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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246568, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278537

RESUMO

Abstract Fishmeal; being a limited and costly feed ingredient is continuously been substituted with locally available plant proteins. However, the occurrence of anti-nutritional factors in plant meal suppresses its potential to be fully replaced. Therefore, in this study we aimed to study the synergistic effects of dietary additives like citric acid and phytase enzyme supplementation on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings. Canola meal (CM) was used as a test ingredient to replace fishmeal (FM) as; 0%, 25%, 50% and 75%. These four diets were further supplemented by varying levels of phytase (0 and 750 FTU kg-1) and citric acid (0% and 2.5%) to formulate total sixteen test diets as T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, T12, T13, T14, T15 and T16. Each treatment contained three replicates; applied to fish groups having 15 fingerlings each; following 3×3 factorial arrangement. 1% of chromic oxide was added as an inert marker. Maximum weight gain% (288%) and the lowest value of FCR (1.07) were recorded when fish was fed on diet T12 as compared to fish fed control diet (T1). Similarly, optimum nutrient digestibility values such as crude protein (77%), crude fat (84%) and gross energy (70%) were noted on same level. It was concluded that 50% canola meal can optimally replace fishmeal when supplemented with phytase and citric acid at the levels of 750 FTU kg-1 and 2.5%, respectively.


Resumo A farinha de peixe, por ser um ingrediente alimentar limitado e caro, é continuamente substituída por proteínas vegetais disponíveis localmente. No entanto, a ocorrência de fatores antinutricionais na farinha de plantas suprime seu potencial de ser totalmente substituída. Portanto, neste estudo objetivamos estudar os efeitos sinérgicos de aditivos dietéticos como ácido cítrico e suplementação com enzima fitase sobre o desempenho de crescimento e digestibilidade de nutrientes de alevinos de Cirrhinus mrigala. A farinha de canola (CM) foi usada como ingrediente de teste para substituir a farinha de peixe (FM) como: 0%, 25%, 50% e 75%. Essas quatro dietas foram suplementadas por níveis variados de fitase (0 e 750 FTU kg-1) e ácido cítrico (0% e 2,5%) para formular um total de 16 dietas de teste como T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, T12, T13, T14, T15 e T16. Cada tratamento continha três repetições; aplicado a grupos de peixes com 15 alevinos cada; seguindo o arranjo fatorial 3 × 3. 1% de óxido crômico foi adicionado como um marcador inerte. % de ganho de peso máximo (288%) e o valor mais baixo de FCR (1,07) foram registrados quando os peixes foram alimentados com dieta T12 em comparação com peixes alimentados com dieta controle (T1). Da mesma forma, valores ótimos de digestibilidade de nutrientes, como proteína bruta (77%), gordura bruta (84%) e energia bruta (70%) foram anotados no mesmo nível. Concluiu-se que 50% da farinha de canola pode substituir de forma ideal a farinha de peixe quando suplementada com fitase e ácido cítrico nos níveis de 750 FTU kg-1 e 2,5%, respectivamente.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247791, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285637

RESUMO

Abstract The growth of aquaculture sector is strongly dependent upon the continuous supply of inexpensive fish feed with balanced nutritional profile. However, fish meal (FM) is unable to satisfy this demand due to its scarce supply and high cost. In order to test the potential of cottonseed meal (CSM) as a fish meal replacer, a feeding trial of 12 weeks was conducted to check growth performance and proximate composition of Labeo rohita fingerlings. The protein ration of the test feed was satisfied by replacing FM with CSM at 0, 25, 50 and 75%. Sixteen test diets viz., TD1 (control), TD2, TD3, TD4, TD5, TD6, TD7, TD8, TD9, TD10, TD11, TD12, TD13, TD14, TD15 and TD16 were supplemented with citric acid (CA; 0 and 2.5%) and phytase (PHY; 0 and 750 FTU/kg) in a completely randomized design with 3×3 factorial arrangement. The highest weight gain (11.03g), weight gain% (249.21%), specific growth rate (1.39) and best feed conversion ratio (1.20) were recorded by fish fed with TD12. Furthermore, the same level increased the crude protein (59.26%) and fat (16.04%) being significantly different (p<0.05) than that of control. Conclusively, the addition of acidified phytase (CA; 2.5%, PHY; 750 FTU/kg) in TD12 (CSM=50%) led to the improved growth and proximate composition of L. rohita fingerlings.


