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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13610, 2024 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38871751

RESUMO

Natural products play a significant role in providing the current demand as antiparasitic agents, which offer an attractive approach for the discovery of novel drugs. The present study aimed to evaluate in vitro the potential impact of seaweed Padina pavonica (P. pavonica) extract in combating Acanthamoeba castellanii (A. castellanii). The phytochemical constituents of the extract were characterized by Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Six concentrations of the algal extract were used to evaluate its antiprotozoal activity at various incubation periods. Our results showed that the extract has significant inhibition against trophozoites and cysts viability, with complete inhibition at the high concentrations. The IC50 of P. pavonica extract was 4.56 and 4.89 µg/mL for trophozoites and cysts, respectively, at 24 h. Morphological alterations of A. castellanii trophozoites/cysts treated with the extract were assessed using inverted and scanning electron microscopes and showed severe damage features upon treatment with the extract at different concentrations. Molecular Docking of extracted compounds against Acanthamoeba cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (AcCYP51) was performed using Autodock vina1.5.6. A pharmacokinetic study using SwissADME was also conducted to investigate the potentiality of the identified bioactive compounds from Padina extract to be orally active drug candidates. In conclusion, this study highlights the in vitro amoebicidal activity of P. pavonica extract against A. castellanii adults and cysts and suggests potential AcCYP51 inhibition.


Assuntos
Ceratite por Acanthamoeba , Acanthamoeba castellanii , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Extratos Vegetais , Acanthamoeba castellanii/efeitos dos fármacos , Ceratite por Acanthamoeba/tratamento farmacológico , Ceratite por Acanthamoeba/parasitologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Antiprotozoários/química , Trofozoítos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Humanos
2.
Parasites Hosts Dis ; 62(2): 169-179, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38835258

RESUMO

Naegleria fowleri invades the brain and causes a fatal primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). Despite its high mortality rate of approximately 97%, an effective therapeutic drug for PAM has not been developed. Approaches with miltefosine, amphotericin B, and other antimicrobials have been clinically attempted to treat PAM, but their therapeutic efficacy remains unclear. The development of an effective and safe therapeutic drug for PAM is urgently needed. In this study, we investigated the anti-amoebic activity of Pinus densiflora leaf extract (PLE) against N. fowleri. PLE induced significant morphological changes in N. fowleri trophozoites, resulting in the death of the amoeba. The IC50 of PLE on N. fowleri was 62.3±0.95 µg/ml. Alternatively, PLE did not significantly affect the viability of the rat glial cell line C6. Transcriptome analysis revealed differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between PLE-treated and non-treated amoebae. A total of 5,846 DEGs were identified, of which 2,189 were upregulated, and 3,657 were downregulated in the PLE-treated amoebae. The DEGs were categorized into biological process (1,742 genes), cellular component (1,237 genes), and molecular function (846 genes) based on the gene ontology analysis, indicating that PLE may have dramatically altered the biological and cellular functions of the amoeba and contributed to their death. These results suggest that PLE has anti-N. fowleri activity and may be considered as a potential candidate for the development of therapeutic drugs for PAM. It may also be used as a supplement compound to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of drugs currently used to treat PAM.


Assuntos
Naegleria fowleri , Pinus , Extratos Vegetais , Folhas de Planta , Naegleria fowleri/efeitos dos fármacos , Naegleria fowleri/genética , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pinus/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Animais , Ratos , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Trofozoítos/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/parasitologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Infecções Protozoárias do Sistema Nervoso Central/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Protozoárias do Sistema Nervoso Central/parasitologia , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Parasites Hosts Dis ; 62(2): 180-192, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38835259

RESUMO

Free-living amoebae (FLA) are found in diverse environments, such as soils, rivers, and seas. Hence, they can be used as bioindicators to assess the water quality based solely on their presence. In this study, we determined the presence of FLA in river water by filtering water samples collected from various sites and culturing the resulting filtrates. FLA were detected in all the water samples with varying quality grades (Grades Ι-V). The significant increase in the size of the amoebae population with the deterioration in the water quality. Monoxenic cultures of the amoebae were performed, and genomic DNAs were isolated, among which 18S rDNAs were sequenced to identify the amoeba species. Of the 12 species identified, 10 belonged to the Acanthamoeba genus; of the remaining 2 species, one was identified as Vannella croatica and the other as a species of Vermamoeba. Acanthamoeba was detected in samples with Grades Ι to VI quality, whereas the Vermamoeba species was present only in Grade Ι water. V. croatica was found exclusively in water with Grade ΙΙ quality. Following morphological observations, genomic DNA was sequenced using 16S rDNA to determine whether the species of Acanthamoeba harbored endosymbionts. Most of the isolated Acanthamoeba contained endosymbionts, among which 4 species of endogenous bacteria were identified and examined using transmission electron microscopy. This study provides evidence that the distribution of amoebae other than Acanthamoeba may be associated with water quality. However, further confirmation will be required based on accurate water quality ratings and assessments using a more diverse range of FLA.


