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1.
AMB Express ; 14(1): 44, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722390

RESUMO

Phoenix dactylifera L. and its wastes are known to be high in nutrients that are beneficial to human health. The study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial, antibiofilm, and antiviral properties of Phoenix dactylifera L. pits extract (PDPE) in vitro. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis indicated phenol, 2,5-bis(1,1-dimethyl ethyl), tetradecanoic acid, octaethylene glycol monododecyl ether, á-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid, and heptaethylene glycol monododecyl ether existence. The PDPE influenced pathogenic microorganisms, with inhibition zone diameters (IZDs) ranging from 10.0 to 35.0 mm. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 5638 had the highest IZD, while Salmonella typhi DSM 17058 and Shigella sonnei DSM 5570 had the lowest. The antifungal effect observed only in spore failure or conidia formation. PDPE showed a 100% antibacterial spectrum against bacteria, with MIC values between 250 and 1000 µg/ml. MIC was only indicated with S. aureus of 500 µg/ml. MBC values ranged from 500 to 1000 g/ml, with MBC values of 500 g/ml for B. cereus, E. faecalis, S. typhi, and S. sonnei. The activity was 66.7% at 500 µg/ml, further concentrations of 125-250 g/ml had no antibacterial effect. PDPE biofilm inhibition % had the highest percentage of inhibition (98.59%) with S. aureus, B. cereus (94.12%), and E. coli (74.46%). With 50% (CC50) viral activity, the highest non-toxic PDPE dose was found to be at 123.0 µg/ml.

2.
AMB Express ; 14(1): 59, 2024 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38761277

RESUMO

The growth of material science and technology places a high importance on the creation of better processes for the synthesis of copper nanoparticles. So that, an easy, ecological, and benign process for producing copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) has been developed using candy leaf (Stevia rebaudiana) leaves aqueous extract for the first time. UV-visible spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM), Fourier transmission infrared (FTIR), and zeta potential were applied to demonstrate strong characterization for the biosynthesized stevia-CuNPs. The UV-visible absorbance at 575 nm of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was 1.2. The particle size mean diameter was recorded as 362.3 nm with - 10.8 mV zeta potential. The HR-TEM scanning revealed 51.46-53.17 nm and spherical-shaped stevia-CuNPs surrounded by coat-shell proteins. The cytotoxicity and cytocompatibility activity assay revealed that stevia-CuNPs was safe in lower concentrations and had a significant cell viability reduction in higher concentrations. The produced stevia-CuNPs were applied as antimicrobial agents against eight pathogenic bacteria and five fungi strains. The inhibitory action of the stevia-CuNPs was more pronounced in bacteria than in fungi, and they likewise demonstrated further inhibition zones in Staphylococcus aureus (50.0 mm) than in Aspergillus flavus (55.0 mm). With inhibition zone sizes of 50.0 mm and 47.0 mm and 50 µg/ml minimum inhibitory concentration, S. aureus and A. flavus were the most inhibited pathogens. The minimum lethal effect (MLC) estimate for S. aureus was 50 µg/ml, whereas 75 µg/ml for A. flavus. The stevia-CuNPs mode of action was characterized as bactericidal/fungicidal as the ratio of MIC to MLC was estimated to be equal to or less than 2. After all, stevia-CuNPs could be used as an alternative to commercial antibiotics to solve the problem of multidrug-resistant (MDR) microorganisms.

3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 4147, 2024 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38378738

RESUMO

The current study aimed to find an effective, simple, ecological, and nontoxic method for bacterial green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) using the bacterial strain Priestia megaterium BASMA 2022 (OP572246). The biosynthesis was confirmed by the change in color of the cell-free supernatant added to the zinc nitrate from yellow to pale brown. The Priestia megaterium zinc oxide nanoparticles (Pm/ZnONPs) were characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and zeta potential. The Pm/ZnONPs characterization showed that they have a size ranging between 5.77 and 13.9 nm with a semi-sphere shape that is coated with a protein-carbohydrate complex. An EDX analysis of the Pm/ZnONPs revealed the presence of the shield matrix, which was composed of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, chlorine, potassium, sodium, aluminum, sulfur, and zinc. The results of the FTIR analysis showed that the reduction and stabilization of the zinc salt solution were caused by the presence of O-H alcohols and phenols, O=C=O stretching of carbon dioxide, N=C=S stretching of isothiocyanate, and N-H bending of amine functional groups. The produced ZnONPs had good stability with a charge of - 16.2 mV, as evidenced by zeta potential analysis. The MTT assay revealed IC50 values of 8.42% and 200%, respectively, for the human A375 skin melanoma and human bone marrow 2M-302 cell lines. These findings revealed that the obtained Pm/ZnONPs have the biocompatibility to be applied in the pharmaceutical and biomedical sectors.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanopartículas , Óxido de Zinco , Humanos , Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia , Óxido de Zinco/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas/química , Linhagem Celular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Bactérias , Zinco , Antibacterianos/química
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 1697, 2024 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38242905