Resumo O crescimento do setor de aquicultura é fortemente dependente do fornecimento contínuo de rações baratas para peixes com perfil nutricional equilibrado. Porém, a farinha de peixe (FM) não consegue atender a essa demanda devido à sua escassa oferta e alto custo. Com o objetivo de testar o potencial da farinha de semente de canola (MSC) como substituto da farinha de peixe, um ensaio alimentar de 12 semanas foi conduzido para verificar o desempenho de crescimento e a composição centesimal de alevinos de Labeo rohita. A ração de proteína da ração teste foi satisfeita substituindo FM por CSM em 0, 25, 50 e 75%. Dezesseis dietas de teste, viz., TD1 (controle), TD2, TD3, TD4, TD5, TD6, TD7, TD8, TD9, TD10, TD11, TD12, TD13, TD14, TD15 e TD16 foram suplementadas com ácido cítrico (CA; 0 e 2,5%) e fitase (PHY; 0 e 750 FTU / kg) em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com arranjo fatorial 3 × 3. O maior ganho de peso (11,03g), % de ganho de peso (249,21%), taxa de crescimento específico (1,39) e melhor taxa de conversão alimentar (1,20) foram registrados por peixes alimentados com TD12. Além disso, o mesmo nível aumentou a proteína bruta (59,26%) e a gordura (16,04%), sendo significativamente diferente (p <0,05) do controle. Conclusivamente, a adição de fitase acidificada (CA; 2,5%, PHY; 750 FTU / kg) em TD12 (CSM = 50%) levou a um melhor crescimento e composição próxima de alevinos de L. rohita.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e239219, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153471

RESUMO

Abstract Salmo trutta fario is the most important fish species of family Salmonidae inhibited in cool waters all over the world including the nortern parts of Pakistan. This study was aimed to find out the prey selection and feeding habits of the species. One hundred and eighty five Salmo trutta fario were captured from March 2016 to April 2017. Feeding intensity as represented by a fullness index (FI), changing with various length groups and season. Out of 185 Brown trout 24 fish stomaches were found empty. The most important and common food items of brown trout were Brachycentridae, Blepharocera, Hydropsychidae, ephemerella spp. Kruskal Wallis H-test were applied on feeding intensity groups consisting of three month group. The test statistic for K.W-H-test were (H=8.13 with df =3) had a p-value of 0.043 < (alpha=0.05 indicates favor of the alternative hypothesis of at least one difference among the feeding intensity groups. The linear relationship of N with index of relative importance and %IRI denoted by least square regression line (N = 35.2 + 22.1%IRI), shows that for 22 prey there is 1% change in IRI. The relationship between total length (mm) and fish body weight (gm) is expressed by Pearson correlation coefficient (r = 0.976), showed that total length (mm) and fish body weight (gm.) is highly correlated. Descriptive statistics are used for the stomach fullness, which shows that feeding intensity was recorded higher from March to May. A total of 2289 preys was recorded including the most common were; Trichoptera, Hydropsychidae, Brachycentridae, diptera, blepharocera, ephemerala, chironomida, honey bees, grass hopper, locust, trout egg, trochanter, plant tissue, stones were retrieved from the gut contents of brown trout. According to index of relative importance IRI% four preys represents major components of the diet. The highest IRI% was recorded in Brachycentridae (39.38%), followed by blepharocera (13.23%), Hydropsychidae (10.76%) and ephemerella spp (8.28%). The relationship between IRI and FO is (r =0.556) is moderately correlated with coefficient of determination (r2=0.31). This study will help in the development of an artificial diet for the species for better growth performance in captivity.


