweight and obesity in preschool children(P>0.05). The result of the analysis of the cumulative effect of rs633715 and rs713586 showed that the number of genotypes carrying the risk genotype was positively associated with the risk of overweight and obesity in preschool children(P_(trend)<0.01). CONCLUSION: Among Han Chinese preschool children, SEC16B rs633715 and DNAJC27 rs713586 were associated with susceptibility to overweight and obesity in preschool children. Moreover, rs633715 and rs713586 had a cumulative effect on susceptibility to overweight and obesity in preschool children, the number of risk genotypes carried was positively associated with childhood overweight and obesity risk.


Assuntos
Sobrepeso , Obesidade Pediátrica , Lactente , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Sobrepeso/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Obesidade Pediátrica/genética , Genótipo , Alelos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Índice de Massa Corporal , Receptor Tipo 4 de Melanocortina/genética , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética
5.
Brain Behav ; 14(4): e3437, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38616334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 15q11-q13 region is a genetic locus with genes subject to genomic imprinting, significantly influencing neurodevelopment. Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon that causes differential gene expression based on the parent of origin. In most diploid organisms, gene expression typically involves an equal contribution from both maternal and paternal alleles, shaping the phenotype. Nevertheless, in mammals, including humans, mice, and marsupials, the functional equivalence of parental alleles is not universally maintained. Notably, during male and female gametogenesis, parental alleles may undergo differential marking or imprinting, thereby modifying gene expression without altering the underlying DNA sequence. Neurodevelopmental disorders, such as Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) (resulting from the absence of paternally expressed genes in this region), Angelman syndrome (AS) (associated with the absence of the maternally expressed UBE3A gene), and 15q11-q13 duplication syndrome (resulting from the two common forms of duplications-either an extra isodicentric 15 chromosome or an interstitial 15 duplication), are the outcomes of genetic variations in this imprinting region. METHODS: Conducted a genomic study to identify the frequency of pathogenic variants impacting the 15q11-q13 region in an ethnically homogenous population from Bangladesh. Screened all known disorders from the DECIPHER database and identified variant enrichment within this cohort. Using the Horizon analysis platform, performed enrichment analysis, requiring at least >60% overlap between a copy number variation and a disorder breakpoint. Deep clinical phenotyping was carried out through multiple examination sessions to evaluate a range of clinical symptoms. RESULTS: This study included eight individuals with clinically suspected PWS/AS, all previously confirmed through chromosomal microarray analysis, which revealed chromosomal breakpoints within the 15q11-q13 region. Among this cohort, six cases (75%) exhibited variable lengths of deletions, whereas two cases (25%) showed duplications. These included one type 2 duplication, one larger atypical duplication, one shorter type 2 deletion, one larger type 1 deletion, and four cases with atypical deletions. Furthermore, thorough clinical assessments led to the diagnosis of four PWS patients, two AS patients, and two individuals with 15q11-q13 duplication syndrome. CONCLUSION: Our deep phenotypic observations identified a spectrum of clinical features that overlap and are unique to PWS, AS, and Dup15q syndromes. Our findings establish genotype-phenotype correlation for patients impacted by variable structural variations within the 15q11-q13 region.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Angelman , Síndrome de Prader-Willi , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Animais , Camundongos , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Alelos , Síndrome de Angelman/genética , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/genética , Bangladesh , Mamíferos
6.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 28(6): 2168-2178, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38567579