RESUMO

Mosquitoes prefer stagnant areas near hospitals to live and easily spread pathogenic bacteria. Our current study aims to isolate multidrug-resistant (MDR) Staphylococcus aureus isolates from midguts of Mosquito Culex pipiens and study the potential of mint as a biocontrol strategy against C. pipiens larvae and their midgut-borne S. aureus. Samples of the third and fourth larval instars of C. pipiens were collected from water ponds around three Cairo hospitals. Ciprofloxacin, gentamycin and tetracycline, as well as various concentrations of mint leaf extract (MLE) were tested for antibiotic susceptibility. Sixty-five isolates were obtained and showed antibiotic resistance to tetracycline, gentamycin, ciprofloxacin, and undiluted MLE with resistant percentages (%) of 27.69, 30.76, 17.46, and 23.08%, respectively. Undiluted MLE inhibited 61.53% of the multidrug S. aureus isolates, whereas it couldn't inhibit any of these isolates at dilutions less than 50 µg/mL. The MIC of MLE was ≤ 700 µg/mL, while the MIC of the antibiotics ranged from 0.25 to 5.0 µg/mL for the three antibiotics. The most inhibited S. aureus isolate was identified by 16SrRNA sequencing approach and registered in GenBank as S. aureus MICBURN with gene accession number OQ766965. MLE killed all larval stages after 72 h of exposure, with mortality (%) reaching 93.33 and 100% causing external hair loss, breakage of the outer cuticle epithelial layer of the abdomen, and larvae shrinkage. Histopathology of treated larvae showed destruction of all midgut cells and organelles. Gas chromatography (GC) of MLE revealed that menthol extract (35.92%) was the largest active ingredient, followed by menthone (19.85%), D-Carvone (15.46%), Pulegone (5.0579%). Docking analysis confirmed that alpha guanine and cadinol had the highest binding affinity to both predicted active sites of Culex pipiens acetylcholinesterase. As a result, alpha-guanine and cadinol might have a role as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Culex , Culicidae , Inseticidas , Mentha , Terpenos , Animais , Staphylococcus aureus , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Acetilcolinesterase , Egito , Inseticidas/química , Larva , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Abdome , Ciprofloxacina/farmacologia , Gentamicinas/farmacologia , Guanina/farmacologia , Tetraciclinas/farmacologia
6.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 19216, 2023 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37932353

RESUMO

Food waste is a major issue, with one-third of food wasted yearly. This study aimed to produce sustainably the industrial enzyme alpha-amylase using discarded bread waste. Brown (BBW) and white bread waste (WBW) were tested as growth substrates using solid-state and submerged fermentation. The biosynthesized α- amylase is applied to treat starch-heavy industrial wastewater and for textile desizing. Bacillus amyloliquificiens showed the highest starch hydrolysis and enzyme activity on solid and liquid media. α-amylase production by B. amyloliquificiens was optimized via a one-factor-at-a-time evaluation of production parameters. Optimal production occurred by submerged fermentation of BBW inoculated with 2% B. amyloliquificiens at 37 °C and 200rpm for 24 h, reaching 695.2 U/mL α- amylase. The crude enzyme was immobilized on calcium alginate beads with 96.6% efficiency and kept 88.5% activity after 20 reuses, enhancing stability. A Box-Behnken design (BOX) assessed variable interactions. Response surface methodology (RSM) generated a quadratic model and analysis of variance (ANOVA analysis) fitting experimental starch hydrolysis data. Optimal conditions were pH 9, 45 °C, 70% starch, and 27.5 U/mL enzyme incubated for 15 min of contact time, with a high R2 of 0.83. ANOVA confirmed the enzyme's alkaliphilic and thermophilic nature. Using enzyme concentrations ranging from 10.9 to 695.1 U/mL, the enzyme desized textiles in 15 min at pH 9.0 and 45 °C with 96.3% efficiency. Overall, the optimized α- amylase from bread waste has industrial potential for sustainable starch processing.


