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1.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1368622, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38741889

RESUMO

There is scarce information concerning the role of sporadic clones in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) within the nosocomial niche. We confirmed that the clinical Escherichia coli M19736 ST615 strain, one of the first isolates of Latin America that harbors a plasmid with an mcr-1 gene, could receive crucial ARG by transformation and conjugation using as donors critical plasmids that harbor bla CTX-M-15, bla KPC-2, bla NDM-5, bla NDM-1, or aadB genes. Escherichia coli M19736 acquired bla CTX-M-15, bla KPC-2, bla NDM-5, bla NDM-1, and aadB genes, being only blaNDM-1 maintained at 100% on the 10th day of subculture. In addition, when the evolved MDR-E. coli M19736 acquired sequentially bla CTX-M-15 and bla NDM-1 genes, the maintenance pattern of the plasmids changed. In addition, when the evolved XDR-E. coli M19736 acquired in an ulterior step the paadB plasmid, a different pattern of the plasmid's maintenance was found. Interestingly, the evolved E. coli M19736 strains disseminated simultaneously the acquired conjugative plasmids in different combinations though selection was ceftazidime in all cases. Finally, we isolated and characterized the extracellular vesicles (EVs) from the native and evolved XDR-E. coli M19736 strains. Interestingly, EVs from the evolved XDR-E. coli M19736 harbored bla CTX-M-15 though the pDCAG1-CTX-M-15 was previously lost as shown by WGS and experiments, suggesting that EV could be a relevant reservoir of ARG for susceptible bacteria. These results evidenced the genetic plasticity of a sporadic clone of E. coli such as ST615 that could play a relevant transitional link in the clinical dynamics and evolution to multidrug/extensively/pandrug-resistant phenotypes of superbugs within the nosocomial niche by acting simultaneously as a vector and reservoir of multiple ARGs which later could be disseminated.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Infecções por Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Plasmídeos , beta-Lactamases , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmídeos/genética , Humanos , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , beta-Lactamases/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Conjugação Genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , América Latina , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética
2.
Nutrients ; 16(8)2024 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38674912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hip fractures are prevalent among older people, often leading to reduced mobility, muscle loss, and bone density decline. Malnutrition exacerbates the prognosis post surgery. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of a 12-week regimen of a high-calorie, high-protein oral supplement with ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HC-HP-HMB-ONS) on nutritional status, daily activities, and compliance in malnourished or at-risk older patients with hip fractures receiving standard care. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 270 subjects ≥75 years of age, residing at home or in nursing homes, malnourished or at risk of malnutrition, and post hip fracture surgery, received HC-HP-HMB-ONS for 12 weeks. Various scales and questionnaires assessed outcomes. RESULTS: During the 12 weeks of follow-up, 82.8% consumed ≥75% of HC-HP-HMB-ONS. By week 12, 62.4% gained or maintained weight (+0.3 kg), 29.2% achieved normal nutritional status (mean MNA score +2.8), and 46.8% improved nutritional status. Biochemical parameters improved significantly. Subjects reported good tolerability (mean score 8.5/10), with 87.1% of healthcare providers concurring. CONCLUSIONS: The administration of HC-HP-HMB-ONS markedly enhanced nutritional status and biochemical parameters in older hip-fracture patients, with high compliance and tolerability. Both patients and healthcare professionals expressed satisfaction with HC-HP-HMB-ONS.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Fraturas do Quadril , Desnutrição , Estado Nutricional , Valeratos , Humanos , Idoso , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Prospectivos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Desnutrição/etiologia , Valeratos/administração & dosagem , Dieta Rica em Proteínas , Administração Oral , Ingestão de Energia , Proteínas Alimentares/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 81(1): 10-15, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38503328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exclusive breastfeeding (BF) has the greatest potential impact on child mortality of any preventive intervention. Skin-to-skin contact (SSC) during the first hour of life is beneficial for initiating BF; however, routine separation of mother and infant is still common. This work aimed to demonstrate that SSC during the first hour of life is associated with a greater frequency and duration of exclusive BF. METHODS: This is an observational case-control study. We reviewed the medical records of patients born between 2016 and 2022 classified as cases or controls based on the history of SSC in the first hour of life. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 28. RESULTS: We included 362 medical records, of which 200 (55.2%) had SSC and were considered cases; the 162 (44.8%) who did not have SSC were considered controls. Those who received SSC were more likely to receive exclusive BF at 3 (163 [81.5%] vs. 94 [58%], p < 0.001) and 6 months of age (147 [73.5%] vs. 83 [51.2%], p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients who received SSC in the first hour of life were more likely to receive exclusive BF at 3 and 6 months of age. Promoting and respecting this practice is essential to increase the possibility of a newborn to be exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months of life.