Assuntos
Amoeba , Qualidade da Água , Amoeba/genética , Amoeba/isolamento & purificação , Amoeba/classificação , Filogenia , Rios/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Acanthamoeba/genética , Acanthamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Acanthamoeba/classificação , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Biodiversidade , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
4.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834082

RESUMO

Infections caused by free-living amoebae pose a significant public health threat owing to growing populations of immunocompromised hosts combined with diagnostic delays, treatment difficulties, and high case fatality rates. Nasopharyngeal infections caused by Acanthamoeba are rare and the optimal treatment is not well established. We report a case of Acanthamoeba rhinosinusitis in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia who presented with headaches and chronic rhinosinusitis refractory to multiple courses of antibiotics. A diagnosis of Acanthamoeba rhinosinusitis was established through broad-range polymerase chain reaction testing on sinus tissue. The patient had a favorable response to treatment, which included surgical debridement, cessation of immunosuppressants, and a three-drug regimen consisting of miltefosine, fluconazole, and sulfadiazine.

5.
Food Microbiol ; 122: 104562, 2024 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839225

RESUMO

Acanthamoeba spp., are ubiquitous protist which belongs to Free-Living Amoeba (FLA) group, is considered as causal agent of side-threatening keratitis or fatal encephalitis among other human infections. Besides, this parasite has been reported as host for other microorganisms important to human health such as Campylobacter spp. or Vibrio spp. among others. This role of Acanthamoeba as pathogen and environmental phagocyte has increased the reports confirming its presence in human related environments, acting as a water quality indicator. Considering the tide relationship between water and kitchen environments, and the high prevalence of Acanthamoeba in water sources, the present study aims to establish a quick and accurate protocol based on DNA extraction and a real time qPCR assay to detect Acanthamoeba spp. in dishcloths. The procedure has been validated by processing 17 used dishcloths. Our findings demonstrated the high sensitivity of the qPCR assay used which was capable of detecting up to one Acanthamoeba from an in vitro contaminated dishcloth. The protocol accurately detected 64.7% of positive samples for Acanthamoeba spp, (in 4 samples DNA concentrations corresponded to 1-102 amoebae). Our findings demonstrate the importance of FLA surveillance by efficient and sensitive methods since one amoeba is capable of colonizing human related food environments such as kitchens sinks and could be a potential source of infection.


Assuntos
Acanthamoeba , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Acanthamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Acanthamoeba/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA de Protozoário/análise , Humanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
6.
J Water Health ; 22(5): 905-922, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38822469

RESUMO

This study addresses the heightened global reliance on point-of-use (PoU) systems driven by water quality concerns, ageing infrastructure, and urbanization. While widely used in Egypt, there is a lack of comprehensive evaluation of these systems. We assessed 10 reverse osmosis point-of-use systems, examining physicochemical, bacteriological, and protozoological aspects of tap water (inlets) and filtered water (outlets), adhering to standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. Results showed significant reductions in total dissolved solids across most systems, with a decrease from 210 ± 23.6 mg/L in tap water to 21 ± 2.8 mg/L in filtered water for PoU-10. Ammonia nitrogen levels in tap water decreased from 0.05 ± 0.04 to 2.28 ± 1.47 mg/L to 0.02 ± 0.04 to 0.69 ± 0.64 mg/L in filtered water. Despite this, bacterial indicators showed no significant changes, with some systems even increasing coliform levels. Protozoological analysis identified prevalent Acanthamoeba (42.5%), less frequent Naegleria (2.5%), Vermamoeba vermiformis (5%), and potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba genotypes. Elevated bacterial indicators in filtered water of point-of-use systems, combined with essential mineral removal, indicate non-compliance with water quality standards, posing a public health concern. Further research on the long-term health implications of these filtration systems is essential.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Osmose , Purificação da Água , Egito , Purificação da Água/métodos , Água Potável/microbiologia , Água Potável/parasitologia , Qualidade da Água , Microbiologia da Água , Filtração/instrumentação , Filtração/métodos , Abastecimento de Água
7.
Virol J ; 21(1): 135, 2024 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38858684

