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1.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD010136, 2024 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38712714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dental pain can have a detrimental effect on quality of life. Symptomatic apical periodontitis and acute apical abscess are common causes of dental pain and arise from an inflamed or necrotic dental pulp, or infection of the pulpless root canal system. Clinical guidelines recommend that the first-line treatment for these conditions should be removal of the source of inflammation or infection by local operative measures, and that systemic antibiotics are currently only recommended for situations where there is evidence of spreading infection (cellulitis, lymph node involvement, diffuse swelling) or systemic involvement (fever, malaise). Despite this, there is evidence that dentists frequently prescribe antibiotics in the absence of these signs. There is concern that this could contribute to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. This review is the second update of the original version first published in 2014. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of systemic antibiotics provided with or without surgical intervention (such as extraction, incision and drainage of a swelling, or endodontic treatment), with or without analgesics, for symptomatic apical periodontitis and acute apical abscess in adults. SEARCH METHODS: We searched Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (26 February 2018 (discontinued)), CENTRAL (2022, Issue 10), MEDLINE Ovid (23 November 2022), Embase Ovid (23 November 2022), CINAHL EBSCO (25 November 2022) and two trials registries, and performed a grey literature search. There were no restrictions on language or date of publication. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials of systemic antibiotics in adults with a clinical diagnosis of symptomatic apical periodontitis or acute apical abscess, with or without surgical intervention (considered in this situation to be extraction, incision and drainage, or endodontic treatment) and with or without analgesics. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened the results of the searches against inclusion criteria, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We used a fixed-effect model in the meta-analysis as there were fewer than four studies. We contacted study authors to request missing information. We used GRADE criteria to assess the certainty of the evidence. MAIN RESULTS: There was one new completed trial on this topic since the last update in 2018. In total, we included three trials with 134 participants. Systemic antibiotics versus placebo with surgical intervention and analgesics for symptomatic apical periodontitis or acute apical abscess One trial (72 participants) compared the effects of a single preoperative dose of clindamycin versus a matched placebo when provided with a surgical intervention (endodontic chemo-mechanical debridement and filling) and analgesics to adults with symptomatic apical periodontitis. We assessed this study at low risk of bias. There were no differences in participant-reported pain or swelling across trial arms at any time point assessed. The median values for pain (numerical rating scale 0 to 10) were 3.0 in both groups at 24 hours (P = 0.219); 1.0 in the antibiotic group versus 2.0 in the control group at 48 hours (P = 0.242); and 0 in both groups at 72 hours and seven days (P = 0.116 and 0.673, respectively). The risk ratio of swelling when comparing preoperative antibiotic to placebo was 0.50 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.10 to 2.56; P = 0.41). The certainty of evidence for all outcomes in this comparison was low. Two trials (62 participants) compared the effects of a seven-day course of oral phenoxymethylpenicillin (penicillin VK) versus a matched placebo when provided with a surgical intervention (total or partial endodontic chemo-mechanical debridement) and analgesics to adults with acute apical abscess or symptomatic necrotic tooth. Participants in both trials also received oral analgesics. We assessed one study at high risk of bias and the other at unclear risk of bias. There were no differences in participant-reported pain or swelling at any time point assessed. The mean difference for pain (short ordinal numerical scale 0 to 3, where 0 was no pain) was -0.03 (95% CI -0.53 to 0.47) at 24 hours; 0.32 (95% CI -0.22 to 0.86) at 48 hours; and 0.08 (95% CI -0.38 to 0.54) at 72 hours. The standardised mean difference for swelling was 0.27 (95% CI -0.23 to 0.78) at 24 hours; 0.04 (95% CI -0.47 to 0.55) at 48 hours; and 0.02 (95% CI -0.49 to 0.52) at 72 hours. The certainty of evidence for all the outcomes in this comparison was very low. Adverse effects, as reported in two studies, were diarrhoea (one participant in the placebo group), fatigue and reduced energy postoperatively (one participant in the antibiotic group) and dizziness preoperatively (one participant in the antibiotic group). Systemic antibiotics without surgical intervention for adults with symptomatic apical periodontitis or acute apical abscess We found no studies that compared the effects of systemic antibiotics with a matched placebo delivered without a surgical intervention for symptomatic apical periodontitis or acute apical abscess in adults. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The evidence suggests that preoperative clindamycin for adults with symptomatic apical periodontitis results in little to no difference in participant-reported pain or swelling at any of the time points included in this review when provided with chemo-mechanical endodontic debridement and filling under local anaesthesia. The evidence is very uncertain about the effect of postoperative phenoxymethylpenicillin for adults with localised apical abscess or a symptomatic necrotic tooth when provided with chemo-mechanical debridement and oral analgesics. We found no studies which compared the effects of systemic antibiotics with a matched placebo delivered without a surgical intervention for symptomatic apical periodontitis or acute apical abscess in adults.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Abscesso Periapical , Periodontite Periapical , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Adulto , Humanos , Doença Aguda , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Viés , Drenagem , Abscesso Periapical/tratamento farmacológico , Abscesso Periapical/cirurgia , Abscesso Periapical/terapia , Periodontite Periapical/tratamento farmacológico , Periodontite Periapical/cirurgia , Periodontite Periapical/terapia , Odontalgia/tratamento farmacológico
2.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 84(2): 356-358, 2024.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38683524