INTRODUCCIÓN: La lactancia materna exclusiva (LME) es la intervención preventiva con mayor impacto en mortalidad infantil. El contacto piel con piel (CPP) durante la primera hora de vida es un periodo crítico para establecer la lactancia; sin embargo, la separación rutinaria del recién nacido de su madre es frecuente. El objetivo de este trabajo fue demostrar que el CPP durante la primera hora se asocia con mayor frecuencia y duración de LME. MÉTODOS: Se llevó a cabo un estudio observacional de casos y controles. Se revisaron expedientes de pacientes de nuestra consulta pediátrica que nacieron entre 2016 y 2022. Se clasificaron como casos y controles de acuerdo con el antecedente de haber recibido CPP durante la primera hora de vida. Se realizó el análisis estadístico en SPSS version 28. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 362 expedientes, de los cuales 200 (55.2%) recibieron CPP en la primera hora de vida y fueron considerados casos; los 162 (44.8%) que no lo hicieron fueron considerados controles. Aquellos que recibieron CPP tuvieron con mayor frecuencia LME a los 3 (163 [81.5%] vs. 94 [58%], p < 0.001) y 6 meses de edad (147 [73.5%] vs. 83 [51.2%], p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONES: La frecuencia con la cual los pacientes lograron tener lactancia materna exclusiva a los 3 y 6 meses es mayor en aquellos en los que se respeta el CPP en la primera hora de vida. Promover y respetar esta práctica es fundamental para incrementar las probabilidades de que los lactantes reciban LME durante sus primeros 6 meses de vida.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Mães , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Criança , Humanos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Projetos de Pesquisa , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto
4.
Curr Microbiol ; 81(3): 76, 2024 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38267719

RESUMO

Two metallo-ß-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (HA30 and HA31) were isolated in a hospital in Argentina during 2018. K. pneumoniae HA30 was isolated from a rectal swab during the epidemiological surveillance for carbapenemase-producing strains, while K. pneumoniae HA31 was collected from the same patient 4 days after hospitalization. The aim of the present study was to identify the clonal relationships and resistome of these two NDM-producing K. pneumoniae strains isolated from a patient with a fatal outcome. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was performed using Illumina MiSeq-I, and subsequent analysis involved genome assembly, annotation, antibiotic resistance gene identification, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and plasmid characterization using bioinformatics tools. Conjugation assays to E. coli J53 was conducted as previously described. K. pneumoniae HA30 exhibited extensively drug-resistant phenotype, while HA31 was multidrug-resistant as defined by Magiorakos et al., including both resistance to carbapenems, aminoglycosides and ciprofloxacin with blaNDM-5, blaCTX-M-15 and rmtB genes found in both strains. MLST analysis showed that both strains belonged to ST11, differing by only 4 cgSNPs, indicating that K. pneumoniae HA30 and HA31 were the same strain. Conjugation assays revealed that K. pneumoniae HA31 strain possessed a transferable plasmid to E. coli J53. Bioinformatics studies identified that the same strain colonizing an inpatient during hospital admission subsequently caused the infection leading to a fatal outcome, being the first report of blaNDM-5, rmtB and blaCTX-M-15 genes in a K. pneumoniae ST11 strain from Latin America. Our results also highlighted the importance of focusing on epidemiological surveillance programs.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Genômica , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , beta-Lactamases/genética
5.
BMJ Open ; 14(1): e079130, 2024 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38167279