RESUMO

The discovery of mimivirus in 2003 prompted the search for novel giant viruses worldwide. Despite increasing interest, the diversity and distribution of giant viruses is barely known. Here, we present data from a 2012-2022 study aimed at prospecting for amoebal viruses in water, soil, mud, and sewage samples across Brazilian biomes, using Acanthamoeba castellanii for isolation. A total of 881 aliquots from 187 samples covering terrestrial and marine Brazilian biomes were processed. Electron microscopy and PCR were used to identify the obtained isolates. Sixty-seven amoebal viruses were isolated, including mimiviruses, marseilleviruses, pandoraviruses, cedratviruses, and yaraviruses. Viruses were isolated from all tested sample types and almost all biomes. In comparison to other similar studies, our work isolated a substantial number of Marseillevirus and cedratvirus representatives. Taken together, our results used a combination of isolation techniques with microscopy, PCR, and sequencing and put highlight on richness of giant virus present in different terrestrial and marine Brazilian biomes.


Assuntos
Vírus Gigantes , Brasil , Vírus Gigantes/isolamento & purificação , Vírus Gigantes/genética , Vírus Gigantes/classificação , Vírus Gigantes/ultraestrutura , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Acanthamoeba castellanii/virologia , Acanthamoeba castellanii/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia do Solo , Esgotos/virologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Água do Mar/virologia , Microbiologia da Água
8.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1356095, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38863830

RESUMO

Pathogenic and free-living Acanthamoeba are widely distributed in the environment and have been reported to cause keratitis and universally fatal encephalitis. Primary cutaneous acanthamoebiasis caused by Acanthamoeba is exceedingly rare and presents as isolated necrotic cutaneous lesions without involvement of the cornea or central nervous system. Cutaneous acanthamoebiasis often occurs in immunocompromised patients and is likely overlooked or even misdiagnosed only by cutaneous biopsy tissue histopathological analysis. Here, we report a HIV-infected 63-year-old female with oral leukoplakia for 4 months and scattered large skin ulcers all over the body for 2 months. The cause of the cutaneous lesions was unclear through cutaneous specimens histopathological analysis, and subsequently Acanthamoeba were detected by metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS), which may be the cause of cutaneous lesions. Based on the mNGS results, a pathologist subsequently reviewed the previous pathological slides and found trophozoites of Acanthamoeba so that the cause was identified, and the skin ulcers improved significantly after treatment with multi-drug combination therapy. Acanthamoeba is also a host of pathogenic microorganisms. The presence of endosymbionts enhances the pathogenicity of Acanthamoeba, and no other pathogens were reported in this case. mNGS is helpful for rapidly diagnosing the etiology of rare skin diseases and can indicate the presence or absence of commensal microorganisms.


Assuntos
Acanthamoeba , Amebíase , Infecções por HIV , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Metagenômica , Humanos , Feminino , Amebíase/diagnóstico , Amebíase/parasitologia , Amebíase/tratamento farmacológico , Metagenômica/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acanthamoeba/genética , Acanthamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Pele/patologia , Pele/parasitologia , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1414135, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38863831