RESUMO

Brain abscess is a focal suppurative process produced in most cases by bacterial agents. Aggregatibacter aphrophilus is a gram-negative bacteria belonging to the HACEK group, which causes infective endocarditis, liver abscesses, among others. Brain abscesses secondary to this germ are rare and, in most cases, it is associated with contact with pets, poor dental hygiene or dental procedures. Treatment consists of drainage of the abscess (greater than 2.5 cm) combined with antibiotic therapy, ideally beta-lactams. The case of a 64-year-old male patient with no relevant history is here presented. He was admitted to the emergency service due to headache, hemianopsia of a week's duration and later tonic-clonic seizures, in whom imaging studies and culture of a brain lesion subsequently revealed a brain abscess due to A. aphrophilus. This case aims to illustrate about the rarity of this infection, because A. aphrophilus is a normal part of the oropharyngeal flora and respiratory tract, in which it rarely causes invasive bacteremia.


El absceso cerebral es un proceso supurativo focal producido en la mayoría de los casos por agentes bacterianos. Aggregatibacter aphrophilus es una bacteria gram negativa perteneciente al grupo HACEK, causante de endocarditis infecciosa, abscesos hepáticos, entre otras. Los abscesos cerebrales secundarios a este germen son infrecuentes y en la mayoría de los casos asociados a contactos con animales domésticos, pobre higiene dental o procedimientos odontológicos. El tratamiento consiste en drenaje del absceso (mayores de 2.5 cm) combinado con terapia antibiótica, idealmente betalactámicos. Se presenta el caso de un paciente varón de 64 años sin antecedentes de relevancia quien ingresó al servicio de emergencias por cuadro de cefalea, hemianopsias de una semana de evolución y posteriormente crisis tónico clónicas, en quien posteriormente en estudios imagenológicos y cultivo de lesión cerebral se arribó al diagnóstico de absceso cerebral por A. aphrophilus. Este informe tiene como objetivo ilustrar al lector sobre la rareza de esta infección, debido a que A. aphrophilus forma parte normal de la flora orofaríngea y del tracto respiratorio, en los que rara vez ocasiona bacteriemias invasivas.


Assuntos
Aggregatibacter aphrophilus , Abscesso Encefálico , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae , Abscesso Encefálico/microbiologia , Abscesso Encefálico/etiologia , Abscesso Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Abscesso Encefálico/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Aggregatibacter aphrophilus/isolamento & purificação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Drenagem
3.
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol ; 133(7): 654-657, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38682302

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the design and construction of a reproducible, low-cost, peritonsillar abscess (PTA) incision and drainage simulator and assess its impact on trainees' confidence. METHODS: The 2-part simulator we developed consisted of a manikin head with a fixed, partially open mouth and a modular PTA mold. The mold is created by injecting a lotion and water mixture into plastic bubbles, followed by silicone solidification. Neodymium magnets secure the silicone-abscess packet to the manikin's palate. The simulator was utilized during an academic otolaryngology residency training program Annual Otolaryngology Boot Camp. A self-assessment Likert scale questionnaire was used to evaluate participants' confidence before and after simulator training. Fourth-year medical students and junior (first and second year) residents who participated in the boot camp and agreed to complete the evaluation were included. RESULTS: Three medical students, 17 PGY-1, and 10 PGY-2 residents agreed to complete the evaluation. All trainees agreed the model was useful for learning skills. The overall post-training confidence Likert scores of participants, and PGY-1 residents in particular, significantly improved compared to their pre-training scores (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Our model offers an affordable and efficient training opportunity for residents to enhance their competence in managing PTAs. This approach, with its simple yet effective design and low production cost, shows potential for scalability on a broader scale.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Drenagem , Internato e Residência , Otolaringologia , Abscesso Peritonsilar , Humanos , Abscesso Peritonsilar/cirurgia , Internato e Residência/métodos , Drenagem/métodos , Otolaringologia/educação , Treinamento por Simulação/métodos , Manequins , Modelos Anatômicos , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos
4.
Curr Opin Infect Dis ; 37(3): 211-219, 2024 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38547383