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D has been demonstrated to play a protective role in carcinogenesis. Polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) genes and 24-α-hydroxylase (encoded by CYP24A1) may affect the outcome of some cancers. This study examines the effects of the VDR gene and CYP24A1 single nucleotide polymorphisms on the outcome of supraglottic larynx cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients diagnosed with supraglottic larynx cancer between 2017 and 2022 were enrolled. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the VDR gene (rs2228570, rs731236, rs7975232, rs11574113, rs11168267 and rs11168266) and CYP24A1 gene (rs4809960, rs6022999, rs6068816, rs2259735 and rs2296241) were investigated. All patients were followed up for any evidence of local recurrence, regional recurrence, distant metastasis, and second primary tumor development. Cox regression analysis was performed to evaluate the prognostic value of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analysis. RESULTS: 87 patients were included. The mean follow-up time was 45.02±24.47 months. Cox regression analysis for locoregional recurrence revealed that the hazard ratio of rs731236 GG was 2.098 (95% CI, range: 1.047-4.202, p=0.037). Locoregional recurrence for rs731236 AA, AG, and GG were 38.6%, 23.1%, and 53.3%, respectively. In the presence of rs731236 GG polymorphism, disease-specific survival was significantly shorter (47.63±7.48 months, p=0.015), and disease-free survival (45.71±6.3 months) was significantly shorter (p=0.040). Rates of metastases and second primary tumors were not significantly different between SNPs. CONCLUSIONS: This study has demonstrated the possible effects of VDR rs731236 SNP on the locoregional recurrence and prognosis of supraglottic larynx cancer.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Laríngeas , Humanos , Genótipo , Neoplasias Laríngeas/genética , Vitamina D3 24-Hidroxilase/genética , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética , Frequência do Gene , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos de Casos e Controles
7.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 28(6): 2430-2463, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38567606

RESUMO

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has continuously been the greatest epidemic for humanity over a period spanning almost five decades. With no specific cure or treatment available to date despite extensive research, the C-C Chemokine Receptor 5, Delta 32 (CCR5 Δ32) allele genetic point mutation plays an imperative role in the prevention of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This comprehensive study aims to review the induction of the homozygous recessive deletion genotype using the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats, Cas 9 Enzyme (CRISPR-Cas9), and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation under positive selection pressure for active immunity in seropositive patients' populations as the phenotype. A methodology is proposed to trigger a significant increase in the expression of Delta 32 beneficial mutant alleles within controlled modern healthcare facilities utilizing totipotent stem cells through somatic gene therapy. It acts upon two dysfunctional CCR5 genes, translating mutant G protein-coupled co-receptors, whose primary function is similar to that of C-X-C Motif Chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), by blocking the entry of viral RNA into the CD4+ T helper lymphocytes, halting infection and seizing viral life cycle. This modification is endemic in Northern Europe, where it naturally pertains to the Caucasian descent population samples in the form of polymorphism, p (X=0.01), where X is the probability of frequency of complete immunity against HIV-1 in population samples. The epigenetics of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) are analyzed as they play a significant role in immunity distribution. Furthermore, a comparative analysis within the ethical boundaries of CRISPR-Cas9 is conducted to discuss the practical aspects and challenges of the presented methodologies and treatment alternatives. Additionally, the study assembles all available data and summarizes preexisting research while providing a promising solution to this ethical dilemma. Finally, a methodology is devised to answer the question of whether the variant-specific epidemic of AIDS caused by HIV-1 can be cured via artificially inducing immunity by CRISPR-Cas9.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , Humanos , HIV-1/genética , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/genética , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/terapia , Infecções por HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Receptores CCR5/genética , Receptores CCR5/metabolismo , Mutação , Terapia Genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Frequência do Gene
8.
HLA ; 103(4): e15455, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575370

RESUMO

Prolonging the lifespan of transplanted organs is critical to combat the shortage of this life-saving resource. Chronic rejection, with irreversible demise of the allograft, is often caused by the development of donor-specific HLA antibodies. Currently, enumerating molecular (amino acid) mismatches between recipient and donor is promoted to identify patients at higher risk of developing HLA antibodies, for use in organ allocation, and immunosuppression-minimization strategies. We have counseled against the incorporation of such approaches into clinical use and hypothesized that not all molecular mismatches equally contribute to generation of donor-specific immune responses. Herein, we document statistical shortcomings in previous study design: for example, use of individuals who lack the ability to generate donor-specific-antibodies (HLA identical) as part of the negative cohort. We provide experimental evidence, using CRISPR-Cas9-edited cells, to rebut the claim that the HLAMatchmaker eplets represent "functional epitopes." We further used unique sub-cohorts of patients, those receiving an allograft with two HLA-DQ mismatches yet developing antibodies only to one mismatch (2MM1DSA), to interrogate differential immunogenicity. Our results demonstrate that mismatches of DQα05-heterodimers exhibit the highest immunogenicity. Additionally, we demonstrate that the DQα chain critically contributes to the overall qualities of DQ molecules. Lastly, our data proposes that an augmented risk to develop donor-specific HLA-DQ antibodies is dependent on qualitative (evolutionary and functional) divergence between recipient and donor, rather than the mere number of molecular mismatches. Overall, we propose an immunological mechanistic rationale to explain differential HLA-DQ immunogenicity, with potential ramifications for other pathological processes such as autoimmunity and infections.


