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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252555, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364519

RESUMO

The study was designed to investigate the effect of Coconut Oil on the levels of some liver and hematological parameters in carbon tetrachloride intoxicated rabbits. Also the antioxidant capacity of Coconut Oil for various concentrations was assessed on the basis of percent scavenging of (DPPH) free radical. Experimental animals were divided into five groups, eight rabbits in each group. These were: group A (Normal control), group B (Toxic control), group C (Standard control), group D (Treated with Coconut Oil 50 mL/kg body weight after CCl4 intoxication), group E (Treated with Coconut Oil 200 mL/kg body weight after CCl4 intoxication). The effects observed were compared with a standard hepatoprotective drug silymarine (50 mL/kg body weight). The Coconut Oil (200 mL/kg body weight) significantly (P<0.05) reduced the elevated serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) when compared to a toxic control rabbits. The results of extract treated rabbits were similar to silymarine administered rabbits group. Treatment with Coconut Oil root and silymarine caused no significant changes in RBC, Platelets, (Hb), (MCH) concentration and (HCT) values. However, significant (P<0.05) increase was observed in the total WBC count. The present study suggested that Coconut Oil can be used as an herbal alternative (need further exploration i.e to detect its bioactive compound and its efficacy) for hepatoprotective activit.


O estudo foi desenhado para investigar o efeito do óleo de coco nos níveis de alguns parâmetros hepáticos e hematológicos em coelhos intoxicados com tetracloreto de carbono. Também a capacidade antioxidante do óleo de coco para várias concentrações foi avaliada com base na porcentagem de eliminação de radicais livres (DPPH). Os animais experimentais foram divididos em cinco grupos, oito coelhos em cada grupo. Estes foram: grupo A (controle normal), grupo B (controle tóxico), grupo C (controle padrão), grupo D (tratado com óleo de coco 50 mL/kg de peso corporal após intoxicação por CCl4), grupo E (tratado com óleo de coco 200 mL/kg de peso corporal após intoxicação por CCl4). Os efeitos observados foram comparados com um fármaco hepatoprotetor padrão silimarina (50 mL/kg de peso corporal). O óleo de coco (200 mL/kg de peso corporal) reduziu significativamente (P<0,05) os níveis séricos elevados de alanina transaminase (ALT), aspartato transaminase (AST) e fosfatase alcalina (ALP), quando comparado a um coelho controle tóxico. Os resultados dos coelhos tratados com extrato foram semelhantes aos do grupo de coelhos administrados com silimarina. O tratamento com raiz de óleo de coco e silimarina não causou alterações significativas nos valores de RBC, Plaquetas, (Hb), (MCH) e (HCT). No entanto, observou-se aumento significativo (P<0,05) na contagem total de leucócitos. O presente estudo sugeriu que o óleo de coco pode ser usado como uma alternativa fitoterápica (precisa de mais exploração, ou seja, para detectar seu composto bioativo e sua eficácia) para atividade hepatoprotetora.


Assuntos
Coelhos , Tetracloreto de Carbono , Óleo de Palmeira , Biomarcadores/sangue , Fígado
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256565, 2024. tab, graf, mapas
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360220