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The epidemiology of brain abscess has changed in recent decades. Moreover, acute and long-term management remains challenging with high risks of mortality and neurological sequelae. This review describes recent advances in epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of brain abscess. RECENT FINDINGS: The incidence of brain abscess is increasing, especially among elderly individuals. Important predisposing conditions include dental and ear-nose-throat infections, immuno-compromise, and previous neurosurgery. Molecular-based diagnostics have improved our understanding of the involved microorganisms and oral cavity bacteria including anaerobes are the predominant pathogens. The diagnosis relies upon a combination of magnetic resonance imaging, neurosurgical aspiration or excision, and careful microbiological examinations. Local source control by aspiration or excision of brain abscess combined with long-term antimicrobials are cornerstones of treatment. Long-term management remains important and should address neurological deficits including epilepsy, timely diagnosis and management of comorbidities, and potential affective disorders. SUMMARY: A multidisciplinary approach to acute and long-term management of brain abscess remains crucial and source control of brain abscess by neurosurgery should be pursued whenever possible. Numerous aspects regarding diagnosis and treatment need clarification. Nonetheless, our understanding of this complicated infection is rapidly evolving.


Assuntos
Abscesso Encefálico , Humanos , Abscesso Encefálico/terapia , Abscesso Encefálico/diagnóstico , Abscesso Encefálico/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Incidência , Fatores de Risco
5.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 12: 23247096241239572, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38504423

RESUMO

Brain abscess is a life-threatening infection that can occur secondary to contiguous or hematogenous spread. Several underlying conditions can lead to brain abscesses, such as dental infection, otitis media, sinusitis, and immunosuppression. Esophageal perforation leading to brain abscesses is extremely rare. We report a rare case of a 32-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with progressive headaches and upper-extremity weakness. Upon further evaluation, computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple brain abscesses secondary to Streptococcus intermedius infection. The patient eventually underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), which showed a perforation in the middle third of the esophagus. This case highlights the importance of considering esophageal perforation as a predisposing condition for brain abscesses.


Assuntos
Abscesso Encefálico , Perfuração Esofágica , Infecções Estreptocócicas , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Streptococcus intermedius , Perfuração Esofágica/etiologia , Perfuração Esofágica/complicações , Abscesso Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Abscesso Encefálico/complicações , Infecções Estreptocócicas/complicações , Infecções Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
6.
Hosp Pract (1995) ; 52(1-2): 39-45, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38466020

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Retropharyngeal abscess (RPA) is an uncommon infection in older people, which usually presents with localized upper airway symptoms. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of RPA in a 69-year-old frail woman with co-morbidities, who presented atypically with delirium. She initially complained of general symptoms of malaise, body aches and general decline. Her symptoms progressed to hypoactive delirium before she started to localize her complaints to the upper airway. The delirium presentation of RPA is not commonly reported in the literature. Co-morbidities and frailty are likely to be the underlying risk factors for delirium presentation in this case. Most of the RPA cases reported in older people in the literature presented typically with localized symptoms, however these cases had lower burden of morbidities and reported no frailty. In our case report, poor mouth hygiene and dental caries were thought to be the source of infection. Early intervention with antibiotic treatment for total of four weeks resulted in a full recovery. CONCLUSION: RPA may present with delirium in older people with frailty and co-morbidities. Poor oral hygiene and dental caries, if left untreated, may progress into serious deep space neck infection.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Delírio , Idoso Fragilizado , Abscesso Retrofaríngeo , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Delírio/etiologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico
7.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 60(3)2024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38541227

