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1.
Vet Microbiol ; 290: 109992, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306769

RESUMO

Brachyspira species are Gram negative, anaerobic bacteria that colonise the gut of many animals, including poultry. In poultry, Brachyspira species can be commensal (B. innocens, B. murdochii, 'B. pulli') or pathogenic (B. pilosicoli, B. intermedia, B. alvinipulli or rarely B. hyodysenteriae), the latter causing avian intestinal spirochaetosis (AIS). Antimicrobial therapy options for treatment is limited, frequently involving administration of the pleuromutilin, tiamulin, in water. In this study 38 Brachyspira isolates from chickens in the UK, representing both commensal and pathogenic species, were whole genome sequenced to identify antimicrobial resistance (AMR) mechanisms and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to a number of antimicrobials was also determined. We identified several new variants of blaOXA in B. pilosicoli and B. pulli isolates, and variations in tva which led to two new tva variants in B.murdochii and B.pulli. A number of isolates also harboured mutations known to encode AMR in the 16S and 23S rRNA genes. The percentage of isolates that were genotypically multi-drug resistance (MDR) was 16%, with the most common resistance profile being: tetracycline, pleuromutilin and beta-lactam, which were found in three 'B. pulli' and one B. pilosicoli. There was good correlation with the genotype and the corresponding antibiotic MIC phenotypes: pleuromutilins (tiamulin and valnemulin), macrolides (tylosin and tylvalosin), lincomycin and doxycycline. The occurrence of resistance determinants identified in this study in pathogenic Brachyspira, especially those which were MDR, is likely to impact treatment of AIS and clearance of infections on farm.


Assuntos
Brachyspira , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Galinhas/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Resistência beta-Lactâmica , Reino Unido , Diterpenos
2.
Microb Genom ; 9(12)2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38100178

RESUMO

Several bioinformatics genotyping algorithms are now commonly used to characterize antimicrobial resistance (AMR) gene profiles in whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data, with a view to understanding AMR epidemiology and developing resistance prediction workflows using WGS in clinical settings. Accurately evaluating AMR in Enterobacterales, particularly Escherichia coli, is of major importance, because this is a common pathogen. However, robust comparisons of different genotyping approaches on relevant simulated and large real-life WGS datasets are lacking. Here, we used both simulated datasets and a large set of real E. coli WGS data (n=1818 isolates) to systematically investigate genotyping methods in greater detail. Simulated constructs and real sequences were processed using four different bioinformatic programs (ABRicate, ARIBA, KmerResistance and SRST2, run with the ResFinder database) and their outputs compared. For simulation tests where 3079 AMR gene variants were inserted into random sequence constructs, KmerResistance was correct for 3076 (99.9 %) simulations, ABRicate for 3054 (99.2 %), ARIBA for 2783 (90.4 %) and SRST2 for 2108 (68.5 %). For simulation tests where two closely related gene variants were inserted into random sequence constructs, KmerResistance identified the correct alleles in 35 338/46 318 (76.3 %) simulations, ABRicate identified them in 11 842/46 318 (25.6 %) simulations, ARIBA identified them in 1679/46 318 (3.6 %) simulations and SRST2 identified them in 2000/46 318 (4.3 %) simulations. In real data, across all methods, 1392/1818 (76 %) isolates had discrepant allele calls for at least 1 gene. In addition to highlighting areas for improvement in challenging scenarios, (e.g. identification of AMR genes at <10× coverage, identifying multiple closely related AMR genes present in the same sample), our evaluations identified some more systematic errors that could be readily soluble, such as repeated misclassification (i.e. naming) of genes as shorter variants of the same gene present within the reference resistance gene database. Such naming errors accounted for at least 2530/4321 (59 %) of the discrepancies seen in real data. Moreover, many of the remaining discrepancies were likely 'artefactual', with reporting of cut-off differences accounting for at least 1430/4321 (33 %) discrepants. Whilst we found that comparing outputs generated by running multiple algorithms on the same dataset could identify and resolve these algorithmic artefacts, the results of our evaluations emphasize the need for developing new and more robust genotyping algorithms to further improve accuracy and performance.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Genômica , Escherichia coli/genética , Biologia Computacional , Alelos , Algoritmos
3.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 76(11)2023 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37942558