RESUMO

Introduction: Acanthamoeba infection is a serious public health concern, necessitating the development of effective and safe anti-Acanthamoeba chemotherapies. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) govern a colossal amount of biological processes, such as DNA damage repair, protein degradation and apoptosis. Multiple PARP-targeted compounds have been approved for cancer treatment. However, repurposing of PARP inhibitors to treat Acanthamoeba is poorly understood. Methods: In the present study, we attempted to fill these knowledge gaps by performing anti-Acanthamoeba efficacy assays, cell biology experiments, bioinformatics, and transcriptomic analyses. Results: Using a homology model of Acanthamoeba poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs), molecular docking of approved drugs revealed three potential inhibitory compounds: olaparib, venadaparib and AZ9482. In particular, venadaparib exhibited superior docking scores (-13.71) and favorable predicted binding free energy (-89.28 kcal/mol), followed by AZ9482, which showed a docking score of -13.20 and a binding free energy of -92.13 kcal/mol. Notably, the positively charged cyclopropylamine in venadaparib established a salt bridge (through E535) and a hydrogen bond (via N531) within the binding pocket. For comparison, AZ9482 was well stacked by the surrounding aromatic residues including H625, Y652, Y659 and Y670. In an assessment of trophozoites viability, AZ9482 exhibited a dose-and time-dependent anti-trophozoite effect by suppressing Acanthamoeba PARP activity, unlike olaparib and venadaparib. An Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide apoptosis assay revealed AZ9482 induced trophozoite necrotic cell death rather than apoptosis. Transcriptomics analyses conducted on Acanthamoeba trophozoites treated with AZ9482 demonstrated an atlas of differentially regulated proteins and genes, and found that AZ9482 rapidly upregulates a multitude of DNA damage repair pathways in trophozoites, and intriguingly downregulates several virulent genes. Analyzing gene expression related to DNA damage repair pathway and the rate of apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites indicated DNA damage efficacy and repair modulation in Acanthamoeba trophozoites following AZ9482 treatment. Discussion: Collectively, these findings highlight AZ9482, as a structurally unique PARP inhibitor, provides a promising prototype for advancing anti-Acanthamoeba drug research.


Assuntos
Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Humanos , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Ftalazinas/farmacologia , Ftalazinas/química , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/metabolismo , Acanthamoeba/efeitos dos fármacos , Biologia Computacional , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Trofozoítos/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38869777

RESUMO

Herein, we investigated the anti-amoebic activity of phosphonium-chloride-based deep eutectic solvents against pathogenic Acanthamoeba castellanii of the T4 genotype. Deep eutectic solvents are ionic fluids composed of two or three substances, capable of self-association to form a eutectic mixture with a melting point lower than each substance. In this study, three distinct hydrophobic deep eutectic solvents were formulated, employing trihexyltetradecylphosphonium chloride as the hydrogen bond acceptor and aspirin, dodecanoic acid, and 4-tert-butylbenzoic acid as the hydrogen bond donors. Subsequently, all three deep eutectic solvents, denoted as DES1, DES2, DES3 formulations, underwent investigations comprising amoebicidal, adhesion, excystation, cytotoxicity, and cytopathogenicity assays. The findings revealed that DES2 was the most potent anti-amoebic agent, with a 94% elimination rate against the amoebae within 24 h at 30 °C. Adhesion assays revealed that deep eutectic solvents hindered amoebae adhesion to human brain endothelial cells, with DES2 exhibiting 88% reduction of adhesion. Notably, DES3 exhibited remarkable anti-excystation properties, preventing 94% of cysts from reverting to trophozoites. In cytopathogenicity experiments, deep eutectic solvent formulations and dodecanoic acid alone reduced amoebae-induced human brain endothelial cell death, with DES2 showing the highest effects. Lactate dehydrogenase assays revealed the minimal cytotoxicity of the tested deep eutectic solvents, with the exception of trihexyltetradecylphosphonium chloride, which exhibited 35% endothelial cell damage. These findings underscore the potential of specific deep eutectic solvents in combating pathogenic Acanthamoeba, presenting promising avenues for further research and development against free-living amoebae.

11.
BMJ Case Rep ; 17(6)2024 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38871639

RESUMO

Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis due to Acanthamoeba spp is a rare, near-fatal central nervous system infection. It is often seen in immunocompromised individuals. Here we describe a survivor of this infection who was co-infected with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. He presented to us with features of meningitis and a history of chronic cough. The chest X-ray was classical for pulmonary tuberculosis. Neuroimaging was suggestive of encephalitis; herpes simplex virus PCR was negative. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed lymphocytic pleocytosis. Wet mounts revealed trophozoites of Acanthamoeba Currently, he is being treated with oral bedaquiline, levofloxacin, linezolid, clofazimine, cycloserine and pyridoxine for tuberculosis. He received intravenous amikacin and oral cotrimoxazole and fluconazole for Acanthamoeba infection for 1 month. The resolution was confirmed by repeating the CSF wet mount, culture and neuroimaging. He was then discharged with oral rifampicin, cotrimoxazole and fluconazole. He is currently under our close follow-up.