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) is a primary pathogen responsible for dental abscesses, which cause inflammation and pain when trapped between the crown and soft tissues of an erupted tooth. Therefore, this study aims to use specific phages as an alternative method instead of classical treatments based on antibiotics to destroy multidrug-resistant E. faecalis bacteria for treating dental issues. Materials and Methods: In the current study, twenty-five bacterial isolates were obtained from infected dental specimens; only five had the ability to grow on bile esculin agar, and among these five, only two were described to be extensive multidrug-resistant isolates. Results: Two bacterial isolates, Enterococcus faecalis A.R.A.01 [ON797462.1] and Enterococcus faecalis A.R.A.02, were identified biochemically and through 16S rDNA, which were used as hosts for isolating specific phages. Two isolated phages were characterized through TEM imaging, which indicated that E. faecalis_phage-01 had a long and flexible tail, belonging to the family Siphoviridae, while E. faecalis_phage-02 had a contractile tail, belonging to the family Myoviridae. Genetically, two phages were identified through the PCR amplification and sequencing of the RNA ligase of Enterococcus phage vB_EfaS_HEf13, through which our phages shared 97.2% similarity with Enterococcus phage vB-EfaS-HEf13 based on BLAST analysis. Furthermore, through in silico analysis and annotations of the two phages' genomes, it was determined that a total of 69 open reading frames (ORFs) were found to be involved in various functions related to integration excision, replication recombination, repair, stability, and defense. In phage optimization, the two isolated phages exhibited a high specific host range with Enterococcus faecalis among six different bacterial hosts, where E. faecalis_phage-01 had a latent period of 30 min with 115.76 PFU/mL, while E. faecalis_phage-02 had a latent period of 25 min with 80.6 PFU/mL. They were also characterized with stability at wide ranges of pH (4-11) and temperature (10-60 °C), with a low cytotoxic effect on the oral epithelial cell line at different concentrations (1000-31.25 PFU/mL). Conclusions: The findings highlight the promise of phage therapy in dental medicine, offering a novel approach to combating antibiotic resistance and enhancing patient outcomes. Further research and clinical trials will be essential to fully understand the therapeutic potential and safety profile of these bacteriophages in human populations.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Humanos , Bacteriófagos/genética , Enterococcus faecalis/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Abscesso/terapia , Temperatura
8.
Cell Host Microbe ; 32(4): 479-488.e4, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38479393

RESUMO

The ubiquitous inflammophilic oral pathobiont Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn) is widely recognized for its strong association with inflammatory dysbiotic diseases and cancer. Fn is subdivided into four subspecies, which are historically considered functionally interchangeable in the oral cavity. To test this assumption, we analyzed patient-matched dental plaque and odontogenic abscess clinical specimens and examined whether an inflammatory environment selects for/against particular Fn subspecies. Dental plaque harbored a greater diversity of fusobacteria, with Fn. polymorphum dominating, whereas odontogenic abscesses were exceptionally biased for the largely uncharacterized organism Fn. animalis. Comparative genomic analyses revealed significant genotypic distinctions among Fn subspecies that correlate with their preferred ecological niches and support a taxonomic reassignment of each as a distinct Fusobacterium species. Despite originating as a low-abundance organism in dental plaque, Fn. animalis typically outcompetes other oral fusobacteria within the inflammatory abscess environment, which may explain its prevalence in other oral and extraoral diseases.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária , Fusobacterium nucleatum , Fusobacterium , Humanos , Fusobacterium nucleatum/genética , Abscesso , Boca
9.
Kyobu Geka ; 77(2): 146-149, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38459865

RESUMO

A 58-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with fever and neck swelling after dental treatment. He was diagnosed with a cervical abscess and underwent cervical abscess drainage, but 1 week later he developed descending necrotizing mediastinitis and was referred to our department. He underwent mediastinal and pleural drainage, but neck abscess was recured, Re-debridment of the neck abscess resulted in bleeding from right subclavian vein. The bleeding was successfully stopped with TacoSeal after L-shaped sternotomyand dissection of sternocleidomostoid muscle.