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: SARS-CoV-2 has impacted globally the care of chronic diseases. However, direct evidence from certain vulnerable communities, such as Indigenous communities in Latin America, is missing. We use observational data from a health district that primarily serves people of Maya K'iche' ethnicity to examine the care of type 2 diabetes in Guatemala during the pandemic. METHODS: We used a parallel convergent mixed methods design. Quantitative data (n=142 individuals with diabetes) included glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), blood pressure, body mass index and questionnaires on diabetes knowledge, self-care and diabetes distress. Quantitative data was collected at two points, at baseline and after COVID restrictions were lifted. For quantitative outcomes, we constructed multilevel mixed effects models with multiple imputation for missing data. Qualitative data included interviews with providers, supervisors and individuals living with diabetes (n=20). We conducted thematic framework analysis using an inductive approach. RESULTS: Quantitative data was collected between June 2019 and February 2021, with a median of 487 days between data collection points. HbA1c worsened +0.54% (95% CI, 0.14 to 0.94) and knowledge about diabetes decreased -3.54 points (95% CI, -4.56 to -2.51). Qualitatively, the most important impact of the pandemic was interruption of the regular timing of home visits and peer group meetings which were the standard of care. CONCLUSIONS: The deterioration of diabetes care was primarily attributed to the loss of regular contact with healthcare workers. The results emphasize the vulnerability of rural and Indigenous populations in Latin America to the suspension of chronic disease care.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , SARS-CoV-2 , Hemoglobinas Glicadas , Guatemala/epidemiologia
6.
Plant Reprod ; 2023 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38019279

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: The miR822 together with of AGO9 protein, modulates monosporic development in Arabidopsis thaliana through the regulation of target genes encoding Cysteine/Histidine-Rich C1 domain proteins, revealing a new role of miRNAs in the control of megaspore formation in flowering plants. In the ovule of flowering plants, the establishment of the haploid generation occurs when a somatic cell differentiates into a megaspore mother cell (MMC) and initiates meiosis. As most flowering plants, Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) undergoes a monosporic type of gametogenesis as three meiotically derived cells degenerate, and a single one-the functional megaspore (FM), divides mitotically to form the female gametophyte. The genetic basis and molecular mechanisms that control monosporic gametophyte development remain largely unknown. Here, we show that Arabidopsis plants carrying loss-of-function mutations in the miR822, give rise to extranumerary surviving megaspores that acquire a FM identity and divides without giving rise to differentiated female gametophytes. The overexpression of three miR822 putative target genes encoding cysteine/histidine-rich C1 (DC1) domain proteins, At5g02350, At5g02330 and At2g13900 results in defects equivalent to those found in mutant mir822 plants. The three miR822 targets genes are overexpressed in ago9 mutant ovules, suggesting that miR822 acts through an AGO9-dependent pathway to negatively regulate DC1 domain proteins and restricts the survival of meiotically derived cells to a single megaspore. Our results identify a mechanism mediated by the AGO9-miR822 complex that modulates monosporic female gametogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

7.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 32: 108-112, 2023 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36708770

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The worldwide dissemination of carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli lineages belonging to high-risk clones poses a challenging public health menace. The aim of this work was to investigate genomic features of a colonizing multidrug-resistant strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing E. coli from our institution. METHODS: Whole-genome sequencing was done by Illumina MiSeq-I, and de novo assembly was achieved using SPAdes. Resistome, mobilome, plasmids, virulome, and integrons were analysed using ResFinder, AMRFinder, ISFinder, PlasmidFinder, MOB-suite, VirulenceFinder, and IntegronFinder. Sequence types (STs) were identified with pubMLST and BIGSdb databases. Conjugation assays were also performed. RESULTS: Escherichia coli HA25pEc was isolated from a rectal swab sample taken within the framework of the hospital epidemiological surveillance protocol for detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales. Escherichia coli HA25pEc corresponded to the first report of ST648 co-harbouring blaKPC-2 and blaCTX-M-15 in Latin America from a colonized patient. It had 19 antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), including blaKPC-2, located on a Tn4401a isoform. Conjugation assays revealed that blaKPC-2 was not transferred by conjugation to E. coli J53 under our experimental conditions. CONCLUSION: Escherichia coli ST648 has been detected previously in companion and farm animals as well as in hospital- and community-acquired infections worldwide. Although scarcely reported as KPC-producers, our finding in a culture surveillance with several acquired ARGs, including blaCTX-M-15, alerts the potential of this clone for worldwide unnoticed spreading of extreme drug resistance to ß-lactams. These data reinforce the importance of carrying out molecular surveillance to identify reservoirs and warn about the dissemination of new international clones in carbapenemase-bearing patients.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , beta-Lactamases/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Genômica , Hospitais
8.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 79(6): 341-349, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36477433