Assuntos
Isoanticorpos , Transplante de Órgãos , Humanos , Alelos , Teste de Histocompatibilidade , Antígenos HLA-DQ/genética , Rejeição de Enxerto/genética
9.
Genome Med ; 16(1): 46, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584274

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome sequencing of large biobanks from under-represented ancestries provides a valuable resource for the interrogation of Mendelian disease burden at world population level, complementing small-scale familial studies. METHODS: Here, we interrogate 6045 whole genomes from Qatar-a Middle Eastern population with high consanguinity and understudied mutational burden-enrolled at the national Biobank and phenotyped for 58 clinically-relevant quantitative traits. We examine a curated set of 2648 Mendelian genes from 20 panels, annotating known and novel pathogenic variants and assessing their penetrance and impact on the measured traits. RESULTS: We find that 62.5% of participants are carriers of at least 1 known pathogenic variant relating to recessive conditions, with homozygosity observed in 1 in 150 subjects (0.6%) for which Peninsular Arabs are particularly enriched versus other ancestries (5.8-fold). On average, 52.3 loss-of-function variants were found per genome, 6.5 of which affect a known Mendelian gene. Several variants annotated in ClinVar/HGMD as pathogenic appeared at intermediate frequencies in this cohort (1-3%), highlighting Arab founder effect, while others have exceedingly high frequencies (> 5%) prompting reconsideration as benign. Furthermore, cumulative gene burden analysis revealed 56 genes having gene carrier frequency > 1/50, including 5 ACMG Tier 3 panel genes which would be candidates for adding to newborn screening in the country. Additionally, leveraging 58 biobank traits, we systematically assess the impact of novel/rare variants on phenotypes and discover 39 candidate large-effect variants associating with extreme quantitative traits. Furthermore, through rare variant burden testing, we discover 13 genes with high mutational load, including 5 with impact on traits relevant to disease conditions, including metabolic disorder and type 2 diabetes, consistent with the high prevalence of these conditions in the region. CONCLUSIONS: This study on the first phase of the growing Qatar Genome Program cohort provides a comprehensive resource from a Middle Eastern population to understand the global mutational burden in Mendelian genes and their impact on traits in seemingly healthy individuals in high consanguinity settings.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Frequência do Gene , Fenótipo , Homozigoto
10.
Zoolog Sci ; 41(2): 230-243, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587918

RESUMO

The insulin/insulin-like growth factor-like signaling (IIS) pathway is highly conserved across metazoans and regulates numerous physiological functions, including development, metabolism, fecundity, and lifespan. The insulin receptor (InR), a crucial membrane receptor in the IIS pathway, is known to be ubiquitously expressed in various tissues, albeit at generally low levels, and its subcellular localization remains incompletely characterized. In this study, we employed CRISPR-mediated mutagenesis in the fruit fly Drosophila to create knock-in alleles of InR tagged with fluorescent proteins (InR::mCherry or InR::EYFP). By inserting the coding sequence of the fluorescent proteins mCherry or EYFP near the end of the coding sequence of the endogenous InR gene, we could trace the natural InR protein through their fluorescence. As an example, we investigated epithelial cells of the male accessory gland (AG), an internal reproductive organ, and identified two distinct patterns of InR::mCherry localization. In young AG, InR::mCherry accumulated on the basal plasma membrane between cells, whereas in mature AG, it exhibited intracellular localization as multiple puncta, indicating endocytic recycling of InR during cell growth. In the AG senescence accelerated by the mutation of Diuretic hormone 31 (Dh31), the presence of InR::mCherry puncta was more pronounced compared to the wild type. These findings raise expectations for the utility of the newly created InR::mCherry/EYFP alleles for studying the precise expression levels and subcellular localization of InR. Furthermore, this fluorescently tagged allele approach can be extended to investigate other membrane receptors with low abundance, facilitating the direct examination of their true expression and localization.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila , Drosophila melanogaster , Masculino , Animais , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Receptor de Insulina/genética , Receptor de Insulina/metabolismo , Alelos , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila
11.
HLA ; 103(1): e15222, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589051