Assuntos
Mediastinite , Traumatismos Torácicos , Masculino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mediastinite/etiologia , Mediastinite/cirurgia , Abscesso/diagnóstico por imagem , Abscesso/etiologia , Abscesso/cirurgia , Veia Subclávia/diagnóstico por imagem , Veia Subclávia/cirurgia , Desbridamento , Necrose/cirurgia , Drenagem/métodos
10.
Curr Opin Pulm Med ; 30(3): 229-234, 2024 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38411181

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lung abscess is a severe and complex respiratory infection. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent publications on lung abscess, covering topics such as epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment and prevention. RECENT FINDINGS: Risk factors associated with lung abscess include structural lung disease, poor dental hygiene, and ventilator-associated pneumonia, while concerns are now raised regarding the potential of electronic cigarettes use as a risk factor. The complexity of lung abscess is reflected by the relative high number of case reports describing rare and complex cases. Early transthoracic drainage could improve in-hospital outcomes, while next-generation sequencing could become an important tool in diagnostics and future clinical studies. SUMMARY: High-quality evidence and guidelines to support treatment of lung abscess are lacking. Despite advancements, we call for prospective studies to evaluate the use of invasive procedures and antibiotic treatment regimens.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Abscesso Pulmonar , Humanos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Abscesso Pulmonar/terapia , Abscesso Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Risco
11.
Spec Care Dentist ; 44(3): 946-951, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38183165

RESUMO

AIMS: Head and neck cancer is a serious condition affecting the life of patients. Radiotherapy is commonly used to treat such conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of acute periapical abscesses (PAs) in patients who received radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data on acute PAs and oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) diagnosis with or without a history of radiation therapy (RAD) was retrieved by searching the appropriate query in the database. All cases were diagnosed for acute PAs by calibrated dentists for patients admitted to urgent care. The odds ratio (OR) for the prevalence of acute PAs and its association with a history of OPC with or without RAD were then calculated. Adjustment for comorbidities such as diabetes, smoking and gingival and periodontal diseases was also done. The prevalence of acute PAs in patients with a history of OPC was significantly higher as compared to the general hospital patient population (OR 2.92, 95%CI, p < .0001). Males were more affected than females and whites were more affected than African Americans and other ethnicities. The prevalence for PAs in patients with a history of OPC and RAD was higher and the difference in prevalence was statistically significant (OR 3.61, 95%CI, p < .0001). Whites were more affected than African Americans by more than 3.5-fold. Adjustment for diabetes comorbidly affected mainly the OPC + RAD group, however, the difference remained statistically significant. Adjustment for smoking and gingival and periodontal disease reduced the OR but the difference remained statistically different. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of acute PAs in patients with a history of OPC and RAD may suggest an association between these conditions warranting a meticulous medical and dental examination.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Abscesso Periapical , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Prevalência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Abscesso Periapical/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Idoso , Doença Aguda , Fatores de Risco , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
J Vet Dent ; 41(2): 93-105, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37050862

RESUMO

The treatment of facial abscesses of dental origin is difficult as jaw osteomyelitis in rabbits is mainly associated with a thick caseous pus that is particularly difficult to drain. Precise identification of the teeth involved in the infected site with the use of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was expected to ensure a favorable surgical treatment plan without a long-term local antibiotic strategy or local marsupialization. The first part of the study compared multi-planar reconstruction (MPR) and 3D reconstruction complemented by a maximum intensity projection filter (MIP). The surgical part of the study included rabbits with documentation of the treatment outcome for a period greater than one month after surgery and having had at least one post-operative CBCT demonstrating the achievement of surgical extraction. MPR is significantly more efficient than MIP techniques for alveolar bone (P < 10-7), spongious bone (P < 10-10) and apical elongation (P < 10-5) parameters. Nineteen of 20 surgical sites gave radiological confirmation of the success of the surgical plan. Eighteen of 20 of the abscess sites were clinically healed within one month. Seven out of 20 of the abscess sites presented evidence of one dental structure regrowth following the CBCT recheck. Two out of these seven cases presented with a concomitant persistent chronic facial fistula. Both cases healed after second-stage surgery to extract the tooth structure. The mean number of teeth extracted was 2.85, and seven of the 20 procedures included one incisor.