RESUMO

Liupan Mountains are an important region in China in the context of forest cover and vegetation due to huge afforestation and plantation practices, which brought changes in soil physio-chemical properties, soil stocks, and soil stoichiometries are rarely been understood. The study aims to explore the distribution of soil nutrients at 1-m soil depth in the plantation forest region. The soil samples at five depth increments (0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80, and 80-100 cm) were collected and analyzed for different soil physio-chemical characteristics. The results showed a significant variation in soil bulk density (BD), soil porosity, pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and electric conductivity (EC) values. More soil BD (1.41 g cm-3) and pH (6.97) were noticed in the deep soil layer (80-100 cm), while the highest values of porosity (60.6%), EC (0.09 mS cm-1), and CEC (32.9 c mol kg-1) were reflected in the uppermost soil layer (0-20 cm). Similarly, the highest contents of soil organic carbon (SOC), total phosphorus (TP), available phosphorus (AP), total nitrogen (TN), and available potassium (AK) were calculated in the surface soil layer (0-20 cm). With increasing soil depth increment a decreasing trend in the SOC and other nutrient concentration were found, whereas the soil total potassium (TK) produced a negative correlation with soil layer depth. The entire results produced the distribution of SOCs and TNs (stocks) at various soil depths in forestland patterns were 0→20cm > 20→40cm > 40→60cm ≥ 60→80cm ≥ 80→100 cm. Furthermore, the stoichiometric ratios of C, N, and P, the C/P, and N/P ratios showed maximum values (66.49 and 5.46) in 0-20 cm and lowest values (23.78 and 1.91) in 80-100 cm soil layer depth. Though the C/N ratio was statistically similar across the whole soil profile (0-100 cm). These results highlighted that the soil depth increments might largely be attributed to fluctuations in soil physio-chemical properties, soil stocks, and soil stoichiometries. Further study is needed to draw more conclusions on nutrient dynamics, soil stocks, and soil stoichiometry in these forests.


As montanhas de Liupan são uma região importante na China no contexto de cobertura florestal e vegetação devido às enormes práticas de florestamento e plantação, que trouxeram mudanças nas propriedades físico-químicas do solo, e estoques e estequiometrias do solo raramente são compreendidos. O estudo visa explorar a distribuição de nutrientes do solo a 1 m de profundidade do solo na região da floresta plantada. As amostras de solo em cinco incrementos de profundidade (0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80 e 80-100 cm) foram coletadas e analisadas para diferentes características físico-químicas do solo. Os resultados mostraram uma variação significativa nos valores de densidade do solo (BD), porosidade do solo, pH, capacidade de troca catiônica (CEC) e condutividade elétrica (CE). Mais DB do solo (1,41 g cm-3) e pH (6,97) do solo foram observados na camada profunda do solo (80-100 cm), enquanto os maiores valores de porosidade (60,6%), CE (0,09 mS cm-1) e CEC (32,9 c mol kg-1) foram refletidos na camada superior do solo (0-20 cm). Da mesma forma, os maiores teores de carbono orgânico do solo (SOC), fósforo total (TP), fósforo disponível (AP), nitrogênio total (TN) e potássio disponível (AK) foram calculados na camada superficial do solo (0-20 cm). Com o aumento do incremento da profundidade do solo, uma tendência decrescente no SOC e na concentração de outros nutrientes foi encontrada, enquanto o potássio total do solo (TK) produziu uma correlação negativa com a profundidade da camada do solo. Todos os resultados produziram a distribuição de SOCs e TNs (estoques) em várias profundidades de solo em padrões de floresta 0 → 20cm> 20 → 40cm> 40 → 60cm ≥ 60 → 80cm ≥ 80 → 100 cm. Além disso, as relações estequiométricas de C, N e P, as relações C / P e N / P, apresentaram valores máximos (66,49 e 5,46) em 0-20 cm, e valores mais baixos (23,78 e 1,91) em solo de 80-100 cm profundidade da camada. Embora a relação C / N fosse estatisticamente semelhante em todo o perfil do solo (0-100 cm). Esses resultados destacaram que os incrementos de profundidade do solo podem ser amplamente atribuídos a flutuações nas propriedades físico-químicas do solo, estoques e estequiometrias do solo. Mais estudos são necessários para tirar conclusões adicionais sobre a dinâmica dos nutrientes, estoques de solo e estequiometria do solo nessas florestas.


Assuntos
Solo/química , Análise do Solo , Florestas , China
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249847, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339414