Resumo Salmo trutta fario é a espécie de peixe mais importante da família dos salmonídeos, inibida em águas frias em todo o mundo, incluindo as partes do noroeste do Paquistão. Este estudo teve como objetivo conhecer a seleção de presas e os hábitos alimentares da espécie. Cento e oitenta e cinco Salmo trutta fario foram capturados de março de 2016 a abril de 2017. Intensidade de alimentação representada por um índice de plenitude (FI), mudando com vários grupos de comprimento e estação. De 185 trutas, 24 estômagos de peixes foram encontrados vazios. Os itens alimentares mais importantes e comuns da truta marrom foram brachycentridae, blepharocera, hydropsychidae, ephemerellaspp. O teste H de Kruskal Wallis foi aplicado em grupos de intensidade de alimentação consistindo de um grupo de três meses. A estatística de teste para o teste KW-H foi (H = 8,13 com df = 3) teve um valor de p de 0,043 <(alfa = 0,05 indica favor da hipótese alternativa de pelo menos uma diferença entre os grupos de intensidade de alimentação. relação de N com o índice de importância relativa e% IRI denotado pela linha de regressão do mínimo quadrado (N = 35,2 + 22,1% IRI), mostra que para 22 presas há 1% de mudança no IRI. A relação entre comprimento total (mm) e peixes o peso corporal (gm) é expresso pelo coeficiente de correlação de Pearson (r = 0,976), mostrou que o comprimento total (mm) e o peso corporal dos peixes (gm.) são altamente correlacionados. Estatísticas descritivas são usadas para a plenitude do estômago, o que mostra que a intensidade da alimentação foi registrado mais alto de março a maio. Um total de 2.289 presas foi registrado, incluindo os mais comuns foram; trichoptera, hydropsychidae, brachycentridae, diptera, blepharocera, efemérala, chironomida, abelhas, funil de grama, gafanhoto, ovo de truta, trocânter, tecido vegetal, pedras foram retiradas do intestino conteúdo de truta marrom. De acordo com o índice de importância relativa IRI%, quatro presas representam os principais componentes da dieta. O maior IRI% foi registrado em brachycentridae (39,38%), seguido por blepharocera (13,23%), hydropsychidae (10,76%) e ephemerellaspp (8,28%). A relação entre IRI e FO é (r = 0,556) está moderadamente correlacionada com o coeficiente de determinação (r2 = 0,31). Este estudo auxiliará no desenvolvimento de uma dieta artificial para a espécie para melhor desempenho de crescimento em cativeiro.

4.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e251004, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614126

RESUMO

The supplementation of Selenium-enriched probiotics is effective in reducing oxidative stress and maintaining meat quality stability in broiler chicken especially under heat stress. An experimental study was conducted to perform Comparative analysis of Selenium yeast with inorganic Se in broilers under heat stress. A total of 120 broilers chicks of one day were assigned to 4 groups each consisting 30 chicks fed on same basal diet but different selenium sources. The basal diet of group D1 was not supplemented with Se source (Negative control), group D2 basal diet was supplemented with inorganic selenium (Sodium selenite 0.22mg/Kg starter phase and 0.15mg/Kg finisher phase), group D3 basal diet was supplemented with commercially available organic selenium (Seleno-methionine 0.22mg/Kg starter phase and 0.15mg/Kg finisher phase) and group D4 basal diet was supplemented with self-developed organic selenium (Se-enriched yeast 0.22mg/Kg starter phase and 0.15mg/Kg finisher phase). The performance parameters i.e. feed intake (FI), live body weight (BW) and FCR were not significantly (p>0.05) effected by selenium supplementation in the starter phase but were significantly (p<0.05) effected in the finisher phase. Selenium supplementation significantly (p<0.05) effected serum Se level in different supplemented groups. Higher serum Se value (58.20±0.06) was recorded in D4 group. Similarly significantly lower selenium value was recorded for D4 and higher was recorded for D1 (11.36±0.08). However lower serum Paraoxonase (PON) value was recorded for D4 (13.24±0.01) and higher for D1 (13.33±0.03). Comparatively self-developed Se enriched yeast increased the Se accumulation and improved antioxidant system. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was found higher in D4 (12.333±0.03) followed by D3, D2 and D1 respectively. Whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly lower (p<0.05) in D4 (0.1437±0.003) followed by D3 (0.1457±0.002). Selenium supplementation increased the bird's survival rate. Birds fed on Se enriched yeast showed higher Se deposition and better antioxidant capacity as compared to other sources of selenium. Se-enriched yeast displayed an improved result on Se deposition in tissues, and oxidative capacity, meat tenderness and immune response level as compared to other sources of selenium.


Assuntos
Selênio , Animais , Antioxidantes , Galinhas , Resposta ao Choque Térmico
5.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e251958, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614127