RESUMO

As health professionals, we have memorized that "newborns can lose up to 10% of their birth weight during the first week of life and should regain it by two weeks of age". However, this statement, which appears so accurate, comes from studies conducted in the 1960s, when medical knowledge and how newborns were fed were utterly different from what it is today. Currently, multiple factors contribute to the percentage of weight loss at birth and the rate at which this weight is regained. There are nomograms for exclusively breastfed and formula-fed newborns and those by vaginal or cesarean delivery. To meet the World Health Organization's goal of exclusively breastfeeding newborns, it is essential to recognize that "loss of more than 10% of birth weight" does not represent the need for formula supplementation. When assessing these cases, we must consider several factors that influence the percentage of weight loss in newborns. Therefore, diagnostic decisions should always be individualized in favor of breastfeeding.


Como profesionales de la salud hemos memorizado que "los recién nacidos pueden perder hasta el 10% de su peso al nacimiento durante la primera semana de vida, y deben recuperarlo al cumplir 2 semanas de vida". Sin embargo, esta afirmación, que aparenta ser matemáticamente exacta, proviene de estudios realizados en la década de los 60, cuando el conocimiento médico y la forma de alimentar a los recién nacidos era completamente diferente a lo que es ahora. Actualmente se reconocen múltiples factores que pueden influir en el porcentaje de pérdida de peso al nacimiento y el ritmo con el cual se recupera este peso. Se cuenta con diferentes nomogramas para recién nacidos alimentados exclusivamente con leche materna y aquellos alimentados con fórmula láctea, e incluso aquellos nacidos por cesárea o por vía vaginal. Para que se logre apoyar la meta de la Organización Mundial de la Salud de alimentar exclusivamente con leche materna a los recién nacidos, es imprescindible reconocer que la "pérdida de más del 10% del peso al nacimiento" no representa por sí sola la necesidad de suplementación artificial. Al evaluar estos casos, se deben considerar varios factores que influyen en el porcentaje de peso que pierde un recién nacido. Por ello, las decisiones diagnósticas deben ser siempre individualizadas en favor de la lactancia materna.


Assuntos
Redução de Peso , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Peso ao Nascer
9.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 79(6): 341-349, Nov.-Dec. 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429923

RESUMO

Abstract As health professionals, we have memorized that "newborns can lose up to 10% of their birth weight during the first week of life and should regain it by two weeks of age". However, this statement, which appears so accurate, comes from studies conducted in the 1960s, when medical knowledge and how newborns were fed were utterly different from what it is today. Currently, multiple factors contribute to the percentage of weight loss at birth and the rate at which this weight is regained. There are nomograms for exclusively breastfed and formula-fed newborns and those by vaginal or cesarean delivery. To meet the World Health Organization's goal of exclusively breastfeeding newborns, it is essential to recognize that "loss of more than 10% of birth weight" does not represent the need for formula supplementation. When assessing these cases, we must consider several factors that influence the percentage of weight loss in newborns. Therefore, diagnostic decisions should always be individualized in favor of breastfeeding.


Resumen Como profesionales de la salud hemos memorizado que "los recién nacidos pueden perder hasta el 10% de su peso al nacimiento durante la primera semana de vida, y deben recuperarlo al cumplir 2 semanas de vida". Sin embargo, esta afirmación, que aparenta ser matemáticamente exacta, proviene de estudios realizados en la década de los 60, cuando el conocimiento médico y la forma de alimentar a los recién nacidos era completamente diferente a lo que es ahora. Actualmente se reconocen múltiples factores que pueden influir en el porcentaje de pérdida de peso al nacimiento y el ritmo con el cual se recupera este peso. Se cuenta con diferentes nomogramas para recién nacidos alimentados exclusivamente con leche materna y aquellos alimentados con fórmula láctea, e incluso aquellos nacidos por cesárea o por vía vaginal. Para que se logre apoyar la meta de la Organización Mundial de la Salud de alimentar exclusivamente con leche materna a los recién nacidos, es imprescindible reconocer que la "pérdida de más del 10% del peso al nacimiento" no representa por sí sola la necesidad de suplementación artificial. Al evaluar estos casos, se deben considerar varios factores que influyen en el porcentaje de peso que pierde un recién nacido. Por ello, las decisiones diagnósticas deben ser siempre individualizadas en favor de la lactancia materna.