RESUMO

Abstract The Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) is a vertebrate pest of agricultural lands and forest. The study was aimed to report the damage to local crops by the Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) in the Muzaffarabad District. A survey was conducted to identify the porcupine-affected areas and assess the crop damage to the local farmers in district Muzaffarabad Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) from May 2017 to October 2017. Around 19 villages were surveyed, and a sum of 191 semi-structured questionnaires was distributed among farmers. Crop damage was found highest in village Dhanni where a porcupine destroyed 175 Kg/Kanal of the crops. Regarding the total magnitude of crop loss, village Danna and Koomi kot were the most affected areas. More than half (51.8%) of the respondents in the study area suffered the economic loss within the range of 101-200$, and (29.8%) of the people suffered losses in the range of 201-300$ annually. Among all crops, maize (Zea mays) was found to be the most damaged crop ranging between 1-300 Kg annually. In the study area, porcupine also inflicted a lot of damages to some important vegetables, including spinach (Spinacia oleracea), potato (Solanum tuberosum) and onion (Allium cepa). It was estimated that, on average, 511Kg of vegetables are destroyed by porcupine every year in the agricultural land of Muzaffarabad. It was concluded that the Indian crested porcupine has a devastating effect on agriculture which is an important source of income and food for the local community. Developing an effective pest control strategy with the help of the local government and the Wildlife department could help the farmers to overcome this problem.


Resumo O porco-espinho de crista indiano (Hystrix indica) é uma praga vertebrada de terras agrícolas e florestais. No estudo atual, o dano às plantações locais pelo porco-espinho de crista indiano (Hystrix indica) foi relatado pela primeira vez no distrito de Muzaffarabad. O estudo foi projetado para investigar a perda econômica causada pelo porco-espinho de crista indiano (Hystrix indica) nos distritos de Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu e Caxemira (AJK) de maio de 2017 a outubro de 2017. Um estudo baseado em pesquisa foi conduzido para identificar as áreas afetadas por porcos-espinhos e avaliar os danos às colheitas para os agricultores locais. Cerca de 19 aldeias foram pesquisadas e um total de 191 questionários semiestruturados foi distribuído entre os agricultores. Os danos às colheitas foram encontrados mais intensamente na aldeia Dhanni, onde um porco-espinho destruiu 175 kg / Kanal das colheitas. Em relação à magnitude total da perda de safra, as aldeias Danna e Koomi Kot foram as áreas mais afetadas. Mais da metade (51,8%) dos entrevistados na área de estudo sofreu perdas econômicas na faixa de 101-200 $, e 29,8% das pessoas sofreram perdas na faixa de 201-300 $ anualmente. Entre todas as culturas, o milho (Zea mays) foi considerado a cultura mais danificada, variando entre 1-300 kg anualmente. Na área de estudo, o porco-espinho também causou muitos danos a alguns vegetais importantes, incluindo espinafre (Spinacia oleracea), batata (Solanum tuberosum) e cebola (Allium cepa). Estimou-se que, em média, 511 kg de vegetais são destruídos pelo porco-espinho todos os anos nas terras agrícolas de Muzaffarabad. Concluiu-se que o porco-espinho de crista indiano tem um efeito devastador na agricultura, que é importante fonte de renda e alimento para a comunidade local. O desenvolvimento de uma estratégia eficaz de controle de pragas com a ajuda do governo local e do Departamento de Vida Selvagem pode ajudar os agricultores a superar esse problema.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Porcos-Espinhos , Paquistão , Produtos Agrícolas , Agricultura , Animais Selvagens
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e251958, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339380

RESUMO

Abstract Odonates are important biological control agents for the control of insect pests and insect disease vectors of medical and veterinary importance. The present study was conducted to evaluate the odonate fauna of Swat, Pakistan from March to October 2019. A total of 200 specimens of odonates were collected from diverse habitats. The collected specimens of the order Odonata belonged to 5 families, three families of suborder Anisoptera namely Libellulidae, Gomphidae and Aeshnidae while two families of suborder Zygoptera (Chlorocyphidae and Coenagrionidae). The specimens were categorized into 12 genera and 22 species. Libellulidae was the dominant family (n = 138) accounting for 69% of the odonate fauna. Orthetrum was the dominant genus (n = 73) of suborder Anisoptera accounting for 36.5% of the odonate fauna. The least dominant genera were Anax, Paragomphus and Rhyothemis (n = 5 each) accounting each for 2.5% of the odonate fauna. In Zygoptera, the dominant genus was Ceriagrion (12.5%) and the least dominant genus was Ischnura (6%). Pantala flavescens (Fabricius, 1798) was the most abundant odonate species in the study area recorded from all surveyed habitats. Shannon Diversity Index (H) was 2.988 and Simpson Diversity Index (D) was 0.95 for the collected odonate fauna. The highest abundance of Odonata was recorded in August, September and May while no odonate species were recorded in January, February, November and December. Lotic water bodies were the most suitable habitats with abundant odonate fauna. Anax immaculifrons (Rambur, 1842) was the largest sized odonate species having a wingspan of 53.2±1.63 mm and body length of 56.3 ± 0.4 mm. The present study shows the status of odonate fauna of Swat, Pakistan in diverse habitats and seasonsonal variation throughout the year. Further work is recommended to bridge the gaps in the existing literature.