RESUMO

Odonates are important biological control agents for the control of insect pests and insect disease vectors of medical and veterinary importance. The present study was conducted to evaluate the odonate fauna of Swat, Pakistan from March to October 2019. A total of 200 specimens of odonates were collected from diverse habitats. The collected specimens of the order Odonata belonged to 5 families, three families of suborder Anisoptera namely Libellulidae, Gomphidae and Aeshnidae while two families of suborder Zygoptera (Chlorocyphidae and Coenagrionidae). The specimens were categorized into 12 genera and 22 species. Libellulidae was the dominant family (n = 138) accounting for 69% of the odonate fauna. Orthetrum was the dominant genus (n = 73) of suborder Anisoptera accounting for 36.5% of the odonate fauna. The least dominant genera were Anax, Paragomphus and Rhyothemis (n = 5 each) accounting each for 2.5% of the odonate fauna. In Zygoptera, the dominant genus was Ceriagrion (12.5%) and the least dominant genus was Ischnura (6%). Pantala flavescens (Fabricius, 1798) was the most abundant odonate species in the study area recorded from all surveyed habitats. Shannon Diversity Index (H) was 2.988 and Simpson Diversity Index (D) was 0.95 for the collected odonate fauna. The highest abundance of Odonata was recorded in August, September and May while no odonate species were recorded in January, February, November and December. Lotic water bodies were the most suitable habitats with abundant odonate fauna. Anax immaculifrons (Rambur, 1842) was the largest sized odonate species having a wingspan of 53.2±1.63 mm and body length of 56.3 ± 0.4 mm. The present study shows the status of odonate fauna of Swat, Pakistan in diverse habitats and seasonsonal variation throughout the year. Further work is recommended to bridge the gaps in the existing literature.


Assuntos
Odonatos , Animais , Paquistão
6.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e249847, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524374

RESUMO

The Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) is a vertebrate pest of agricultural lands and forest. The study was aimed to report the damage to local crops by the Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) in the Muzaffarabad District. A survey was conducted to identify the porcupine-affected areas and assess the crop damage to the local farmers in district Muzaffarabad Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) from May 2017 to October 2017. Around 19 villages were surveyed, and a sum of 191 semi-structured questionnaires was distributed among farmers. Crop damage was found highest in village Dhanni where a porcupine destroyed 175 Kg/Kanal of the crops. Regarding the total magnitude of crop loss, village Danna and Koomi kot were the most affected areas. More than half (51.8%) of the respondents in the study area suffered the economic loss within the range of 101-200$, and (29.8%) of the people suffered losses in the range of 201-300$ annually. Among all crops, maize (Zea mays) was found to be the most damaged crop ranging between 1-300 Kg annually. In the study area, porcupine also inflicted a lot of damages to some important vegetables, including spinach (Spinacia oleracea), potato (Solanum tuberosum) and onion (Allium cepa). It was estimated that, on average, 511Kg of vegetables are destroyed by porcupine every year in the agricultural land of Muzaffarabad. It was concluded that the Indian crested porcupine has a devastating effect on agriculture which is an important source of income and food for the local community. Developing an effective pest control strategy with the help of the local government and the Wildlife department could help the farmers to overcome this problem.


Assuntos
Porcos-Espinhos , Agricultura , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Produtos Agrícolas , Humanos , Paquistão
7.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246333, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468517

RESUMO

Fish protein is serving as a source of nutrition for protein starving world. However, sustainable aquaculture products require inexpensive plant by-products due to finite sources of fish meal. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine nutrient utilization, growth performance and hematological indices of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings fed on Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) based diets. Fish were fed with six isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets having MOLM as a substitute of fish meal (FM) at the levels of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% for the period of 90 days. Fingerlings having initial weight 6.35±0.04g were reared in triplicate tanks at the stocking density of 15 and hand fed at the rate of 5% of total biomass twice regularly. Chromic oxide inclusion level was 1% in diets. After analysis, maximum growth performance and improved digestibility of nutrients were found in fish fed with diet at 10% replacement level as compared to fish fed on control diet and other test diets. Additionally, it was found that the red blood cells, white blood cells, hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration of fish showed a significantly (p<0.05) inverse correlation with the increase in MOLM. In present research, it was concluded that MOLM has good potential to be used as a FM substitute in C. mrigala diet with maximum effect at 10% showing positive hematological indices.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Moringa oleifera , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Aquicultura , Dieta
8.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246980, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468522

RESUMO

The study was aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of Zizyphus oxyphyla leaves methanolic (ZOX-LME), on serum liver, kidney and hematology along with other serum parameters in Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxicated rabbits. Experimental animals were divided into five groups, six rabbits in each. These were: group NC (normal control), group, TC (toxic control) and group ST i.e. silymarine administered group at dose rate (50) mg/kg body weight (BW). Group ET1 and group ET2 treated with (ZOX-LME) at dose 200 mg/kg BW and 400 mg/kg BW. CCl4 administration caused significant (P> 0.05) impairment in serum liver enzymes, blood factors and other serum indices. Treatment with (ZOX-LME) significantly (P<0.05) reduced and normalized the levels of serum alanine transaminase (ALT) aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and hematological indices. Also significant (P< 0.05) reduction was observed in creatinine, urea, uric acid, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and albumin and glucose concentrations. The altered levels of lipid profile and serum electrolytes (Ca, Mg, Cl, Na, K, and P) were significantly (P<0.05) change toward normal levels with (ZOX-LME) feeding. In addition (ZOX-LME) ingestion caused significant improvement in GSH, GST and CAT levels, while reducing the TBARS levels, exhibited antioxidant capacity. Also (ZOX-LME) showed increase inhibition against percent scavenging of 2, 2-diphenile-1-picrylehydrazyle (DPPH) free radical. Significant (P<0.05) normalizing effects were observed with high dose 400 mg/kg BW of (ZOX-LME and were equivalent to silymarine administered groups. The histological study of liver supported the hepatoprotective and renal curative activity of (ZOX-LME).