Assuntos
Abscesso , Osteomielite , Coelhos , Animais , Abscesso/cirurgia , Abscesso/veterinária , Extração Dentária/veterinária , Incisivo , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/veterinária , Osteomielite/cirurgia , Osteomielite/veterinária
13.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 45(2): 104140, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38070379

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore the impact that demographic and socioeconomic factors such as age, gender, race, and insurance status have on the diagnosis of retropharyngeal (RPA) and parapharyngeal abscesses (PPA) in the pediatric population. METHODS: The 2016 HCUP KID was searched for all RPA/PPA discharges using the joint ICD-10 code J39.0. Descriptive statistics, univariate, and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the relationship between demographic factors and their impact on RPA/PPA diagnosis. Results were reported with their corresponding odds ratio with a 95 % confidence interval and p-value. RESULTS: 56.4 per 100,000 weighted discharges were discharged with a diagnosis of a RPA/PPA, the average age was 5.7 years old, with a male predominance. Pediatric discharges diagnosed with a RPA/PPA were less likely to identify as Hispanic or Asian/Island Pacific. They were also less likely to be insured by Medicaid and reside in zip codes with a lower median income. CONCLUSION: The analysis of this national pediatric database demonstrated significant demographic differences in children diagnosed with RPA/PPAs. Following the multivariate analysis, children from a higher socioeconomic background and those with private insurance were more likely to be diagnosed with a RPA/PPAs. However, disparities in children's overall hospital course and complications is a potential area for future research.


Assuntos
Doenças Faríngeas , Abscesso Retrofaríngeo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Abscesso Retrofaríngeo/epidemiologia , Abscesso Retrofaríngeo/diagnóstico , Medicaid , Hispânico ou Latino , Demografia , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
J Endod ; 50(2): 120-128, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37924939

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to evaluate postoperative pain intensity following glide-path preparation using the ProGlider (PG) and WaveOne Gold Glider (WOGG) systems in asymptomatic teeth with necrotic pulp and periapical lesions. METHODS: In this randomized clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT05955742) maxillary and mandibular molars with asymptomatic apical periodontitis of 78 patients (age, 18-65 years) were included. The patients were randomly divided into 3 groups: control (n = 26), PG (n = 26), and WOGG (n = 26). All the systems were used according to the manufacturer's instructions, and all the root canal treatments were completed by a single operator within 2 sessions. Postoperative pain was assessed using a numerical rating scale at 6, 12, 18, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Analgesics administered and abscess formation were also recorded. Statistical analyses were performed using the Mann-Whitney U, Bonferroni Dunn, Friedman, Chi-square, and Fisher exact tests. RESULTS: The postoperative pain at 12 and 18 hours was lower in the WOGG group than in the other groups (P < .05). The postoperative pain scores at 6 and 24 hours were higher among women than among men (P < .05). The highest postoperative pain scores were observed at 6 hours (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: The WOGG glide-path file system was associated with less postoperative pain than the other systems. Abscess formation and analgesic use were higher in the PG group than in the other groups. Postoperative pain was greater in women than in men.


Assuntos
Abscesso , Preparo de Canal Radicular , Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Masculino , Preparo de Canal Radicular/efeitos adversos , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Dente Molar/cirurgia , Tratamento do Canal Radicular/efeitos adversos , Ouro , Cavidade Pulpar/cirurgia
15.
Biomed Mater Eng ; 35(2): 139-151, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38007638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE) cement is a popular dental material due mainly to its analgesic, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects. The formulation of ZOE cement from nano particle-sized zinc oxide (ZnO) has the potential to increase these properties as well as reduce its adverse effects to the surrounding tissues. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the subcutaneous tissue response towards nano ZOE cements (ZOE-A and ZOE-B) in comparison to conventional ZOE (ZOE-K). METHODS: Test materials were implanted into 15 New Zealand white rabbits. Tissue samples were obtained after 7, 14, and 30 days (n = 5 per period) for histopathological evaluation of inflammatory cell infiltrate, fibrous tissue condensation, and abscess formation. RESULTS: ZOE-A showed the lowest score for the variable macrophage and lymphocyte at day 7. Both ZOE-A and ZOE-B presented lower fibrous tissue condensation and abscess formation compared to conventional ZOE-K. By day 30, ZOE-A exhibited less lymphocytic and neutrophilic infiltrate compared to the other materials, while ZOE-B had the lowest score for macrophages. ZOE-K exerted higher inflammatory cell response at almost all of the experimental periods. All of the materials resulted in thin fiber condensation after 30 days. CONCLUSIONS: Rabbit tissue implanted with ZOE-A and ZOE-B showed better response compared to ZOE-K.