Assuntos
Acanthamoeba , Amebíase , Tuberculose Meníngea , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Humanos , Masculino , Acanthamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose Meníngea/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Meníngea/complicações , Tuberculose Meníngea/diagnóstico , Amebíase/tratamento farmacológico , Amebíase/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/complicações , Imunocompetência , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico
12.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; : e0026524, 2024 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38860801

RESUMO

Here, we report the isolation and genome sequencing of a new Pacmanvirus-related isolate, Tornadovirus japonicus, from the Tamagawa River in Japan. This icosahedral virus has a genome of approximately 380 kb and 465 open reading frames, including two tRNA genes. The name "tornado" is based on its morphological features revealed by transmission electron microscopy analysis.

13.
Vet World ; 17(4): 848-862, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38798284

RESUMO

Background and Aim: Keratitis is a serious ocular infection often caused by pathogenic microorganisms such as Acanthamoeba spp. Among other harmful microbes, Acanthamoeba keratitis presents a particular challenge due to its resistance to conventional antimicrobial agents. Piper betle Linn., commonly known as betel leaf, has been traditionally used for its medicinal properties. This study aimed to assess the potential of the leaf ethanol extract of P. betle Linn. in the treatment of Acanthamoeba triangularis in monoculture and co-culture with two prevalent pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, associated with keratitis. Materials and Methods: Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of A. triangularis, S. aureus, and P. aeruginosa extracts in monoculture and coinfected conditions were examined. In addition, this study explored the potential of the extract in preventing Acanthamoeba adherence in both monoculture and co-culture environments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis confirmed the impact of the extract on Acanthamoeba cell membranes, including acanthopodia. Furthermore, a time-kill kinetic assay was used to validate the amoebicidal activity of the extract against A. triangularis and the tested bacteria. Results: MICs for trophozoites, cysts, P. aeruginosa, and S. aureus in the monoculture were 0.25, 0.25, 0.51, and 0.128 mg/mL, respectively, whereas the MICs for Acanthamoeba coinfected with bacteria were higher than those in the monoculture. This extract inhibited the growth of A. triangularis trophozoites and cysts for up to 72 h. Moreover, P. betle extract effectively prevented the adherence of Acanthamoeba to contact lenses under monoculture conditions. SEM analysis confirmed that P. betle extract affects the cell membrane of Acanthamoeba, including Acanthopodia. In addition, the time-kill kinetic assay confirmed that the extract contained amoebicidal activity against A. triangularis, including the tested bacteria. Notably, S. aureus was more susceptible than A. triangularis and P. aeruginosa to P. betle extract treatment. Unexpectedly, our study revealed that S. aureus negatively affected A. triangularis in the co-culture after 3 days of incubation, whereas P. aeruginosa facilitated the growth of A. triangularis in the presence of the extract. Conclusion: This study provides compelling evidence of the anti-adhesive and anti-Acanthamoeba properties of P. betle leaf extract against A. triangularis under monoculture and co-culture conditions. The observed impact on Acanthamoeba cell membranes, coupled with the time-kill kinetic assay results, underscores the potential of P. betle leaf extract as a promising agent for combating Acanthamoeba-related infections in humans and animals.

14.
Front Microbiol ; 15: 1402690, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38756730

RESUMO

Giant viruses, categorized under Nucleocytoviricota, are believed to exist ubiquitously in natural environments. However, comprehensive reports on isolated giant viruses remain scarce, with limited information available on unrecoverable strains, viral proliferation sites, and natural hosts. Previously, the author highlighted Pandoravirus hades, Pandoravirus persephone, and Mimivirus sp. styx, isolated from brackish water soil, as potential hotspots for giant virus multiplication. This study presents findings from nearly a year of monthly sampling within the same brackish water region after isolating the three aforementioned strains. This report details the recurrent isolation of a wide range of giant viruses. Each month, four soil samples were randomly collected from an approximately 5 × 10 m plot, comprising three soil samples and one water sample containing sediment from the riverbed. Acanthamoeba castellanii was used as a host for virus isolation. These efforts consistently yielded at least one viral species per month, culminating in a total of 55 giant virus isolates. The most frequently isolated species was Mimiviridae (24 isolates), followed by Marseilleviridae (23 isolates), Pandoravirus (6 isolates), and singular isolates of Pithovirus and Cedratvirus. Notably, viruses were not consistently isolated from any of the four samples every month, with certain sites yielding no viruses. Cluster analysis based on isolate numbers revealed that soil samples from May and water and sediment samples from January produced the highest number of viral strains. These findings underscore brackish coastal soil as a significant site for isolating numerous giant viruses, highlighting the non-uniform distribution along coastlines.