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Ziziphus , Animais , Antioxidantes , Biomarcadores , Rim , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Coelhos
9.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e250373, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550295

RESUMO

Honey is a suitable matrix for the evaluation of environmental contaminants including organochlorine insecticides. The present study was conducted to evaluate residues of fifteen organochlorine insecticides in honey samples of unifloral and multifloral origins from Dir, Pakistan. Honey samples (5 g each) were extracted with GC grade organic solvents and then subjected to Rotary Evaporator till dryness. The extracts were then mixed with n-Hexane (5 ml) and purified through Column Chromatography. Purified extracts (1µl each) were processed through Gas Chromatograph coupled with Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD) for identification and quantification of the insecticides. Of the 15 insecticides tested, 46.7% were detected while 53.3% were not detected in the honey samples. Heptachlor was the most prevalent insecticide with a mean level of 0.0018 mg/kg detected in 80% of the samples followed by ß-HCH with a mean level of 0.0016 mg/kg detected in 71.4% of the honey samples. Honey samples from Acacia modesta Wall. were 100% positive for Heptachlor with a mean level of 0.0048 mg/kg followed by ß-HCH with a mean level of 0.003 mg/kg and frequency of 83.3%. Minimum levels of the tested insecticides were detected in the unifloral honey from Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Methoxychlor, Endosulfan, Endrin and metabolites of DDT were not detected in the studied honey samples. Some of the tested insecticides are banned in Pakistan but are still detected in honey samples indicating their use in the study area. The detected levels of all insecticides were below the Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) and safe for consumers. However, the levels detected can cause mortality in insect fauna. The use of banned insecticides is one of the main factors responsible for the declining populations of important insect pollinators including honeybees.


Assuntos
Mel , Inseticidas , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Animais , Abelhas , Endossulfano/análise , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Mel/análise , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/toxicidade
10.
Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina ; 52(8): 454-456, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410186

RESUMO

A 63-year-old male with a history of bladder cancer in remission presented with progressive vision loss during a period of 2 years. Slit-lamp and funduscopic examination were unremarkable. Electroretinogram (ERG) revealed an unrecordable scotopic response and a moderately decreased photopic response. Computed tomography of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis showed a new duodenal mass. Subsequent biopsy disclosed malignant melanoma, and a diagnosis of melanoma-associated retinopathy (MAR) was made. The patient was then treated with a dexamethasone intravitreal implant 0.7 mg in his left eye. Two months after the implant, the patient reported a mild symptomatic improvement in his left eye, and ERG testing performed after the implant insertion revealed partial improvement in several scotopic and photopic ERG parameters. Repeat spectral-domain optical coherence tomography disclosed an improvement in retinal thickening. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report illustrating potential subjective visual improvement, improvement in retinal thickening, and ERG changes following treatment by intravitreal dexamethasone implant for MAR. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2021;52:454-456.].

11.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247791, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431918

RESUMO

The growth of aquaculture sector is strongly dependent upon the continuous supply of inexpensive fish feed with balanced nutritional profile. However, fish meal (FM) is unable to satisfy this demand due to its scarce supply and high cost. In order to test the potential of cottonseed meal (CSM) as a fish meal replacer, a feeding trial of 12 weeks was conducted to check growth performance and proximate composition of Labeo rohita fingerlings. The protein ration of the test feed was satisfied by replacing FM with CSM at 0, 25, 50 and 75%. Sixteen test diets viz., TD1 (control), TD2, TD3, TD4, TD5, TD6, TD7, TD8, TD9, TD10, TD11, TD12, TD13, TD14, TD15 and TD16 were supplemented with citric acid (CA; 0 and 2.5%) and phytase (PHY; 0 and 750 FTU/kg) in a completely randomized design with 3×3 factorial arrangement. The highest weight gain (11.03g), weight gain% (249.21%), specific growth rate (1.39) and best feed conversion ratio (1.20) were recorded by fish fed with TD12. Furthermore, the same level increased the crude protein (59.26%) and fat (16.04%) being significantly different (p<0.05) than that of control. Conclusively, the addition of acidified phytase (CA; 2.5%, PHY; 750 FTU/kg) in TD12 (CSM=50%) led to the improved growth and proximate composition of L. rohita fingerlings.