10.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 18: E100, 2021 12 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34882536

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To address the global diabetes epidemic, lifestyle counseling on diet, physical activity, and weight loss is essential. This study assessed the implementation of a diabetes self-management education and support (DSMES) intervention using a mixed-methods evaluation framework. METHODS: We implemented a culturally adapted, home-based DSMES intervention in rural Indigenous Maya towns in Guatemala from 2018 through 2020. We used a pretest-posttest design and a mixed-methods evaluation approach guided by the RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance) framework. Quantitative data included baseline characteristics, implementation metrics, effectiveness outcomes, and costs. Qualitative data consisted of semistructured interviews with 3 groups of stakeholders. RESULTS: Of 738 participants screened, 627 participants were enrolled, and 478 participants completed the study. Adjusted mean change in glycated hemoglobin A1c was -0.4% (95% CI, -0.6% to -0.3%; P < .001), change in systolic blood pressure was -5.0 mm Hg (95% CI, -6.4 to -3.7 mm Hg; P < .001), change in diastolic blood pressure was -2.6 mm Hg (95% CI, -3.4 to -1.9 mm Hg; P < .001), and change in body mass index was 0.5 (95% CI, 0.3 to 0.6; P < .001). We observed improvements in diabetes knowledge, distress, and most self-care activities. Key implementation factors included 1) recruitment barriers for men, 2) importance of patient-centered care, 3) role of research staff in catalyzing health worker involvement, 4) tradeoffs between home and telephone visits, and 5) sustainability challenges. CONCLUSION: A community health worker-led DSMES intervention was successfully implemented in the public health system in rural Guatemala and resulted in significant improvements in most clinical and psychometric outcomes. Scaling up sustainable DSMES in health systems in rural settings requires careful consideration of local barriers and facilitators.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Autogestão , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Guatemala , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , População Rural
11.
Odontol. vital ; (35)dic. 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1386452

RESUMO

Resumen Objetivo. Comparar posición condilar y espacio articular en articulación témporo-mandibular, en pacientes con y sin disfunción témporo-mandibular mediante tomografía Cone Beam. Métodos. Criterios diagnósticos de investigación para trastornos témporo-mandibulares Eje II, n=50 pacientes ambos sexos, edad comprendida 18 - 27 años. Muestra aleatoria n= 50 pacientes equivalente a 100 articulaciones, se obtuvo: n=25 pacientes sin disfunción témporo-mandibular, considerados asintomáticos 25 con y sin disfunción témporo-mandibulares, considerados sintomáticos. Mediante tomografía Cone Beam de articulación témporo-mandibular boca abierta - boca cerrada se avaluó de forma manual los espacios interarticulares. Resultados. El espacio condilar anterior en pacientes con y sin disfunción témporo-mandibular no presentó diferencia significativa, p=0,30. La posición condilar tampoco mostró diferencia significativa p=0,58. En pacientes con y sin disfunción témporo-mandibular (sintomáticos) la posición central y posterior del cóndilo (35,2%), pacientes con y sin disfunción témporo-mandibular (asintomáticos) la posición anterior y central fue más significativa (37,0%); seguido de la posición posterior del cóndilo (26,1%). Conclusión. No existe diferencia significativa en la posición condilar y el espacio interarticular en pacientes sintomáticos y asintomáticos.


Abstract Aim. To compare the condylar position and joint space of the temporomandibular join in individuals with and without temporomandibular dysfunction, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods. Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders Axis II (n= 50) patients both sexes, age 18 - 27 years. Random sample (n=50) patients equivalent to 100 joints, obtaining: n-25 patients without temporomandibular dysfunction, considered asymptomatic and 25 patients with and without temporomandibular dysfunction, considered symptomatic. By tomography Cone Beam of open mouth temporomandibular joint - closed mouth was manually evaluated the interarticular spaces. Results. The anterior condylar position space and condylar position not significantly different in induvials with and without temporomandibular dysfunction temporomandibular disorders p=0,30 and p=0,58, respectively. Conclusions. There is no significant difference in the condylar position and intraarticular.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome da Disfunção da Articulação Temporomandibular/diagnóstico , Côndilo Mandibular/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico
12.
Psychiatry J ; 2021: 5540786, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746297