RESUMO

This study compared the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of Escherichia coli detected from single samples vs. pooled samples at herd level. The national monitoring dataset included isolates from one sample per pig holding, whereas the research study included isolates from pooled samples of 10 pigs per holding. In both datasets, caecal samples were collected from healthy pigs randomly selected at slaughterhouses and plated on non-selective and antibiotic selective media. Resistance against a panel of nine antibiotics was compared between datasets by generalized linear mixed effects models (GLMMs) and by bootstrapped generalized linear model (GLM) to account for pooling. The highest proportion of resistant E. coli was observed against tetracycline and ampicillin in both datasets. In non-selective media, single and pooled samples showed similar results, but the bootstrapped GLM detected significantly lower resistance to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid in the national dataset. In selective media, a significantly greater proportion of resistant isolates was observed in the research dataset for ceftazidime (OR: 0.05, 95%CI = 0.01-0.42) and nalidixic acid (OR: 0.15, 95%CI = 0.05-0.51). The results suggest that one sample per holding provides similar information on AMR at herd level as pooled samples for most of the tested antibiotics, although less resistance to ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, and nalidixic acid was detected.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Escherichia coli , Suínos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Ácido Nalidíxico , Ceftazidima , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Ciprofloxacina , Reino Unido
5.
Phage (New Rochelle) ; 4(1): 11-25, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37214653

RESUMO

We examined the activity of phages to control the growth of chicken and swine Salmonella strains in avian (CHIC-8E11), porcine (IPEC-1), and human (HT-29) cell cultures. We optimized a six-phage cocktail by selecting the five most effective myoviruses and a siphovirus that have optimal lysis on prevalent serovars. We observed ∼20% of 7 log10 PFU/well phage and 3-6 log10 CFU bacterial adhesions, and 3-5 log10 CFU bacterial invasion per 2 cm2 of the cultured cells at 2 h post-treatment. The invasive bacteria when plated had a variable reduced susceptibility to the phages. After phage application at an MOI of 10, the prophylaxis regimen had better efficacy at controlling bacterial growth with an up to 6 log10 CFU/well reduction as compared with the 1-2 log10 CFU/well bacterial reduction observed in the remedial and coinfection regimens. Our data support the development of these phages to control salmonellosis in chickens, pigs, and humans.

6.
Front Microbiol ; 14: 1166615, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37234523

RESUMO

Salmonella is a food-borne pathogen often linked to poultry sources, causing gastrointestinal infections in humans, with the numbers of multidrug resistant (MDR) isolates increasing globally. To gain insight into the genomic diversity of common serovars and their potential contribution to disease, we characterized antimicrobial resistance genes, and virulence factors encoded in 88 UK and 55 Thai isolates from poultry; the presence of virulence genes was detected through an extensive virulence determinants database compiled in this study. Long-read sequencing of three MDR isolates, each from a different serovar, was used to explore the links between virulence and resistance. To augment current control methods, we determined the sensitivity of isolates to 22 previously characterized Salmonella bacteriophages. Of the 17 serovars included, Salmonella Typhimurium and its monophasic variants were the most common, followed by S. Enteritidis, S. Mbandaka, and S. Virchow. Phylogenetic analysis of Typhumurium and monophasic variants showed poultry isolates were generally distinct from pigs. Resistance to sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin was highest in isolates from the UK and Thailand, respectively, with 14-15% of all isolates being MDR. We noted that >90% of MDR isolates were likely to carry virulence genes as diverse as the srjF, lpfD, fhuA, and stc operons. Long-read sequencing revealed the presence of global epidemic MDR clones in our dataset, indicating they are possibly widespread in poultry. The clones included MDR ST198 S. Kentucky, harboring a Salmonella Genomic Island-1 (SGI)-K, European ST34 S. 1,4,[5],12:i:-, harboring SGI-4 and mercury-resistance genes, and a S. 1,4,12:i:- isolate from the Spanish clone harboring an MDR-plasmid. Testing of all isolates against a panel of bacteriophages showed variable sensitivity to phages, with STW-77 found to be the most effective. STW-77 lysed 37.76% of the isolates, including serovars important for human clinical infections: S. Enteritidis (80.95%), S. Typhimurium (66.67%), S. 1,4,[5],12:i:- (83.3%), and S. 1,4,12: i:- (71.43%). Therefore, our study revealed that combining genomics and phage sensitivity assays is promising for accurately identifying and providing biocontrols for Salmonella to prevent its dissemination in poultry flocks and through the food chain to cause infections in humans.