Assuntos
6-Fitase , Cyprinidae , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Óleo de Sementes de Algodão , Dieta/veterinária
12.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246568, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259781

RESUMO

Fishmeal; being a limited and costly feed ingredient is continuously been substituted with locally available plant proteins. However, the occurrence of anti-nutritional factors in plant meal suppresses its potential to be fully replaced. Therefore, in this study we aimed to study the synergistic effects of dietary additives like citric acid and phytase enzyme supplementation on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings. Canola meal (CM) was used as a test ingredient to replace fishmeal (FM) as; 0%, 25%, 50% and 75%. These four diets were further supplemented by varying levels of phytase (0 and 750 FTU kg-1) and citric acid (0% and 2.5%) to formulate total sixteen test diets as T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, T12, T13, T14, T15 and T16. Each treatment contained three replicates; applied to fish groups having 15 fingerlings each; following 3×3 factorial arrangement. 1% of chromic oxide was added as an inert marker. Maximum weight gain% (288%) and the lowest value of FCR (1.07) were recorded when fish was fed on diet T12 as compared to fish fed control diet (T1). Similarly, optimum nutrient digestibility values such as crude protein (77%), crude fat (84%) and gross energy (70%) were noted on same level. It was concluded that 50% canola meal can optimally replace fishmeal when supplemented with phytase and citric acid at the levels of 750 FTU kg-1 and 2.5%, respectively.


Assuntos
6-Fitase , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Galinhas , Ácido Cítrico , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão , Nutrientes
13.
Expert Rev Hematol ; 14(7): 669-677, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A high incidence of thromboembolic events is observed in thalassemia patients. This study investigated the relationship between carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and lipid profile, iron metabolic indices (IMI), and inflammatory markers in ß-thalassemia intermedia (ß- TI) patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-five ß-TI patients at Assiut University Hospital and 34 healthy individuals were enrolled in the study. We measured Lipid profile, IMI, high sensitive CRP (Hs-CRP), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and compared the results between both groups. We used CIMT measurement as a marker for subclinical atherosclerosis. We used both univariate and multivariate analyses to test relations and independent predictors of CIMT. RESULTS: ß-TI patients had higher CIMT (P = 0.000). CIMT was positively correlated with absolute neutrophil count (ANC) (r = 0.320, p = 0.032), ferritin (r = 0.544, p = 0.000), Hs-CRP (r = 0.603, p = 0.000), and IL-6 (r = 0.520, p = 0.000). Hs-CRP was an independent predictor of CIMT (p = 0.000). Hs-CRP cut off value of 60.4 ug/dl has sensitivity of 63.3% and specificity of 93.3% in predicting premature atherosclerosis. CONCLUSION: ß-TI patients had higher CIMT despite the protective lipid profile. Hs-CRP was an independent predictor of CIMT.

14.
HPB (Oxford) ; 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy is the accepted standard of care. The robotic distal (RDP) learning curve is 20-40 surgeries with operating time (ORT) as the most significant factor. This study evaluates how formal mentorship and a robotic skills curriculum impact the learning curve for subsequent generation surgeons. METHODS: Consecutive RDP from 2008 to 2017 were evaluated. First Generation was two surgeons who started program without training or mentorship. Second Generation was the two surgeons who joined the program with mentorship. Third Generation was fellows who benefited from both formal training and mentorship. Multivariable models (MVA) were performed for ORT, clinically relevant pancreatic fistula (CR-POPF), and major complications (Clavien≥3). RESULTS: A total of 296 RDP were performed of which 187 did not include other procedures: First Generation (n = 71), Second Generation (n = 50), and Third Generation (n = 66). ORT decreased by generation (p < 0.001) without any differences in CR-POPF or Clavien≥3. On MVA, earlier generation (p = 0.019), pre-operative albumin (p = 0.001) and pancreatic adenocarcinoma (p = 0.019) were predictive of ORT. Increased BMI (p = 0.049) and neoadjuvant therapy (p = 0.046) were predictive of CR-POPF. Fellow participation at the console increased over time. CONCLUSION: Formal mentorship and a skills curriculum decreased the learning curve and complications were largely dependent on patient factors.