15.
Sci Total Environ ; 941: 173318, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38777057

RESUMO

Free-living amoebae (FLA) such as Acanthamoeba, Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri and Sappinia pedata are naturally widespread in freshwater, causing rare but fatal and debilitating infections in humans. Although recent studies have shown an increase in infection rates, there is a paucity of epidemiological studies regarding the presence of these emerging pathogens in water. Herein, we studied the diversity and relative abundance of thermophilic FLA in different recreational baths in a tropical climate for 5 years. From 2018 to 2022, a total of 96 water samples were collected from 7 recreational baths (natural, tiled, regularly cleaned or not, and with temperatures ranging from 27 to 40 °C). DNA was extracted from FLA cultivated at 37 °C to detect thermophilic culturable FLA. Metabarcoding studies were conducted through FLA 18S rRNA gene amplicons sequencing; amplicon sequence variants (ASV) were extracted from each sample and taxonomy assigned against PR2 database using dada2 and phyloseq tools. We also searched for Naegleria sp. and N. fowleri using PCR targeting ITS and NFITS genes (respectively) and we quantified them using an optimized most probable number (MPN) method for FLA. Our results showed that differences in FLA diversity and abundance were observed amongst the 7 baths, but without a clear seasonal distribution. Naegleria, Vermamoeba and Stenamoeba were the most represented genera, while the genera Acanthamoeba and Vahlkampfia were mainly found in 2 baths. The MPN values for Naegleria sp. (NT/l) increased between 2018 and 2022, but the MPN values for N. fowleri (NF/l) seemed to decrease. Globally, our results showed that since we cannot establish a seasonal distribution of FLA, the regular presence of FLA (namely Naegleria and Acanthamoeba) in recreational waters can pose a potential threat in terms of neuroinfections as well as Acanthamoeba keratitis. It is thus imperious to perform the regular control of these baths as a preventive health measure.

16.
Microorganisms ; 12(5)2024 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38792695

RESUMO

Some free-living amoebae can behave as opportunistic parasites, causing rare but dangerous diseases in humans and animals, primarily amoebic keratitis, with loss of vision, and encephalitis, which is almost always fatal [...].

17.
Microorganisms ; 12(5)2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38792751

RESUMO

In contrast to "frank" pathogens, like Salmonella entrocolitica, Shigella dysenteriae, and Vibrio cholerae, that always have a probability of disease, "opportunistic" pathogens are organisms that cause an infectious disease in a host with a weakened immune system and rarely in a healthy host. Historically, drinking water treatment has focused on control of frank pathogens, particularly those from human or animal sources (like Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, or Hepatitis A virus), but in recent years outbreaks from drinking water have increasingly been due to opportunistic pathogens. Characteristics of opportunistic pathogens that make them problematic for water treatment include: (1) they are normally present in aquatic environments, (2) they grow in biofilms that protect the bacteria from disinfectants, and (3) under appropriate conditions in drinking water systems (e.g., warm water, stagnation, low disinfectant levels, etc.), these bacteria can amplify to levels that can pose a public health risk. The three most common opportunistic pathogens in drinking water systems are Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This report focuses on these organisms to provide information on their public health risk, occurrence in drinking water systems, susceptibility to various disinfectants, and other operational practices (like flushing and cleaning of pipes and storage tanks). In addition, information is provided on a group of nine other opportunistic pathogens that are less commonly found in drinking water systems, including Aeromonas hydrophila, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Acinetobacter baumannii, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Arcobacter butzleri, and several free-living amoebae including Naegleria fowleri and species of Acanthamoeba. The public health risk for these microbes in drinking water is still unclear, but in most cases, efforts to manage Legionella, mycobacteria, and Pseudomonas risks will also be effective for these other opportunistic pathogens. The approach to managing opportunistic pathogens in drinking water supplies focuses on controlling the growth of these organisms. Many of these microbes are normal inhabitants in biofilms in water, so the attention is less on eliminating these organisms from entering the system and more on managing their occurrence and concentrations in the pipe network. With anticipated warming trends associated with climate change, the factors that drive the growth of opportunistic pathogens in drinking water systems will likely increase. It is important, therefore, to evaluate treatment barriers and management activities for control of opportunistic pathogen risks. Controls for primary treatment, particularly for turbidity management and disinfection, should be reviewed to ensure adequacy for opportunistic pathogen control. However, the major focus for the utility's opportunistic pathogen risk reduction plan is the management of biological activity and biofilms in the distribution system. Factors that influence the growth of microbes (primarily in biofilms) in the distribution system include, temperature, disinfectant type and concentration, nutrient levels (measured as AOC or BDOC), stagnation, flushing of pipes and cleaning of storage tank sediments, and corrosion control. Pressure management and distribution system integrity are also important to the microbial quality of water but are related more to the intrusion of contaminants into the distribution system rather than directly related to microbial growth. Summarizing the identified risk from drinking water, the availability and quality of disinfection data for treatment, and guidelines or standards for control showed that adequate information is best available for management of L. pneumophila. For L. pneumophila, the risk for this organism has been clearly established from drinking water, cases have increased worldwide, and it is one of the most identified causes of drinking water outbreaks. Water management best practices (e.g., maintenance of a disinfectant residual throughout the distribution system, flushing and cleaning of sediments in pipelines and storage tanks, among others) have been shown to be effective for control of L. pneumophila in water supplies. In addition, there are well documented management guidelines available for the control of the organism in drinking water distribution systems. By comparison, management of risks for Mycobacteria from water are less clear than for L. pneumophila. Treatment of M. avium is difficult due to its resistance to disinfection, the tendency to form clumps, and attachment to surfaces in biofilms. Additionally, there are no guidelines for management of M. avium in drinking water, and one risk assessment study suggested a low risk of infection. The role of tap water in the transmission of the other opportunistic pathogens is less clear and, in many cases, actions to manage L. pneumophila (e.g., maintenance of a disinfectant residual, flushing, cleaning of storage tanks, etc.) will also be beneficial in helping to manage these organisms as well.