7.
Front Microbiol ; 14: 1070340, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36998408

RESUMO

Introduction: There are concerns that antimicrobial usage (AMU) is driving an increase in multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria so treatment of microbial infections is becoming harder in humans and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate factors, including usage, that affect antimicrobial resistance (AMR) on farm over time. Methods: A population of 14 cattle, sheep and pig farms within a defined area of England were sampled three times over a year to collect data on AMR in faecal Enterobacterales flora; AMU; and husbandry or management practices. Ten pooled samples were collected at each visit, with each comprising of 10 pinches of fresh faeces. Up to 14 isolates per visit were whole genome sequenced to determine presence of AMR genes. Results: Sheep farms had very low AMU in comparison to the other species and very few sheep isolates were genotypically resistant at any time point. AMR genes were detected persistently across pig farms at all visits, even on farms with low AMU, whereas AMR bacteria was consistently lower on cattle farms than pigs, even for those with comparably high AMU. MDR bacteria was also more commonly detected on pig farms than any other livestock species. Discussion: The results may be explained by a complex combination of factors on pig farms including historic AMU; co-selection of AMR bacteria; variation in amounts of antimicrobials used between visits; potential persistence in environmental reservoirs of AMR bacteria; or importation of pigs with AMR microbiota from supplying farms. Pig farms may also be at increased risk of AMR due to the greater use of oral routes of group antimicrobial treatment, which were less targeted than cattle treatments; the latter mostly administered to individual animals. Also, farms which exhibited either increasing or decreasing trends of AMR across the study did not have corresponding trends in their AMU. Therefore, our results suggest that factors other than AMU on individual farms are important for persistence of AMR bacteria on farms, which may be operating at the farm and livestock species level.

8.
Elife ; 122023 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36961866

RESUMO

Plasmids enable the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in common Enterobacterales pathogens, representing a major public health challenge. However, the extent of plasmid sharing and evolution between Enterobacterales causing human infections and other niches remains unclear, including the emergence of resistance plasmids. Dense, unselected sampling is essential to developing our understanding of plasmid epidemiology and designing appropriate interventions to limit the emergence and dissemination of plasmid-associated AMR. We established a geographically and temporally restricted collection of human bloodstream infection (BSI)-associated, livestock-associated (cattle, pig, poultry, and sheep faeces, farm soils) and wastewater treatment work (WwTW)-associated (influent, effluent, waterways upstream/downstream of effluent outlets) Enterobacterales. Isolates were collected between 2008 and 2020 from sites <60 km apart in Oxfordshire, UK. Pangenome analysis of plasmid clusters revealed shared 'backbones', with phylogenies suggesting an intertwined ecology where well-conserved plasmid backbones carry diverse accessory functions, including AMR genes. Many plasmid 'backbones' were seen across species and niches, raising the possibility that plasmid movement between these followed by rapid accessory gene change could be relatively common. Overall, the signature of identical plasmid sharing is likely to be a highly transient one, implying that plasmid movement might be occurring at greater rates than previously estimated, raising a challenge for future genomic One Health studies.


Assuntos
Gammaproteobacteria , Sepse , Humanos , Animais , Bovinos , Suínos , Ovinos/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Gado/genética , Águas Residuárias , Plasmídeos/genética , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Reino Unido , Antibacterianos , beta-Lactamases/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
9.
Front Microbiol ; 14: 1335173, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38352060

RESUMO

Introduction: Surveillance is vital for monitoring the increasing risk of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacteria leading to failures in humans and animals to treat infections. In a One Health context, AMR bacteria from livestock and food can transfer through the food chain to humans, and vice versa, which can be characterized in detail through genomics. We investigated the critical aspects of AMR and the dynamics of AMR in poultry in the UK. Methods: In this study, we performed whole genome sequencing for genomic characterization of 761 extended-spectrum cephalosporinases (ESCs) harboring Escherichia coli isolated from poultry caeca and meat through EU harmonized monitoring of AMR in zoonotic and commensal bacteria from 2016 and 2018 and UK national monitoring in 2020. Results: The most common ESC in 2016 and 2018 was blaCTX-M-1; however, 2020 had a greater diversity of ESCs with blaCTX-M-55 dominant in chickens and blaCTX-M-15 more prevalent in turkeys. Co-resistance to sulphonamides, tetracycline, and trimethoprim was widespread, and there were several positive correlations between the sequence types (STs) and ESC genes. We identified certain AMR genotypes and STs that were frequent each year but not as successful in subsequent years, e.g., ST350 harboring blaCTX-M-1, sul2, and tetA-v4.Phylogenetic comparison of isolates prevalent in our panel with global ones from the same STs available in public databases showed that isolates from the UK generally clustered together, suggesting greater within-country than between-country transmission. Discussion: We conclude that future genomic surveillance of indicator organisms will be invaluable as it will enable detailed comparisons of AMR between and within neighboring countries, potentially identifying the most successful sequence types, plasmids, or emerging threats.