15.
J Obstet Gynaecol Can ; 43(9): 1041-1046.e2, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34048956

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to assess the comprehensiveness of Canadian obstetrics and gynaecology residency and fellowship program websites to understand the quality of information available to prospective students and make recommendations, if needed. METHODS: All active residency and fellowship program websites (as of May 2020) were evaluated and compared using 72-point criteria in the following domains: Recruitment, Faculty, Current Residents/Fellows, Research and Education, Surgical Procedures, Clinical Work, Benefits and Incentives, Wellness, and Environment. Programs without websites were excluded from the study. Program website information availability was compared by geographic region. RESULTS: Out of the identified 80 residency and fellowship programs, 68.75% (55) were from central Canada, 6.25% (5) from Atlantic Canada, and 25% (20) from western Canada. The mean score for residency websites was 25.4 ± 7.59 (35.6% of criteria complete). The domains with the highest and lowest inclusion rates were Research and Education (46.3% criteria complete) and Current Residents (16.2% criteria complete). The mean score of fellowship websites was 27.9 ± 8.89 (38.8% criteria complete). For fellowship websites, Wellness had the highest inclusion rate (66.0% criteria complete), while Current Fellows had the lowest (13.2% criteria complete). Overall, fellowship websites scored higher than residency websites (27.9 ± 8.89 and 25.4 ± 7.59 out of 72 criteria, respectively). CONCLUSION: Overall, Canadian postgraduate obstetrics and gynaecology program websites include information on many topics relevant to prospective students, such as research, education, and wellness. Programs should provide more information about work hours, call schedules, and current trainees. Lastly, there is an opportunity for programs in western and Atlantic Canada to increase the comprehensiveness of their websites.

16.
Chemosphere ; 274: 129986, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33979934

RESUMO

This work investigates the performances of coconut shell waste-based activated carbon (CSWAC) adsorption in batch studies for removal of ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) and refractory pollutants (as indicated by decreasing COD concentration) from landfill leachate. To valorize unused resources, coconut shell, recovered and recycled from agricultural waste, was converted into activated carbon, which can be used for leachate treatment. The ozonation of the CSWAC was conducted to enhance its removal performance for target pollutants. The adsorption mechanisms of refractory pollutants by the adsorbent are proposed. Perspectives on nutrient recovery technologies from landfill leachate from the view-points of downstream processing are presented. Their removal efficiencies for both recalcitrant compounds and ammoniacal nitrogen were compared to those of other techniques reported in previous work. It is found that the ozonated CSWAC substantially removed COD (i.e. 76%) as well as NH3-N (i.e. 75%), as compared to the CSWAC without pretreatment (i.e. COD: 44%; NH3-N: 51%) with NH3-N and COD concentrations of 2750 and 8500 mg/L, respectively. This reveals the need of ozonation for the adsorbent to improve its performance for the removal of COD and NH3-N at optimized reactions: 30 g/L of CSWAC, pH 8, 200 rpm of shaking speed and 20 min of reaction time. Nevertheless, treatment of the leachate samples using the ozonated CSWAC alone was still unable to result in treated effluents that could meet the COD and NH3-N discharge standards below 200 and 5 mg/L, respectively, set by legislative requirements. This reveals that another treatment is necessary to be undertaken to comply with the requirement of their effluent limit.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Carvão Vegetal , Nitrogênio , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
17.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm ; 165: 244-258, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020023

RESUMO

In this work, the application of various mesoporous silica grades in the preparation of stabilized ternary amorphous solid dispersions of Felodipine using hot melt extrusion was explored. We have demonstrated the effectiveness of mesoporous silica in these dispersions without the need for any organic solvents i.e., no pre-loading or immersion steps required. The physical and chemical properties, release profiles of the prepared formulations and the surface concentrations of the various molecular species were investigated in detail. Formulations containing 25 wt% and 50 wt% of Felodipine demonstrated enhanced stability and solubility of the drug substance compared to its crystalline counterpart. Based on the Higuchi model, ternary formulations exhibited a 2-step or 3-step release pattern which can be ascribed to the release of drug molecules from the organic polymer matrix and the external silica surface, followed by a release from the silica pore structure. According to the Korsmeyer-Peppas model, the release rate and release mechanism are governed by a complex quasi-Fickian release mechanism, in which multiple release mechanisms are occurring concurrently and consequently. Stability studies indicated that after 6 months storage of all formulation at 30% RH and 20 °C, Felodipine in all formulations remained stable in its amorphous state except for the formulation comprised of 40 wt% Syloid AL-1FP with a 50 wt% drug load.