Resumo Odonatos são importantes agentes de controle biológico para o controle de insetos-praga e vetores de doenças de insetos de importância médica e veterinária. O presente estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a fauna de odonatos de Swat, Paquistão, de março a outubro de 2019. Um total de 200 espécimes de odonatos foi coletado em diversos habitats. Os espécimes coletados da ordem Odonata pertenciam a cinco famílias, três famílias da subordem Anisoptera, a saber, Libellulidae, Gomphidae e Aeshnidae, enquanto duas famílias eram da subordem Zygoptera (Chlorocyphidae e Coenagrionidae). Os espécimes foram classificados em 12 gêneros e 22 espécies. Libellulidae foi a família dominante (n = 138), respondendo por 69% da fauna de odonatos. Orthetrum foi o gênero dominante (n = 73) da subordem Anisoptera, responsável por 36,5% da fauna de odonatos. Os gêneros menos dominantes foram Anax, Paragomphus e Rhyothemis (n = 5 cada), representando cada um 2,5% da fauna de odonatos. Em Zygoptera, o gênero dominante foi Ceriagrion (12,5%), e o gênero menos dominante foi Ischnura (6%). Pantala flavescens (Fabricius, 1798) foi a espécie de odonato mais abundante na área de estudo, registrada em todos os habitats pesquisados. O Índice de Diversidade de Shannon (H) foi de 2,988, e o Índice de Diversidade de Simpson (D) foi de 0,95 para a fauna de odonatos coletados. A maior abundância de Odonata foi registrada em agosto, setembro e maio, enquanto nenhuma espécie de Odonata foi registrada em janeiro, fevereiro, novembro e dezembro. Corpos d'água lóticos foram os habitats mais adequados, com abundante fauna de odonatos. Anax imaculifrons (Rambur, 1842) foi a espécie de odonato de maior tamanho, com envergadura de 53,2 ± 1,63 mm e comprimento do corpo de 56,3 ± 0,4 mm. O presente estudo mostrou o status da fauna de odonatos de Swat, Paquistão, em diversos habitats e variação sazonal ao longo do ano. Recomenda-se trabalho adicional para preencher as lacunas na literatura existente.


Assuntos
Animais , Odonatos , Paquistão
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250373, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339376

RESUMO

Abstract Honey is a suitable matrix for the evaluation of environmental contaminants including organochlorine insecticides. The present study was conducted to evaluate residues of fifteen organochlorine insecticides in honey samples of unifloral and multifloral origins from Dir, Pakistan. Honey samples (5 g each) were extracted with GC grade organic solvents and then subjected to Rotary Evaporator till dryness. The extracts were then mixed with n-Hexane (5 ml) and purified through Column Chromatography. Purified extracts (1μl each) were processed through Gas Chromatograph coupled with Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD) for identification and quantification of the insecticides. Of the 15 insecticides tested, 46.7% were detected while 53.3% were not detected in the honey samples. Heptachlor was the most prevalent insecticide with a mean level of 0.0018 mg/kg detected in 80% of the samples followed by β-HCH with a mean level of 0.0016 mg/kg detected in 71.4% of the honey samples. Honey samples from Acacia modesta Wall. were 100% positive for Heptachlor with a mean level of 0.0048 mg/kg followed by β-HCH with a mean level of 0.003 mg/kg and frequency of 83.3%. Minimum levels of the tested insecticides were detected in the unifloral honey from Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Methoxychlor, Endosulfan, Endrin and metabolites of DDT were not detected in the studied honey samples. Some of the tested insecticides are banned in Pakistan but are still detected in honey samples indicating their use in the study area. The detected levels of all insecticides were below the Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) and safe for consumers. However, the levels detected can cause mortality in insect fauna. The use of banned insecticides is one of the main factors responsible for the declining populations of important insect pollinators including honeybees.


