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1.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 80(1): 9-18, mar. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099197

RESUMO

Introducción: La laringe de cerdo doméstico tiene similitudes con la laringe humana. La capacidad elástica de las cuerdas vocales del cerdo demuestran tener la mayor similitud con la humana comparado con otros animales por lo que se ha propuesto usar las laringes de cerdo como modelo de entrenamiento quirúrgico. Objetivo: Determinar las diferencias y similitudes anatómicas e histológicas entre la laringe del cerdo y la humana. Material y método: Se realizaron mediciones por 4 observadores en 5 laringes porcinas cuyos resultados se compararon con los descritos en la literatura para las laringes humanas. Además se realizaron cortes histológicos para visualizar fibras elásticas, mucinas neutras y mucinas ácidas. Resultados: El cartílago tiroides porcino mide entre las astas superiores 37,55 ±7,30 mm, entre astas inferiores 31,33 ±3,27 mm, desde la prominencia laríngea al borde posterior 34,32 ±7,30 mm. En el cartílago cricoides, desde el borde superior-inferior en el arco anterior 7,28 ±2,21 mm, altura borde superior-inferior pared posterior 27,47 ±3,40 mm, ancho máximo pared posterior 30,99 ±4,51 mm, diámetro interior anteroposterior (borde cefálico) 30,90 ±2,12 mm, diámetro interior anteroposterior (borde caudal) 21,78 ±2,55 mm, diámetro interior derecha-izquierda (borde cefálico) 18,11 ±2,13 mm, diámetro interior derecha-izquierda (borde caudal) 21,10 ±2,40 mm. Histológicamente, la laringe de cerdo y humana presentan leves diferencias en cuanto al epitelio de cada porción de la laringe, a pesar de que el tipo de cartílago es el mismo en ambas especies. Conclusión: Si bien existen diferencias anatómicas e histológicas entre la laringe de cerdo y el humano, el modelo porcino es una alternativa útil, accesible y de bajo costo para el entrenamiento en cirugía laringotraqueal y microcirugía laríngea.


Introduction: The domestic pig larynx has similarities with the human larynx. The elastic capacity of the vocal folds of the pig has the greater similarity with the human one compared with other animals. It has been proposed to use the porcine larynx as a model for surgical training. Aim: To determine the anatomical and histological differences and similarities between the pig larynx and the human larynx. Material and method: Measurements were made by 4 observers in 5 porcine larynxes whose results were compared with those described in the literature. In addition, histological sections were performed to visualize elastic fibers, neutral mucins and acid mucins. Results: The porcine thyroid cartilage measured 37.55 ±7.30 mm between the upper horns, 31.33 ±3.27 mm between lower horns and 34.32 ±7.30 mm from the laryngeal prominence to the posterior margin. In the cricoid cartilage, from the upper-lower edge in the anterior arch 7.28 ±2.21mm, height upper-lower edge posterior wall 27.47 ±3.40 mm, maximum posterior wall width 30.99 ±4.51 mm, anteroposterior inner diameter (head margin) 30.90 ±2.12 mm, inner diameter anteroposterior (caudal edge) 21.78 ±2.55 mm, inner diameter right-left (head edge) 18.11 ±2.13 mm, inner diameter right-left (caudal edge) 21.10 ±2.40 mm. Histologically, the pig and human larynxes present slight differences in the epithelium of each portion of the larynx, despite the fact that type of cartilage is the same in both species. Conclusions: Although there are anatomical and histological differences between the pig larynx and the human larynx, the porcine model is a useful, accessible and low cost alternative for training in laryngotracheal surgery and laryngeal microsurgery.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Laringe/anatomia & histologia , Microcirurgia/educação , Cartilagem Aritenoide/anatomia & histologia , Suínos , Cartilagem Tireóidea/anatomia & histologia , Cartilagem Cricoide/anatomia & histologia , Nervos Laríngeos , Laringe/irrigação sanguínea
2.
Brachytherapy ; 15(1): 94-101, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26614234

RESUMO

PURPOSE: External beam radiation therapy (EBRT) is effective for early glottic cancers, with cure rates of ∼90% for T1 tumors. EBRT has strengths but also disadvantages including radiation to healthy tissues and duration of 5-7 weeks. With advances in laryngeal framework surgery, new devices can provide reliable, minimally invasive access to the larynx. Such devices could be modified to insert brachytherapy catheters. Brachytherapy could provide focused radiation while limiting dose to normal structures in the larynx and neck. As a preliminary step, we performed simulations comparing EBRT to high-dose-rate brachytherapy to assess if this approach could provide dosimetric advantage. METHODS AND MATERIALS: One- and 2-catheter brachytherapy simulations were performed for 3 patients with T1 glottic carcinoma. Percentage of dose delivered to the target and adjacent structures was compared with conventional EBRT using 3D and intensity-modulated radiation therapy approaches. RESULTS: Percentage of structures exposed to 50% of the dose was lower for brachytherapy compared with 3D EBRT and intensity-modulated radiation therapy, particularly for the cricoid and contralateral arytenoid. Dose was also lower for the carotid-internal jugular vein complexes compared with 3D EBRT. Dose profiles did not differ significantly between 1- and 2-catheter simulations. CONCLUSION: Brachytherapy can decrease radiation to normal tissues including laryngeal cartilages and carotid-internal jugular vein complexes. Recent advancements allowing catheter placement may afford the potential to decrease radiation to healthy tissues with decreased treatment time. However, careful, stepwise evaluation of feasibility and outcomes in model systems is required before recommending this approach for such high cure rate cancers in humans.