10.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 955136, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36299725

RESUMO

Acute non-typhoidal salmonellosis (NTS) caused by a Gram-negative bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Tm) is one of the most common bacterial foodborne diseases worldwide. Bacteriophages (phages) can specifically target and lyse their host bacteria, including the multidrug-resistant strains, without collateral damage to other bacteria in the community. However, the therapeutic use of Salmonella phages in vivo is still poorly investigated. Salmonella phages ST-W77 and SE-W109 have previously been shown by our group to be useful for biocontrol properties. Here, we tested whether phages ST-W77 and SE-W109 can reduce Salmonella invasion into cultured human cells and confer a therapeutic benefit for acute NTS in a mammalian host. Human colonocytes, T84 cells, were treated with phages ST-W77, SE-W109, and its combination for 5 min before S. Tm infection. Gentamicin protection assays demonstrated that ST-W77 and SE-W109 significantly reduced S. Tm invasion and inflammatory response in human colonocytes. Next, streptomycin-pretreated mice were orally infected with S. Tm (108 CFU/mouse) and treated with a single or a combination of ST-W77 and SE-W109 (1010 PFU/mouse for 4 days) by oral feeding. Our data showed that phage-treated mice had lower S. Tm numbers and tissue inflammation compared to the untreated mice. Our study also revealed that ST-W77 and SE-W109 persist in the mouse gut lumen, but not in systemic sites. Together, these data suggested that Salmonella phages ST-W77 and SE-W109 could be further developed as an alternative approach for treating an acute NTS in mammalian hosts.

11.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 937968, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35935201

RESUMO

The rise in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacteria is reducing therapeutic options for livestock and human health, with a paucity of information globally. To fill this gap, a One-Health approach was taken by sampling livestock on farms (n = 52), abattoir (n = 8), and animal markets (n = 10), and in-contact humans in Southeast Nigeria. Extended spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant (ESC-R) Escherichia coli was selectively cultured from 975 healthy livestock faecal swabs, and hand swabs from in-contact humans. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) was performed on all ESC-R E. coli. For isolates showing a multi-drug resistance (MDR) phenotype (n = 196), quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was performed for confirmation of extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) and carbapenemase genes. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was performed on a subset (n = 157) for detailed molecular characterisation. The results showed ESC-R E. coli was present in 41.2% of samples, with AST results indicating 48.8% of isolates were phenotypically MDR. qPCR confirmed presence of ESBL genes, with bla CTX-M present in all but others in a subset [bla TEM (62.8%) and bla SHV (0.5%)] of isolates; none harboured transferable carbapenemase genes. Multi-locus sequence typing identified 34 Sequence Types (ST) distributed among different sampling levels; ST196 carrying bla CTX-M-55 was predominant in chickens. Large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the core genome of isolates, even within the same clade by phylogenetic analysis, indicated high genetic diversity. AMR genotyping indicated the predominant bla CTX-M variant was bla CTX-M-15 (87.9%), although bla CTX-M-55, bla CTX-M-64, and bla CTX-M-65 were present; it was notable that bla CTX-M-1, common in livestock, was absent. Other predominant AMR genes included: sul2, qnrS1, strB, bla TEM-1b, tetA-v2, and dfrA14, with prevalence varying according to host livestock species. A bla CTX-M-15 harbouring plasmid from livestock isolates in Ebonyi showed high sequence identity to one from river/sewage water in India, indicating this ESBL plasmid to be globally disseminated, being present beyond the river environment. In conclusion, ESC-R E. coli was widespread in livestock and in-contact humans from Southeast Nigeria. WGS data indicated the isolates were genetically highly diverse, probably representing true diversity of wild type E. coli; they were likely to be MDR with several harbouring bla CTX-M-15. Surprisingly, human isolates had highest numbers of AMR genes and pigs the least.