RESUMO

Assessing donor/recipient HLA compatibility at the eplet level requires second field DNA typings but these are not always available. These can be estimated from lower-resolution data either manually or with computational tools currently relying, at best, on data containing typing ambiguities. We gathered NGS typing data from 61,393 individuals in 17 French laboratories, for loci A, B, and C (100% of typings), DRB1 and DQB1 (95.5%), DQA1 (39.6%), DRB3/4/5, DPB1, and DPA1 (10.5%). We developed HaploSFHI, a modified iterative maximum likelihood algorithm, to impute second field HLA typings from low- or intermediate-resolution ones. Compared with the reference tools HaploStats, HLA-EMMA, and HLA-Upgrade, HaploSFHI provided more accurate predictions across all loci on two French test sets and four European-independent test sets. Only HaploSFHI could impute DQA1, and solely HaploSFHI and HaploStats provided DRB3/4/5 imputations. The improved performance of HaploSFHI was due to our local and nonambiguous data. We provided explanations for the most common imputation errors and pinpointed the variability of a low number of low-resolution haplotypes. We thus provided guidance to select individuals for whom sequencing would optimize incompatibility assessment and cost-effectiveness of HLA typing, considering not only well-imputed second field typing(s) but also well-imputed eplets.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Doadores de Tecidos , Humanos , Alelos , Haplótipos , Teste de Histocompatibilidade , Antígenos HLA/genética , Frequência do Gene
12.
Neuromolecular Med ; 26(1): 11, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592597

RESUMO

Suicide is a global public health issue, with a particularly high incidence in individuals suffering from Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). The role of cholesterol in suicide risk remains controversial, prompting investigations into genetic markers that may be implicated. This study examines the association between CYP46A1 polymorphisms, specifically SNPs rs754203 and rs4900442, and suicide risk in a Mexican MDD patient cohort. Our study involved 188 unrelated suicide death victims, 126 MDD patients, and 144 non-suicidal controls. Genotypic and allelic frequencies were assessed using the Real Time-polymerase chain reaction method, and associations with suicide risk were evaluated using chi-square tests. The study revealed significant differences in allelic and genotypic frequencies in rs754203 SNP between suicide death and controls. The CYP46A1 rs754203 genotype G/G was significantly linked with suicide, and the G allele was associated with a higher risk of suicide (OR = 1.370, 95% CI = 1.002-1.873). However, we did not observe any significant differences in genotype distribution or allele frequencies of CYP46A1 rs4900442. Our study suggests that carriers of the CYP46A1 rs754203 G allele (A/G + G/G) may play a role in suicidal behavior, especially in males. Our findings support that the CYP46A1 gene may be involved in susceptibility to suicide, which has not been investigated previously. These results underscore the importance of further research in different populations to elucidate the genetic underpinnings of the role of CYP46A1 in suicide risk and to develop targeted interventions for at-risk populations.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Suicídio , Masculino , Humanos , Colesterol 24-Hidroxilase , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Frequência do Gene , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
13.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2797: 351-362, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570472

RESUMO

KRAS mutations occur in approximately ~50% of colorectal cancers (CRCs) and are associated with poor prognosis and resistance to therapy. While these most common mutations found at amino acids G12, G13, Q61, and A146 have long been considered oncogenic drivers of CRC, emerging clinical data suggest that each mutation may possess different biological functions, resulting in varying consequences in oncogenesis. Currently, the mechanistic underpinnings associated with each allelic variation remain unclear. Elucidating the unique effectors of each KRAS mutant could both increase the understanding of KRAS biology and provide a basis for allele-specific therapeutic opportunities. Biotinylation identification (BioID) is a method to label and identify proteins located in proximity of a protein of interest. These proteins are captured through the strong interaction between the biotin label and streptavidin bead and subsequently identified by mass spectrometry. Here, we developed a protocol using CRISPR-mediated gene editing to generate endogenous BioID2-tagged KrasG12D and KrasG12V isogenic murine colon epithelial cell lines to identify unique protein proximity partners by BioID.