Assuntos
Braquiterapia/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma/radioterapia , Neoplasias Laríngeas/radioterapia , Doses de Radiação , Lesões por Radiação/etiologia , Idoso , Cartilagem Aritenoide/efeitos da radiação , Braquiterapia/métodos , Artéria Carótida Interna/efeitos da radiação , Catéteres , Simulação por Computador , Cartilagem Cricoide/efeitos da radiação , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Glote , Humanos , Veias Jugulares/efeitos da radiação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/efeitos adversos
3.
Cancer ; 122(4): 546-58, 2016 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26588425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An accurate staging system is crucial for cancer management. Evaluations for continual suitability and improvement are needed as staging and treatment methods evolve. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 1609 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma investigated by magnetic resonance imaging, staged with the 7th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC)/International Union Against Cancer (UICC) staging system, and irradiated by intensity-modulated radiotherapy at 2 centers in Hong Kong and mainland China. RESULTS: Among the patients without other T3/T4 involvement, there were no significant differences in overall survival (OS) between medial pterygoid muscle (MP) ± lateral pterygoid muscle (LP), prevertebral muscle, and parapharyngeal space involvement. Patients with extensive soft tissue involvement beyond the aforementioned structures had poor OS similar to that of patients with intracranial extension and/or cranial nerve palsy. Only 2% of the patients had lymph nodes > 6 cm above the supraclavicular fossa (SCF), and their outcomes resembled the outcomes of those with low extension. Replacing SCF with the lower neck (extension below the caudal border of the cricoid cartilage) did not affect the hazard distinction between different N categories. With the proposed T and N categories, there were no significant differences in outcome between T4N0-2 and T1-4N3 disease. CONCLUSIONS: After a review by AJCC/UICC preparatory committees, the changes recommended for the 8th edition include changing MP/LP involvement from T4 to T2, adding prevertebral muscle involvement as T2, replacing SCF with the lower neck and merging this with a maximum nodal diameter > 6 cm as N3, and merging T4 and N3 as stage IVA criteria. These changes will lead not only to a better distinction of hazards between adjacent stages/categories but also to optimal balance in clinical practicability and global applicability.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/terapia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Criança , China , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Coortes , Cartilagem Cricoide/patologia , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Hong Kong , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Indução , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/terapia , Faringe/patologia , Prognóstico , Músculos Pterigoides/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
4.
Radiother Oncol ; 113(1): 108-14, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25245557

RESUMO

PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate the pattern of lymph node metastasis and treatment outcome after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), and assess the possibility of replacing Ho's supraclavicular fossa (SCF) with the lower level (LL; cervical extension below caudal edge of cricoid cartilage) based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a criterion for N3 disease. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We retrospectively reviewed 749 patients with biopsy-proven non-metastatic NPC treated with IMRT. Lymph node metastasis was mapped using the 2013 International Consensus Guidelines. RESULTS: Cervical lymph node (CLN) laterality, CLN greatest dimension (>60 vs. ⩽60 mm) and Ho's SCF were independent prognostic factors for disease-free survival (DFS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS; P<0.01) in multivariate analysis. Replacing Ho's SCF with the LL was also predictive for DFS and DMFS (P<0.01). Compared to the 7th UICC/AJCC, N-categories based on the LL provided more satisfactory distinction between hazard ratios for distant and disease failure for each N-category. N3a and N3b as defined by the 7th UICC/AJCC had similar DMFS (P=0.31) and DFS (P=0.21). CONCLUSIONS: Replacing Ho's SCF with the LL is simple and practical. The N-category staging system could be further simplified by merging N3 subcategories.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/radioterapia , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Adolescente , Adulto , Biópsia , Carcinoma , Cartilagem Cricoide , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Linfonodos/patologia , Metástase Linfática , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/patologia , Pescoço , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Faringe , Prognóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
P R Health Sci J ; 13(1): 33-6, 1994 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8016293

RESUMO

Stridor, when present since birth, should alert the physician of the possibility of a major cause of airway obstruction. In some cases, it can be life-threatening if timely and adequate intervention is not performed. In this report we discuss an infant who presented with stridor since birth. It's clinical picture, diagnostic approach and management are reviewed. The use of fiberoptic bronchoscopy as the most important diagnostic tool in the evaluation of stridor is emphasized and prompt referral for proper evaluation is recommended.


Assuntos
Laringoestenose/congênito , Sons Respiratórios/etiologia , Anormalidades Múltiplas , Aorta Torácica/anormalidades , Broncoscopia , Artérias Carótidas/anormalidades , Cartilagem Cricoide/cirurgia , Cianose/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Laringoestenose/complicações , Laringoestenose/diagnóstico , Laringoestenose/cirurgia , Artéria Subclávia/anormalidades , Traqueostomia
6.
P. R. health sci. j ; 13(1): 33-6, mar. 1994.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-176774

RESUMO

Stridor, when present since birth, should alert the physician of the possibility of a major cause of airway obstruction. In some cases, it can be life-threatening if timely and adequate intervention is not performed. In this report we discuss an infant who presented with stridor since birth. It's clinical picture, diagnostic approach and management are reviewed. The use of fiberoptic bronchoscopy as the most important diagnostic tool in the evaluation of stridor is emphasized and prompt referral for proper evaluation is recommended


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Laringoestenose/congênito , Sons Respiratórios/etiologia , Anormalidades Múltiplas , Aorta Torácica/anormalidades , Artérias Carótidas/anormalidades , Broncoscopia , Cartilagem Cricoide/cirurgia , Cianose/etiologia , Laringoestenose/diagnóstico , Laringoestenose/cirurgia , Artéria Subclávia/anormalidades , Traqueostomia
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