Assuntos
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens , Eliminação de Resíduos , alfa-Amilases , Águas Residuárias , Pão , Têxteis , Amido , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Temperatura
7.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 19469, 2023 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37945578

RESUMO

Polyphenolics have been predicted to effectively develop antimicrobial agents for the food industry as food additives and promote human health. This study aims to synthesize pomegranate peel extract (PPE) with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against eight foodborne pathogens. Multispectroscopic analysis of UV-vis spectroscopy, Zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis were used to characterize the interaction between PPE and AgNPs. Eight foodborne pathogenic strains (six bacterial and two fungal strains) Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli ATCC 8379, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 00607, Salmonella typhi DSM 17058, Shigella sonnei DSM 5570, Aspergillus flavus ATCC 9643, and Rhizopus oryzae ATCC 96382 were used to test the inhibitory potential of PPW-AgNPs. The reaction colour of PPE-AgNPs from yellow to brown indicated that the nanoparticles were successfully formed. The UV absorption of PPE-AgNPs was detected at 440 nm of 0.9 SPR. SEM image of PPE-AgNPs exhibited spherical shapes with a zeta potential of - 20.1 mV. PPE-AgNPs showed high antimicrobial activity against all tested strains. The highest inhibition activity of PPE-AgNPs was recorded for the B. subtilis strain followed by K. pneumonia, while the highest resistance was noticed for R. oryzae. The components of pomegranate peel were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The major constituents of pomegranate peel is phenol (51.1%), followed by Isocitronellol (19.41%) and 1-Propanol, 2-(2-hydroxypropyl)- (16.05%). PPE is key in the simple, eco-friendly green synthesis of extracellular stable AgNPs as an alternative source for harmful chemical disinfectants.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Punica granatum , Humanos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Prata/farmacologia , Prata/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Escherichia coli , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química
8.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 16755, 2023 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37798429

RESUMO

Bioconversion using fungi, as natural factory of many applicable bioactive compounds, as enzymes utilizing agro-residue substrates as a solid, abundant, low-cost growth and enzyme production media. This study characterized and applied a tannase enzyme (308 U/mg) from Aspergillus niger A8 + Trichoderma viride co-cultures utilizing pomegranate peels. The partially purified enzyme showed maximal relative activity at 37-65 °C for 10 min and kinetics of thermal inactivation energy at a high point at 60 °C for 0.040/min. The half-life was 37 °C for 58.6 min, temperature coefficient Q10 of tannase was maximal for 1.38 between 40 and 50 °C, and the activation energy was 17.42 kJ/mol. The enzyme activity peaked in the pH range of 4-8, and the maximum relative activity (100.6%) for tannase was achieved at pH 6. The Km and Vmax values for purified enzymes using tannic acid were 7.3 mg/mL and 3333.33 U/mL, respectively. The enzyme reduced the total tannin content in all tannin-rich substrates after 12h. The gallic acid (GA) had total phenols of 77.75 ppm and antioxidant activity of 82.91%. It was observed that the GA as antimicrobial influencer exhibited the largest inhibitory zone diameter (IZD) of 31 ± 1.0 mm against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27853. The GA minimum inhibitory concentration value was ranged from 7770.0-121.41 µg/mL. The obtained GA showed a bactericidal effect against all bacterial strains except Shigella sonnei DSM5570 and Salmonella typhi DSM17058, which showed bacteriostatic behavior.


Assuntos
Aspergillus niger , Ácido Gálico , Fermentação , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Taninos/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
9.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 17230, 2023 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37821509

RESUMO

Mosquito control in Egypt depends on applying chemical synthetic pesticides that impact negatively on human health and the environment as well as the development of antibiotic and chemical resistance. This study aims to control the 3rd and 4th instars of Culex pipiens larvae using four bacterial strains. According to Phenotypic and molecular identification, the four isolates were identified as Bacillus subtilis MICUL D2023, Serratia marcescens MICUL A2023, Streptomyces albus LARVICID, and Pseudomonas fluorescens MICUL B2023. All strains were deposited in GenBank under accession numbers OQ764791, OQ729954, OQ726575, and OQ891356, respectively. Larvicidal activity of all microbial strain metabolites against a field strain of C. pipiens explored low LC50 results and reached its lowest values on the 3rd day with values of 6.40%, 38.4%, and 46.33% for P. fluorescens, S. albus, and S. marcescens, respectively. In addition, metabolites of P. fluorescence were more toxic than those of S. albus, followed by S. marcescens. B. subtilis shows no larvicidal effect on both field and lab mosquito strains. Microscopic alterations of 3rd and 4th instars showed toxic effects on different body parts (thorax, midgut, and anal gills), including losing external hairs, abdominal breakage, and larvae shrinkage, as well as different histological malformations in the digestive tract, midgut, and cortex. GC-MS analysis detected 51, 30, and 32 different active compounds from S. albus, S. marcescens, and P. fluorescens, respectively. GC detected 1, 2-BENZEA2:A52NEDICARBOXYLIC ACID, 2-Cyclohexene-1-carboxylic-acid-5-2-butenyl-methyl ester, and 3 octadecahydro2R3S4Z9Z-11R-12S from S. albus, S. marcesens, and P. fluorescens, respectively. Total protein, Total carbohydrate, and Acetylcholine esterase activity indicated significantly low levels on the 3rd day. All strain metabolites were safe against HSF cell lines. The docking results confirmed the role of the produced metabolites as larvicidal agents and Acetylcholine esterase inhibition. Such a problem need more studies on applying more and more natural pesticides.