Assuntos
Genes ras , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras) , Animais , Camundongos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Alelos , Biotina/química , Estreptavidina , Mutação
14.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 329, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566035

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previously, a novel multiplex system of 64 loci was constructed based on capillary electrophoresis platform, including 59 autosomal insertion/deletions (A-InDels), two Y-chromosome InDels, two mini short tandem repeats (miniSTRs), and an Amelogenin gene. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficiencies of this multiplex system for individual identification, paternity testing and biogeographic ancestry inference in Chinese Hezhou Han (CHH) and Hubei Tujia (CTH) groups, providing valuable insights for forensic anthropology and population genetics research. RESULTS: The cumulative values of power of discrimination (CDP) and probability of exclusion (CPE) for the 59 A-InDels and two miniSTRs were 0.99999999999999999999999999754, 0.99999905; and 0.99999999999999999999999999998, 0.99999898 in CTH and CHH groups, respectively. When the likelihood ratio thresholds were set to 1 or 10, more than 95% of the full sibling pairs could be identified from unrelated individual pairs, and the false positive rates were less than 1.2% in both CTH and CHH groups. Biogeographic ancestry inference models based on 35 populations were constructed with three algorithms: random forest, adaptive boosting and extreme gradient boosting, and then 10-fold cross-validation analyses were applied to test these three models with the average accuracies of 86.59%, 84.22% and 87.80%, respectively. In addition, we also investigated the genetic relationships between the two studied groups with 33 reference populations using population statistical methods of FST, DA, phylogenetic tree, PCA, STRUCTURE and TreeMix analyses. The present results showed that compared to other continental populations, the CTH and CHH groups had closer genetic affinities to East Asian populations. CONCLUSIONS: This novel multiplex system has high CDP and CPE in CTH and CHH groups, which can be used as a powerful tool for individual identification and paternity testing. According to various genetic analysis methods, the genetic structures of CTH and CHH groups are relatively similar to the reference East Asian populations.


Assuntos
Genética Populacional , Irmãos , Humanos , Filogenia , China , Mutação INDEL , Repetições de Microssatélites , Genética Forense/métodos , Frequência do Gene
15.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 24(1): 41, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies suggested that cavefish populations of Astyanax mexicanus settled during the Late Pleistocene. This implies that the cavefish's most conspicuous phenotypic changes, blindness and depigmentation, and more cryptic characters important for cave life, evolved rapidly. RESULTS: Using the published genomes of 47 Astyanax cavefish from la Cueva de El Pachón, El Sótano de la Tinaja, La Cueva Chica and El Sótano de Molino, we searched for putative loss-of-function mutations in previously defined sets of genes, i.e., vision, circadian clock and pigmentation genes. Putative non-functional alleles for four vision genes were identified. Then, we searched genome-wide for putative non-functional alleles in these four cave populations. Among 512 genes with segregating putative non-functional alleles in cavefish that are absent in surface fish, we found an enrichment in visual perception genes. Among cavefish populations, different levels of shared putative non-functional alleles were found. Using a subset of 12 genes for which putative loss-of-function mutations were found, we extend the analysis of shared pseudogenes to 11 cave populations. Using a subset of six genes for which putative loss-of-function mutations were found in the El Sótano del Toro population, where extensive hybridization with surface fish occurs, we found a correlation between the level of eye regression and the amount of putative non-functional alleles. CONCLUSIONS: We confirm that very few putative non-functional alleles are present in a large set of vision genes, in accordance with the recent origin of Astyanax mexicanus cavefish. Furthermore, the genome-wide analysis indicates an enrichment of putative loss-of-function alleles in genes with vision-related GO-terms, suggesting that visual perception may be the function chiefly impacted by gene losses related to the shift from a surface to a cave environment. The geographic distribution of putative loss-of-function alleles newly suggests that cave populations from Sierra de Guatemala and Sierra de El Abra share a common origin, albeit followed by independent evolution for a long period. It also supports that populations from the Micos area have an independent origin. In El Sótano del Toro, the troglomorphic phenotype is maintained despite massive introgression of the surface genome.