18.
RSC Med Chem ; 15(5): 1578-1588, 2024 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38784450

RESUMO

Acanthamoeba castellanii is an opportunistic pathogen with public health implications, largely due to its invasive nature and non-specific symptoms. Our study focuses on the potential of azole compounds, particularly those with triazole scaffolds, as anti-amoebic agents. Out of 10 compounds, compounds T1 and T8 exhibited effective anti-Acanthamoeba activity with MIC50 values of 125.37 and 143.92 µg mL-1, respectively. Interestingly, compounds T1, T4, T5 and T8 revealed profound anti-excystation activity with MIC50 at 32.01, 85.53, 19.54 and 80.57 µg mL-1, respectively, alongside limited cytotoxicity to human cells. The study underscores the potential of T1, T4, T5, and T8, thiazole-based compounds, as anti-Acanthamoeba agents by both eliminating amoeba viability and preventing excystation, via preserving the amoeba in its latent cyst form, exposing them to elimination by the immune system. Notably, compounds T1, T4, T5, and T8 showed optimal molecular properties, moderate oral bioavailability, and stable complex formation with Acanthamoeba CYP51. They also display superior binding interactions. Further research is needed to understand their mechanisms and optimize their efficacy against Acanthamoeba infections.

20.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 9(5)2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38787041

RESUMO

The gut microbiome reflects health and predicts possible disease in hosts. A holistic view of this community is needed, focusing on identifying species and dissecting how species interact with their host and each other, regardless of whether their presence is beneficial, inconsequential, or detrimental. The distribution of gut-associated eukaryotes within and across non-human primates is likely driven by host behavior and ecology. To ascertain the existence of free-living amoebae (FLA) in the gut of wild and captive non-human primates, 101 stool samples were collected and submitted to culture-dependent microscopy examination and DNA sequencing. Free-living amoebae were detected in 45.4% (46/101) of fecal samples analyzed, and their morphological characteristics matched those of Acanthamoeba spp., Vermamoeba spp., heterolobosean amoeboflagellates and fan-shaped amoebae of the family Vannellidae. Sequence analysis of the PCR products revealed that the suspected amoebae are highly homologous (99% identity and 100% query coverage) with Acanthamoeba T4 genotype and Vermamoeba vermiformis amoebae. The results showed a great diversity of amoebae in the non-human primate's microbiome, which may pose a potential risk to the health of NHPs. To our knowledge, this is the first report of free-living amoebae in non-human primates that are naturally infected. However, it is unknown whether gut-borne amoebae exploit a viable ecological niche or are simply transient residents in the gut.

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