Assuntos
Culex , Culicidae , Inseticidas , Praguicidas , Animais , Humanos , Egito , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Acetilcolina/farmacologia , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Inseticidas/química , Larva , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Serratia marcescens , Esterases
10.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 15048, 2023 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37700007

RESUMO

The emergence of antimicrobial resistance in foodborne bacterial pathogens has raised significant concerns in the food industry. This study explores the antimicrobial potential of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) derived from Agaricus bisporus (Mushroom) against foodborne bacterial pathogens. The biosynthesized AgNPs were characterized using various techniques, including UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high-resolution scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and zeta potential analysis. The antibacterial activity of the AgNPs was tested against a panel of foodborne bacterial strains, and their cytotoxicity was evaluated on normal human skin fibroblasts. Among the tested strains, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 showed the highest sensitivity with an inhibition zone diameter (IZD) of 48 mm, while Klebsiella quasipneumoniae ATTC 700603 and Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778 displayed the highest resistance with IZDs of 20 mm. The silver cations released by AgNPs demonstrated strong bactericidal effects against both Gram-positive (G + ve) and Gram-negative (G - ve) bacteria, as evidenced by the minimum inhibitory concentration/minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC/MIC) ratio. Moreover, cytotoxicity testing on normal human skin fibroblasts (HSF) indicated that AgNPs derived from the mushroom extract were safe, with a cell viability of 98.2%. Therefore, AgNPs hold promise as an alternative means to inhibit biofilm formation in the food industry sector.


Assuntos
Agaricus , Anti-Infecciosos , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Humanos , Prata/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Inocuidade dos Alimentos
11.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 9458, 2023 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37301893

RESUMO

Despite their threatens for Egyptian stone monuments, A few studies focused on using biocontrol agents against deteriorative fungi and bacteria instead of using chemical assays that leave residuals leading to human toxicity and environmental pollution. This work aims to isolate and identify fungal and bacterial isolates that showed deteriorative activities from stone monuments in Temple of Hathor, Luxor, Egypt, as well as determine the inhibitory activity of metabolites produced by Streptomyces exfoliatus SAMAH 2021 against the identified deteriorative fungal and bacterial strains. Moreover, studying the spectral analysis, toxicological assessment of metabolites produced by S. exfoliatus SAMAH 2021 against health human cell fibroblast, and colorimetric measurements on the selected stone monuments. Ten samples were collected from Temple of Hathor, Luxor, Egypt. Three fungal isolates and one bacterial isolate were obtained and identified as A. niger isolate Hathor 2, C. fioriniae strain Hathor 3, P. chrysogenum strain HATHOR 1, and L. sphaericus strain Hathor 4, respectively. Inhibitory potential of the metabolites in all concentrations used (100-25%) against the recommended antibiotics (Tetracycline 10 µg/ml and Doxycycline (30 µg/ml) showed an inhibitory effect toward all tested deteriorative pathogens with a minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of 25%. Cytotoxicity test confirmed that microbial filtrate as the antimicrobial agent was safe for healthy human skin fibroblast with IC50 of < 100% and cell viability of 97%. Gas chromatography analysis recorded the existence of thirteen antimicrobial agents, Cis-vaccenic acid; 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid; ç-Butyl-ç-butyrolactone and other compounds. Colorimetric measurements confirmed no color or surface change for the limestone-treated pieces. The use of the metabolite of microbial species antimicrobial as a biocontrol agent raises contemporary issues concerning the bio-protection of the Egyptian monuments to reduce chemical formulas that are toxic to humans and pollute the environment. Such serious problems need further investigation for all kinds of monuments.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Streptomyces , Humanos , Egito , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Streptomyces/metabolismo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
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