Assuntos
Characidae , Animais , Alelos , Characidae/genética , Mutação , Cegueira/genética , Visão Ocular
16.
J Genet ; 1032024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38562039

RESUMO

The aroma in rice is the most appreciable quality trait, controlled by the loss of function of the betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (BADH2) gene. In the present study, indica rice cultivars (basmati, nonbasmati aromatic, and nonaromatic) were screened to explore allelic differences in the BADH2 gene using two functional markers (badh2-p-5'UTR and FMbadh2-E7). Notably, the results of the present mutational analysis showed that both markers confirmed a different mutation in indica rice cultivars than earlier reported japonica accessions. It was found that there is 250-bp deletion in the promoter region of aromatic Kagesali and Kalakrishna as compared to nonaromatic Kolamb. The results of FMbadh2-E7 showed 8-bp deletion and six SNPs in exon 7 of the Kalakrishna cultivar. Interestingly, the nonbasmati aromatic Lalbhat rice cultivar did not harbour any reported mutation and showed a novel BADH2 allele carrying 1-bp deletion in exon 7. Among the selected aromatic rice cultivars, eight cultivars showed mutation in the 5' UTR region and interestingly 23 rice cultivars carried the mutation in both 5' UTR and exon 7 of a BADH2 gene. The 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) biosynthesis related metabolites, enzyme assay and gene expression supported mutation in BADH2 gene and expression of 2AP in aromatic rice cultivars under study.


Assuntos
Oryza , Oryza/metabolismo , Odorantes , Alelos , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , Mutação
17.
HLA ; 103(4): e15458, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597238

RESUMO

We report data on six kidney or heart recipients who were administered daratumumab to treat or prevent antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR). To date, data are scarce concerning the use of daratumumab in solid organ transplantation and most reports show a decrease in donor-specific antigen (DSA) levels and an improvement in ABMR using a multiple myeloma daratumumab administration scheme, that is, with sequential systematic administration. Here, we report on the efficacy of daratumumab 1/ in reducing the histological signs of ABMR, 2/ in reducing the ability of DSA to bind to donor cells in vitro through negativation of flow cytometry crossmatching, 3/ in preferentially being directed towards antibodies sharing epitopes, suggesting that daratumumab may specifically target activated plasma cells, 4/ and when administered as a single dose. This last point suggests, for the first time, that, as for rituximab in auto-immune diseases, the scheme for daratumumab administration could be different for targeting DSA-producing plasma cells than for tumour cells.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais , Transplante de Rim , Humanos , Alelos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Rim , Rejeição de Enxerto , Isoanticorpos , Transplantados , Antígenos HLA
18.
Mol Biol Rep ; 51(1): 502, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer, originating in the neck's thyroid gland, encompasses various types. Genetic mutations, particularly in BRAF and RET genes are crucial in its development. This study investigates the association between BRAF (rs113488022) and RET (rs77709286) polymorphisms and thyroid cancer risk in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) population. METHODS: Blood samples from 100 thyroid cancer patients and 100 healthy controls were genotyped using ARMS-PCR followed by gel electrophoresis and statistical analysis. RESULTS: Analysis revealed a significant association between the minor allele T of BRAF (rs113488022) and thyroid cancer risk (P = 0.0001). Both genotypes of BRAF (rs113488022) showed significant associations with thyroid cancer risk (AT; P = 0.0012 and TT; P = 0.045). Conversely, the minor allele G of RET (rs77709286) exhibited a non-significant association with thyroid cancer risk (P = 0.2614), and neither genotype showed significant associations (CG; P = 0.317, GG; P = 0.651). Demographic and clinical parameters analysis using SPSS showed a non-significant association between BRAF and RET variants and age group (P = 0.878 and P = 0.536), gender (P = 0.587 and P = 0.21), tumor size (P = 0.796 and P = 0.765), or tumor localization (P = 0.689 and P = 0.727). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, this study emphasizes the significant association between BRAF polymorphism and thyroid cancer risk, while RET polymorphism showed a less pronounced impact. Further validation using larger and specific datasets is essential to establish conclusive results.


Assuntos
Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf , Sulfonas , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Uridina/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Alelos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ret/genética
19.
HLA ; 103(4): e15399, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568109

RESUMO

The novel allele HLA-B*44:48:02 differs from HLA-B*44:48:01 by one synonymous nucleotide substitution in exon 3.


Assuntos
Antígenos HLA-B , Nucleotídeos , Humanos , Alelos , Éxons/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Antígenos HLA-B/genética
20.
HLA ; 103(4): e15400, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568113

RESUMO

The novel allele HLA-C*07:02:147 differs from HLA-C*07:02:01:01 by one synonymous nucleotide substitution in exon 2.


Assuntos
Genes MHC Classe I , Antígenos HLA-C , Humanos , Antígenos HLA-C/genética , Alelos , Éxons/genética , Nucleotídeos
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