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Anxiety and depression have a negative influence in the quality of life. The aim of the study was to determinate the levels of sensitivity and specificity of the Anxiety and Hospital Depression Scale (HADS) and compare the quality of life in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and depression or anxiety. METHODS: This study included 104 patients with diagnosis of IBD. Each patient received psychiatric intervention with SCID-I (Structured Clinical Interview for DSMIV Axis I Disorders) instrument as a gold standard to stablish the cut-off points of HADS. Quality of life was also evaluated with IBDQ-32. Demographic and clinical variables were collected. RESULTS: Most of the patients reported a high quality of life (73.1%, n = 76), while 25.0% (n = 26) express a moderate quality of life. The ROC curves for both psychiatric entities showed an adequate discriminative capacity of the HADS-anxiety dimension (AUC = 0.84, 95%CI = 0.76-0.92) with a limited discriminability of the HADS-depression dimension (AUC = 0.58, 95%CI = 0.46-0.70) using the proposed scoring of 8 as a cut-off point. CONCLUSIONS: Anxiety and depression impact negatively in the quality of life in Mexican patients with IBD. The Mexican version of HADS had acceptable internal consistency and external validity, with moderate sensitivity and specificity for clearly identifying clinical cases of anxiety and depression in patients with IBD.

13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34768822

RESUMO

The feeding behavior in fish is a complex activity that relies on the ability of the brain to integrate multiple signals to produce appropriate responses in terms of food intake, energy expenditure, and metabolic activity. Upon stress cues including viral infection or mediators such as the proinflammatory cytokines, prostaglandins, and cortisol, both Pomc and Npy/Agrp neurons from the hypothalamus are stimulated, thus triggering a response that controls both energy storage and expenditure. However, how appetite modulators or neuro-immune cues link pathogenesis and energy homeostasis in fish remains poorly understood. Here, we provide the first evidence of a molecular linkage between inflammation and food intake in Salmon salar. We show that in vivo viral challenge with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) impacts food consumption by activating anorexic genes such as mc4r, crf, and pomcb and 5-HT in the brain of S. salar. At the molecular level, viral infection induces an overall reduction in lipid content in the liver, favoring the production of AA and EPA associated with the increment of elovl2 gene. In addition, infection upregulates leptin signaling and inhibits insulin signaling. These changes are accompanied by a robust inflammatory response represented by the increment of Il-1b, Il-6, Tnfa, and Pge2 as well as an increased cortisol level in vivo. Thus, we propose a model in which hypothalamic neurons respond to inflammatory cytokines and stress-related molecules and interact with appetite induction/inhibition. These findings provide evidence of crosstalk between pathogenesis-driven inflammation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axes in stress-induced food intake behavior in fish.


Assuntos
Infecções por Birnaviridae , Comportamento Alimentar , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Inflamação , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Salmo salar/fisiologia , Animais , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Hipotálamo/fisiologia , Vírus da Necrose Pancreática Infecciosa , Insulina/metabolismo , Leptina/metabolismo , Salmo salar/metabolismo , Salmo salar/virologia , Transdução de Sinais
14.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(20)2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34685356

RESUMO

Due to its relatively simple structure, low-density polyethylene (LDPE) can be considered as a model polymer for the study of its properties. Herein, the effect of processing variables on the microstructure and crystallinity of injection-molded LDPE specimens was quantitatively determined. The polymer was injected at different temperature conditions in the barrel and the mold. The specimens were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. With the data obtained, an analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out, and response surface graphs (SRP) were constructed to quantify and to observe the behavior of the processing variables, respectively. Different models were obtained to predict the effect of the experimental factors on the response variables. The results showed that the interaction of the two temperatures has the greatest effect on the size of the spherulite, while the temperature of the mold affects the crystallinity. The SRP showed different behaviors: for the spherulite, the size increases with the mold temperature, while for the crystallinity, higher values were observed at an intermediate mold temperature and a low melt temperature. The results presented herein are valuable for setting empirical relations between the microstructure, crystallinity, and the molding conditions of LDPE.

15.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(8)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34451739

RESUMO

Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are a large protein family that mainly function in protecting cells from abiotic stress, but these proteins are also involved in regulating plant growth and development. In this study, we performed a functional analysis of LEA13 and LEA30 from Arabidopsis thaliana. The results showed that the expression of both genes increased when plants were subjected to drought-stressed conditions. The insertional lines lea13 and lea30 were identified for each gene, and both had a T-DNA element in the regulatory region, which caused the genes to be downregulated. Moreover, lea13 and lea30 were more sensitive to drought stress due to their higher transpiration and stomatal spacing. Microarray analysis of the lea13 background showed that genes involved in hormone signaling, stomatal development, and abiotic stress responses were misregulated. Our results showed that LEA proteins are involved in drought tolerance and participate in stomatal density.