Assuntos
Eugenol , Óxido de Zinco , Animais , Coelhos , Tela Subcutânea , Abscesso , Cimento de Óxido de Zinco e Eugenol , Cimentos Dentários
16.
Am Surg ; 90(3): 468-470, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38009532

RESUMO

Actinomyces israelii (AI) is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium that lives commensally on and within humans as a typical colonizer within the gastrointestinal tract, including the mouth. As an opportunistic pathogen, infection often results from tissue injury or breach of the mucosal barrier (ie, during various dental or GI procedures, aspiration, or specific pathologies such as diverticulitis). Symptoms generally present slowly as a non-tender, indurated mass that evolves into multiple abscesses, fistulae, or draining sinus tracts without regard for anatomical barriers, including fascial planes or lymphatic drainage. However, it may also present as an acute suppurative infection with pain and rapid progression to abscess formation.


Assuntos
Actinomicose , Neoplasias , Humanos , Actinomicose/diagnóstico , Actinomicose/cirurgia , Abscesso
17.
J Small Anim Pract ; 65(1): 66-74, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37759337

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the signalment, history, exam findings, diagnostics, treatment and outcome of rabbits diagnosed with pyrexia and concurrent cervicofacial cellulitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective evaluation of medical records of rabbits diagnosed with cervicofacial cellulitis and pyrexia based on physical exam, contrast-enhanced CT, clinicopathology and microbiology findings. RESULTS: Six out of 1588 rabbits met the study inclusion criteria. Rabbits presented with a median age of 6 years (range, 8 months to 8 years) with a presenting complaint of anorexia or hyporexia. All rabbits had a rectal temperature >40.2°C (104.4°F). Physical exam and contrast-enhanced CT revealed unilateral submandibular and ipsilateral cervical diffuse soft tissue swelling in five of six rabbits. No antemortem evidence of periodontal or dental disease was found on physical exam or CT. Leucopenia was present in five of six rabbits. A left shift with marked toxic changes was present in all four rabbits, for which blood smears were reviewed. Bacterial cultures of the aspirated subcutaneous soft tissue swelling cultured Escherichia coli, Pasteurella multocida, Granulicatella adiacens, Streptococcus species, Haemophilus species and Bacteroides species. Treatment was pursued in five rabbits, where all rabbits received supportive care and four of five rabbits received systemic antibiotics. One rabbit was euthanased following a diagnosis of cervicofacial cellulitis. Three out of five rabbits continued to decline clinically despite medical management, and thus, euthanasia was pursued within 24 hours of starting treatment. Two rabbits responded to initial treatment and developed subsequent multi-focal abscessation. One rabbit was euthanased due to client cost constraints, and one rabbit died shortly after achieving clinical resolution of cervicofacial cellulitis. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Cervicofacial cellulitis should be considered a differential diagnosis in pyrexic rabbits with facial or cervical swelling with medical and surgical management pursued for therapy.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Celulite (Flegmão) , Coelhos , Animais , Celulite (Flegmão)/diagnóstico , Celulite (Flegmão)/tratamento farmacológico , Celulite (Flegmão)/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Abscesso/veterinária , Febre/tratamento farmacológico , Febre/veterinária
18.
Clin Infect Dis ; 78(3): 544-553, 2024 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37946527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral cavity bacteria are the most frequent etiology of brain abscess. Yet, data on the clinical presentation and outcome are scarce. METHODS: We performed a nationwide, population-based study comprising all adults (aged ≥18 years) with brain abscess due to oral cavity bacteria in Denmark from 2007 through 2020. Prognostic factors for unfavorable outcome (Glasgow outcome scale, 1-4) were examined using modified Poisson regression to compute adjusted relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Among 287 identified patients, the median age was 58 years (interquartile range, 47-66), and 96 of 287 (33%) were female. Preexisting functional impairment was absent or mild in 253 of 280 (90%), and risk factors for brain abscess included immunocompromise in 95 of 287 (33%), dental infection in 68 of 287 (24%), and ear-nose-throat infection in 33 of 287 (12%). Overall, a neurological deficit was present in 246 of 276 (86%) and in combination with headache and fever in 64 of 287 (22%). Identified microorganisms were primarily the Streptococcus anginosus group, Fusobacterium, Actinomyces, and Aggregatibacter spp., and 117 of 287 (41%) were polymicrobial. Unfavorable outcome occurred in 92 of 246 (37%) at 6 months after discharge and was associated with antibiotics before neurosurgery (RR, 3.28; 95% CI, 1.53-7.04), rupture (RR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.34-2.65), and immunocompromise (RR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.29-2.51), but not with specific targeted antibiotic regimens. Identified dental infection was associated with favorable prognosis (RR, 0.58; 95% CI, .36-.93). CONCLUSIONS: Brain abscess due to oral cavity bacteria often occurred in previously healthy individuals without predisposing dental infections. Important risk factors for unfavorable outcome were rupture and immunocompromise. However, outcome was not associated with specific antibiotic regimens supporting carbapenem-sparing strategies.