18.
Int Urogynecol J ; 32(9): 2443-2448, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909095

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Urogynecology fellowship program websites are an important source of information to potential applicants, especially given the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and resulting travel restrictions. Our study evaluated the publicly available information on American and Canadian urogynecology fellowship websites and present recommendations for website content development to promote the subspecialty of urogynecology. METHODS: Data were collected from all active American and Canadian urogynecology fellowship program websites between May and June 2020 against 72 criteria developed from previously published studies. The criteria included the following sections: Recruitment, Faculty Information, Current Fellows, Research and Education, Surgical Program, Clinical Work, Benefits and Career Planning, Wellness, and Environment. RESULTS: 54 American urogynecology program websites and 11 Canadian urogynecology program websites were analyzed. The mean score of American and Canadian websites was 46.46% (n = 33.45 ± 7.20 out of 72) and 27.40% (n = 19.73 ± 3.77 out of 72), respectively. American program websites scored significantly higher on available information than Canadian websites. The highest prevalence section across American websites was Wellness (64%, n = 1.92 ± 0.85 out of 3 criteria) while the lowest prevalence section was Clinical Work (15.17%, n = 0.91 ± 1.02 out of 6 criteria). Comparatively, Canadian websites scored highest in the Faculty Information section (43.12%, 3.45 ± 2.02) and lowest in the Clinical Work section (6%, n = 0.36 ± 0.67 out of 6 criteria). CONCLUSIONS: American and Canadian websites thoroughly covered the Wellness and Faculty Information sections, respectively. Program websites should consider adding details about Benefits and Career Planning and Clinical Work.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Internato e Residência , Canadá , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Bolsas de Estudo , Humanos , Internet , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830921

RESUMO

Classifying and modeling texture images, especially those with significant rotation, illumination, scale, and view-point variations, is a hot topic in the computer vision field. Inspired by local graph structure (LGS), local ternary patterns (LTP), and their variants, this paper proposes a novel image feature descriptor for texture and material classification, which we call Petersen Graph Multi-Orientation based Multi-Scale Ternary Pattern (PGMO-MSTP). PGMO-MSTP is a histogram representation that efficiently encodes the joint information within an image across feature and scale spaces, exploiting the concepts of both LTP-like and LGS-like descriptors, in order to overcome the shortcomings of these approaches.We first designed two single-scale horizontal and vertical Petersen Graph-based Ternary Pattern descriptors (PGTPh and PGTPv). The essence of PGTPh and PGTPv is to encode each 5×5 image patch, extending the ideas of the LTP and LGS concepts, according to relationships between pixels sampled in a variety of spatial arrangements (i.e., up, down, left, and right) of Petersen graph-shaped oriented sampling structures. The histograms obtained from the single-scale descriptors PGTPh and PGTPv are then combined, in order to build the effective multi-scale PGMO-MSTP model. Extensive experiments are conducted on sixteen challenging texture data sets, demonstrating that PGMO-MSTP can outperform state-of-the-art handcrafted texture descriptors and deep learning-based feature extraction approaches. Moreover, a statistical comparison based on the Wilcoxon signed rank test demonstrates that PGMO-MSTP performed the best over all tested data sets.

20.
Int J Pharm ; 601: 120555, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798686

RESUMO

The application of in-line Raman spectroscopy to monitor the formation of a 1:1 cocrystal of ibuprofen (IBU) as a BCS class II drug and nicotinamide as coformer using hot-melt extrusion (HME) was investigated. The process was monitored over different experimental conditions inserting the Raman probe before the extruder die. Partial least square (PLS) was applied as a robust chemometric technique to build predictive models at different levels of chemometric by dividing the experimental data set into calibration and validation subsets. Powder X-Ray diffraction (PXRD) spectra of a set of standard samples were used as calibration to calculate the cocrystal yield from HME experiments regressed by the PLS models. Examination of the full spectra with standard normal variate (SNV) scatter correction with first derivative provided the best fitting goodness and reliability for prediction. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used as a complementary technique to confirm the composition of the extrudates. Tracking the cocrystal formation throughout the barrel by inserting two Raman probes simultaneously in two different heating zones revealed highly valuable information for understanding the mechanism of cocrystal formation during the HME process.


Assuntos
Tecnologia de Extrusão por Fusão a Quente , Análise Espectral Raman , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Composição de Medicamentos , Temperatura Alta , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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