16.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 81(4): 641-644, 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453808

RESUMO

Histoplasma capsulatum is an environmental fungus commonly found in the Ohio and Mississippi River valleys, Central and South America, and Asia. The most affected areas in Argentina are the Paraná and de La Plata river basins. Patients with histoplasmosis can have a wide range of clinical presentations. Most of them are asymptomatic, while those with compromised cellular immunity are at increased risk for the disseminated form. We present the case of a patient undergoing treatment with methotrexate for seronegative arthritis who developed the disseminated form of the disease, and who represented a diagnostic challenge due to the difficulty in identifying the etiologic agent.


Histoplasma capsulatum es un hongo ambiental que se encuentra distribuido comúnmente en los valles de los ríos Ohio y Mississippi, América Central, Sudamérica y Asia. Las zonas más afectadas en Argentina son las cuencas de los ríos Paraná y de La Plata. Los pacientes con histoplasmosis tienen una amplia variedad de manifestaciones clínicas. La mayoría son asintomáticos, mientras que aquellos con compromiso de la inmunidad celular tienen un riesgo aumentado de padecer la forma diseminada. Presentamos el caso de una mujer adulta, en tratamiento con metotrexato por una artritis seronegativa, que desarrolló la forma diseminada de la enfermedad, y que representó un desafío diagnóstico debido a la dificultad para identificar el agente etiológico.


Assuntos
Artrite , Histoplasmose , Argentina , Artrite/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Histoplasma , Histoplasmose/diagnóstico , Histoplasmose/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Metotrexato
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The communication between the brain and the immune system is a cornerstone in animal physiology. This interaction is mediated by immune factors acting in both health and pathogenesis, but it is unclear how these systems molecularly and mechanistically communicate under changing environmental conditions. Behavioural fever is a well-conserved immune response that promotes dramatic changes in gene expression patterns during ectotherms' thermoregulatory adaptation, including those orchestrating inflammation. However, the molecular regulators activating the inflammatory reflex in ectotherms remain unidentified. METHODS: We revisited behavioural fever by providing groups of fish a thermal gradient environment during infection. Our novel experimental setup created temperature ranges in which fish freely moved between different thermal gradients: (1) wide thermoregulatory range; T° = 6.4 °C; and (2) restricted thermoregulatory range; T° = 1.4 °C. The fish behaviour was investigated during 5-days post-viral infection. Blood, spleen, and brain samples were collected to determine plasmatic pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels. To characterize genes' functioning during behavioural fever, we performed a transcriptomic profiling of the fish spleen. We also measured the activity of neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine and acetylcholine in brain and peripheral tissues. RESULTS: We describe the first set of the neural components that control inflammatory modulation during behavioural fever. We identified a neuro-immune crosstalk as a potential mechanism promoting the fine regulation of inflammation. The development of behavioural fever upon viral infection triggers a robust inflammatory response in vivo, establishing an activation threshold after infection in several organs, including the brain. Thus, temperature shifts strongly impact on neural tissue, specifically on the inflammatory reflex network activation. At the molecular level, behavioural fever causes a significant increase in cholinergic neurotransmitters and their receptors' activity and key anti-inflammatory factors such as cytokine Il10 and Tgfß in target tissues. CONCLUSION: These results reveal a cholinergic neuronal-based mechanism underlying anti-inflammatory responses under induced fever. We performed the first molecular characterization of the behavioural fever response and inflammatory reflex activation in mobile ectotherms, identifying the role of key regulators of these processes. These findings provide genetic entry points for functional studies of the neural-immune adaptation to infection and its protective relevance in ectotherm organisms.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Infecções por Birnaviridae/complicações , Febre/patologia , Imunidade , Vírus da Necrose Pancreática Infecciosa/fisiologia , Inflamação/patologia , Reflexo , Animais , Infecções por Birnaviridae/virologia , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Citocinas/metabolismo , Febre/etiologia , Peixes , Inflamação/etiologia
18.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(4): 641-644, ago. 2021. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346518