12.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 75(2): 224-233, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35388505

RESUMO

This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of a screening protocol to detect and isolate mcr-positive Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. from animal caecal content and meat samples. We used a multicentre approach involving 12 laboratories from nine European countries. All participants applied the same methodology combining a multiplex PCR performed on DNA extracted from a pre-enrichment step, followed by a selective culture step on three commercially available chromogenic agar plates. The test panel was composed of two negative samples and four samples artificially contaminated with E. coli and Salmonella spp. respectively harbouring mcr-1 or mcr-3 and mcr-4 or mcr-5 genes. PCR screening resulted in a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 83%. Sensitivity of each agar medium to detect mcr-positive colistin-resistant E. coli or Salmonella spp. strains was 86% for CHROMID® Colistin R, 75% for CHROMagarTM COL-APSE and 70% for COLISTIGRAM. This combined method was effective to detect and isolate most of the E. coli or Salmonella spp. strains harbouring different mcr genes from food-producing animals and food products and might thus be used as a harmonized protocol for the screening of mcr genes in food-producing animals and food products in Europe.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Carne , Salmonella , Ágar , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Colistina/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Carne/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Plasmídeos , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação
13.
Microb Genom ; 8(3)2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35344479

RESUMO

Food animals may be reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) passing through the food chain, but little is known about AMR prevalence in bacteria when selective pressure from antimicrobials is low or absent. We monitored antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli over 1 year in a UK outdoor pig farm with low antimicrobial usage (AMU) compared to conventional pig farms in the United Kingdom. Short and selected long-read whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was performed to identify AMR genes, phylogeny and mobile elements in 385 E. coli isolates purified mainly from pig and some seagull faeces. Generally, low levels of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli were present, probably due to low AMU. Those present were likely to be multi-drug resistant (MDR) and belonging to particular Sequence Types (STs) such as ST744, ST88 or ST44, with shared clones (<14 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) apart) isolated from different time points indicating epidemiological linkage within pigs of different ages, and between pig and the wild bird faeces. Although importance of horizontal transmission of AMR is well established, there was limited evidence of plasmid-mediated dissemination between different STs. Non-conjugable MDR plasmids or large AMR gene-bearing transposons were stably integrated within the chromosome and remained associated with particular STs/clones over the time period sampled. Heavy metal resistance genes were also detected within some genetic elements. This study highlights that although low levels of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli correlates with low AMU, a basal level of MDR E. coli can still persist on farm potentially due to transmission and recycling of particular clones within different pig groups. Environmental factors such as wild birds and heavy metal contaminants may also play important roles in the recycling and dissemination, and hence enabling persistence of MDR E. coli. All such factors need to be considered as any rise in AMU on low usage farms, could in future, result in a significant increase in their AMR burden.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Fazendas , Genômica , Suínos
16.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 713233, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531838

RESUMO

Brachyspira hyodysenteriae is the principal cause of swine dysentery, a disease that threatens economic productivity of pigs in many countries as it can spread readily within and between farms, and only a small number of antimicrobials are authorized for treatment of pigs. In this study, we performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of 81 B. hyodysenteriae archived at the Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA) from diagnostic submissions and herd monitoring in England and Wales between 2004 and 2015. The resulting genome sequences were analyzed alongside 34 genomes we previously published. Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) showed a diverse population with 32 sequence types (STs) among the 115 APHA isolates, 25 of them identified only in England; while also confirming that the dominant European clonal complexes, CC8 and CC52, were common in the United Kingdom. A core-genome SNP tree typically clustered the isolates by ST, with isolates from some STs detected only within a specific region in England, although others were more widespread, suggesting transmission between different regions. Also, some STs were more conserved in their core genome than others, despite these isolates being from different holdings, regions and years. Minimum inhibitory concentrations to commonly used antimicrobials (Tiamulin, Valnemulin, Doxycycline, Lincomycin, Tylosin, Tylvalosin) were determined for 82 of the genome-sequenced isolates; genomic analysis revealed mutations generally correlated well with the corresponding resistance phenotype. There was a major swine dysentery intervention program in 2009-2010, and antimicrobial survival curves showed a significant reduction in sensitivity to tiamulin and valnemulin in isolates collected in and after 2010, compared to earlier isolates. This correlated with a significant increase in post-2009 isolates harboring the pleuromutilin resistance gene tva(A), which if present, may facilitate higher levels of resistance. The reduction in susceptibility of Brachyspira from diagnostic submissions to pleuromutilins, emphasizes the need for prudent treatment, control and eradication strategies.