Assuntos
Abscesso Encefálico , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Estudos de Coortes , Abscesso Encefálico/tratamento farmacológico , Abscesso Encefálico/epidemiologia , Abscesso Encefálico/microbiologia , Bactérias , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Boca
19.
Am J Emerg Med ; 75: 199.e1-199.e4, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37230847

RESUMO

Abiotrophia defectiva is a pathogen of the oral, gastrointestinal, and urinary tracts that can cause significant systemic disease with uniquely negative blood cultures depending on the growth medium. Prior cases note possible seeding from relatively common procedures such as routine dental work and prostate biopsies, however case literature describes prior infectious complications to include infective endocarditis, brain abscess formation, and spondylodiscitis. While prior cases describe some aspects of these presentations, we highlight a case of a 64-year-old male who presented to the emergency department (ED) f5or acute onset of low back pain with fever symptoms four days after an outpatient transrectal ultrasound-guided needle biopsy of the prostate, with a prior dental extraction described four weeks prior to arrival. Findings on initial ED presentation and subsequent hospitalization revealed infective spondylodiscitis, endocarditis, and brain abscess formation. This is the only cases noted in literature with all three infection locations with dual risk factors of dental and prostate procedures prior to symptom onset. This case highlights the multifocal illness that can complicate Abiotrophia defectiva infections, and the importance of thorough ED evaluation and multiservice approach for consultation and treatment.


Assuntos
Artrite Infecciosa , Abscesso Encefálico , Discite , Endocardite Bacteriana , Endocardite , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas , Masculino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Discite/diagnóstico , Discite/complicações , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/complicações , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/diagnóstico , Endocardite Bacteriana/complicações , Endocardite Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Abscesso Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Abscesso Encefálico/complicações
20.
Rev. Fac. Odontol. (B.Aires) ; 39(91): 49-55, 2024. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1555011

RESUMO

Los procedimientos endodónticos regenerativos (REPs) representan una evolución significativa en el campo de la endodoncia, buscando no sólo tratar la infección o lesión presente en el diente, sino tam-bién promover la regeneración de los tejidos denta-rios afectados. El presente caso clínico muestra un incisivo lateral superior izquierdo con apexogénesis incompleta y diagnóstico de absceso alveolar crónico reagudizado en una paciente de 22 años, en el que se aplicó un procedimiento de endodoncia regenerativa (REPs). La estrategia terapéutica elegida se basó en los principios de ingeniería tisular, incorporando la novedosa aplicación de la membrana amniótica hu-mana liofilizada esterilizada como andamio bioactivo intraconducto. Las evaluaciones clínicas, radiográ-ficas y tomográficas a corto, mediano y largo plazo revelaron el éxito de la terapia. La resolución exitosa mostró en los controles a la pieza dentaria asintomá-tica, con una notable remisión de la patología apical, aumento de la longitud radicular y disminución del calibre apical. Se ha podido destacar la eficacia de los REPs, con una exitosa aplicabilidad de la membra-na amniótica como andamio innovador (AU)


Regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs) represent a significant evolution in the field of endodontics, aiming not only to address the infection or injury within the tooth, but also to promote the regeneration of the affected dental tissues. In this clinical case, an upper left lateral incisor with incomplete apexogenesis and diagnosis of acute exacerbation of a chronic periapical lesion in a 22-year-old patient is presented. A regenerative endodontic procedure (REPs) was applied. The chosen therapeutic strategy was based on tissue engineering principles, incorporating the innovative use of sterilized lyophilized human amniotic membrane as an intraconduct bioactive scaffold. Clinical, radiographic, and tomographic assessments at short, medium, and long-term follow-up revealed the success of the therapy. Successful resolution demonstrated an asymptomatic tooth in the follow-up, with a notable resolution of apical pathology, increased root length, and decreased apical caliber. The effectiveness of REPs has been highlighted, demonstrating the successful applicability of amniotic membrane as an innovative scaffold (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Células-Tronco/fisiologia , Alicerces Teciduais , Argentina , Faculdades de Odontologia , Papila Dentária , Liofilização/métodos
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