RESUMO

Resumen Histoplasma capsulatum es un hongo ambiental que se encuentra distribuido comúnmente en los valles de los ríos Ohio y Mississippi, América Central, Sudamérica y Asia. Las zonas más afectadas en Argentina son las cuencas de los ríos Paraná y de La Plata. Los pacientes con histoplasmosis tienen una amplia variedad de manifestaciones clínicas. La mayoría son asintomáticos, mientras que aquellos con com promiso de la inmunidad celular tienen un riesgo aumentado de padecer la forma diseminada. Presentamos el caso de una mujer adulta, en tratamiento con metotrexato por una artritis seronegativa, que desarrolló la forma diseminada de la enfermedad, y que representó un desafío diagnóstico debido a la dificultad para identificar el agente etiológico.


Abstract Histoplasma capsulatum is an environmental fungus commonly found in the Ohio and Mississippi River valleys, Central and South America, and Asia. The most affected areas in Argentina are the Paraná and de La Plata river basins. Patients with histoplasmosis can have a wide range of clinical presentations. Most of them are asymptomatic, while those with compromised cellular immunity are at increased risk for the disseminated form. We present the case of a patient undergoing treatment with methotrexate for seronegative arthritis who developed the disseminated form of the disease, and who represented a diagnostic challenge due to the difficulty in identifying the etiologic agent.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Artrite/tratamento farmacológico , Histoplasmose/diagnóstico , Histoplasmose/tratamento farmacológico , Argentina , Metotrexato , Histoplasma
19.
BMJ Nutr Prev Health ; 4(1): 285-292, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34308137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking has been associated with poorer outcomes in relation to COVID-19. Smokers have higher risk of mortality and have a more severe clinical course. There is paucity of data available on this issue, and a definitive link between smoking and COVID-19 prognosis has yet to be established. METHODS: We included 5224 patients with COVID-19 with an available smoking history in a multicentre international registry Health Outcome Predictive Evaluation for COVID-19 (NCT04334291). Patients were included following an in-hospital admission with a COVID-19 diagnosis. We analysed the outcomes of patients with a current or prior history of smoking compared with the non-smoking group. The primary endpoint was all-cause in-hospital death. RESULTS: Finally, 5224 patients with COVID-19 with available smoking status were analysed. A total of 3983 (67.9%) patients were non-smokers, 934 (15.9%) were former smokers and 307 (5.2%) were active smokers. The median age was 66 years (IQR 52.0-77.0) and 58.6% were male. The most frequent comorbidities were hypertension (48.5%) and dyslipidaemia (33.0%). A relevant lung disease was present in 19.4%. In-hospital complications such sepsis (23.6%) and embolic events (4.3%) occurred more frequently in the smoker group (p<0.001 for both). All cause-death was higher among smokers (active or former smokers) compared with non-smokers (27.6 vs 18.4%, p<0.001). Following a multivariate analysis, current smoking was considered as an independent predictor of mortality (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.82, p=0.017) and a combined endpoint of severe disease (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.43, p=0.006). CONCLUSION: Smoking has a negative prognostic impact on patients hospitalised with COVID-19.

20.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(2): 289-292, June 2021. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287283

RESUMO

Resumen El presente caso corresponde a una mujer con antecedentes de tres abortos de menos de 10 semanas y cáncer de mama, que desarrolló isquemia digital grave luego del segundo ciclo de capecitabina. Se determinó la presencia de anticuerpos antifosfolipídicos positivos. Dado que las pacientes con síndrome antifosfolipídico obstétrico tienen incremento del riesgo de desarrollar neoplasia y que la isquemia digital grave puede ser la forma de presentación del síndrome antifosfolipídico en los pacientes con cáncer, se presenta el caso para remarcar el beneficio de pesquisar y realizar un diagnóstico temprano de estas características de la enfermedad.


Abstract The present case corresponds to a woman with history of three miscarrieges less than10 weeks and breast cancer, who develops severe digital ischemia after the second cycle of capecitabine. Positive antiphospholipid antibodies were determined. Patients with obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome have an increased risk of developing cancer, and severe digital ischemia could be an unusual form of presentation of the antiphospholipid syndrome in patients with cancer. This case is presented to highlight the benefit of researching and making an early diagnosis of these characteristics of the disease.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Isquemia/etiologia
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