18.
Sci Adv ; 7(15)2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837077

RESUMO

Escherichia coli and other Enterobacteriaceae are diverse species with "open" pangenomes, where genes move intra- and interspecies via horizontal gene transfer. However, most analyses focus on clinical isolates. The pangenome dynamics of natural populations remain understudied, despite their suggested role as reservoirs for antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes. Here, we analyze near-complete genomes for 827 Enterobacteriaceae (553 Escherichia and 274 non-Escherichia spp.) with 2292 circularized plasmids in total, collected from 19 locations (livestock farms and wastewater treatment works in the United Kingdom) within a 30-km radius at three time points over a year. We find different dynamics for chromosomal and plasmid-borne genes. Plasmids have a higher burden of AMR genes and insertion sequences, and AMR-gene-carrying plasmids show evidence of being under stronger selective pressure. Environmental niche and local geography both play a role in shaping plasmid dynamics. Our results highlight the importance of local strategies for controlling the spread of AMR.

19.
ISME J ; 15(8): 2322-2335, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649550

RESUMO

F-type plasmids are diverse and of great clinical significance, often carrying genes conferring antimicrobial resistance (AMR) such as extended-spectrum ß-lactamases, particularly in Enterobacterales. Organising this plasmid diversity is challenging, and current knowledge is largely based on plasmids from clinical settings. Here, we present a network community analysis of a large survey of F-type plasmids from environmental (influent, effluent and upstream/downstream waterways surrounding wastewater treatment works) and livestock settings. We use a tractable and scalable methodology to examine the relationship between plasmid metadata and network communities. This reveals how niche (sampling compartment and host genera) partition and shape plasmid diversity. We also perform pangenome-style analyses on network communities. We show that such communities define unique combinations of core genes, with limited overlap. Building plasmid phylogenies based on alignments of these core genes, we demonstrate that plasmid accessory function is closely linked to core gene content. Taken together, our results suggest that stable F-type plasmid backbone structures can persist in environmental settings while allowing dramatic variation in accessory gene content that may be linked to niche adaptation. The association of F-type plasmids with AMR may reflect their suitability for rapid niche adaptation.


Assuntos
Gado , beta-Lactamases , Animais , Antibacterianos , Genômica , Filogenia , Plasmídeos/genética , beta-Lactamases/genética
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19880, 2020 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199763

RESUMO

To tackle the problem of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance programmes are in place within Europe applying phenotypic methods, but there are plans for implementing whole genome sequencing (WGS). We tested the benefits of WGS using Escherichia coli collected from pig surveillance performed between 2013 to 2017. WGS was performed on 498 E. coli producing ESBL and AmpC enzymes, recovered from pig caeca on MacConkey + cefotaxime (McC + CTX) agar, as recommended by the European Commission, or ESBL agar, used additionally by United Kingdom. Our results indicated WGS was extremely useful for monitoring trends for specific ESBL genes, as well as a plethora of AMR genotypes, helping to establish their prevalence and co-linkage to certain plasmids. Recovery of isolates with multi-drug resistance (MDR) genotypes was lower from McC + CTX than ESBL agar. The most widespread ESBL genes belonged to the blaCTX-M family. blaCTX-M-1 dominated all years, and was common in two highly stable IncI1 MDR plasmids harbouring (blaCTX-M-1,sul2, tetA) or (blaCTX-M-1, aadA5, sul2, dfrA17), in isolates which were phylogenetically dissimilar, suggesting plasmid transmission. Therefore, WGS provided a wealth of data on prevalence of AMR genotypes and plasmid persistence absent from phenotypic data and, also, demonstrated the importance of culture media for detecting ESBL E. coli.


Assuntos
Meios de Cultura/química , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Escherichia coli/classificação , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Genoma Bacteriano , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Filogenia , Plasmídeos/genética , Vigilância da População , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , beta-Lactamases/genética
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