Resumo O mel é uma matriz adequada para a avaliação de contaminantes ambientais, incluindo inseticidas organoclorados. O presente estudo foi conduzido para avaliar resíduos de 15 inseticidas organoclorados em amostras de mel de origem unifloral e multifloral de Dir, Paquistão. Amostras de mel (5 g cada) foram extraídas com solventes orgânicos de grau GC e, em seguida, submetidas ao evaporador rotativo até a secura. Os extratos foram então misturados com n-hexano (5 ml) e purificados por cromatografia em coluna. Os extratos purificados (1μl cada) foram processados através de cromatógrafo gasoso acoplado a detector de captura de elétrons (GC-ECD) para identificação e quantificação dos inseticidas. Dos 15 inseticidas testados, 46,7% foram detectados enquanto 53,3% não foram detectados nas amostras de mel. O heptacloro foi o inseticida mais prevalente com um nível médio de 0,0018 mg / kg detectado em 80% das amostras, seguido por β-HCH com um nível médio de 0,0016 mg / kg detectado em 71,4% das amostras de mel. Amostras de mel da parede de Acacia modesta foram 100% positivos para heptacloro com um nível médio de 0,0048 mg / kg seguido por β-HCH com um nível médio de 0,003 mg / kg e frequência de 83,3%. Níveis mínimos dos inseticidas testados foram detectados no mel unifloral de Ziziphus jujuba da usina. Metoxicloro, Endosulfan, Endrin e metabólitos do DDT não foram detectados nas amostras de mel estudadas. Alguns dos inseticidas testados são proibidos no Paquistão, mas ainda são detectados em amostras de mel, indicando seu uso na área de estudo. Os níveis detectados de todos os inseticidas estavam abaixo dos Níveis Máximos de Resíduos (MRLs) e seguros para os consumidores. No entanto, os níveis detectados podem causar mortalidade na fauna de insetos. O uso de inseticidas proibidos é um dos principais fatores responsáveis pelo declínio das populações de importantes insetos polinizadores, incluindo as abelhas.


Assuntos
Animais , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/toxicidade , Mel/análise , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Abelhas , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Endossulfano/análise
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e251004, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339339

RESUMO

Abstract The supplementation of Selenium-enriched probiotics is effective in reducing oxidative stress and maintaining meat quality stability in broiler chicken especially under heat stress. An experimental study was conducted to perform Comparative analysis of Selenium yeast with inorganic Se in broilers under heat stress. A total of 120 broilers chicks of one day were assigned to 4 groups each consisting 30 chicks fed on same basal diet but different selenium sources. The basal diet of group D1 was not supplemented with Se source (Negative control), group D2 basal diet was supplemented with inorganic selenium (Sodium selenite 0.22mg/Kg starter phase and 0.15mg/Kg finisher phase), group D3 basal diet was supplemented with commercially available organic selenium (Seleno-methionine 0.22mg/Kg starter phase and 0.15mg/Kg finisher phase) and group D4 basal diet was supplemented with self-developed organic selenium (Se-enriched yeast 0.22mg/Kg starter phase and 0.15mg/Kg finisher phase). The performance parameters i.e. feed intake (FI), live body weight (BW) and FCR were not significantly (p>0.05) effected by selenium supplementation in the starter phase but were significantly (p<0.05) effected in the finisher phase. Selenium supplementation significantly (p<0.05) effected serum Se level in different supplemented groups. Higher serum Se value (58.20±0.06) was recorded in D4 group. Similarly significantly lower selenium value was recorded for D4 and higher was recorded for D1 (11.36±0.08). However lower serum Paraoxonase (PON) value was recorded for D4 (13.24±0.01) and higher for D1 (13.33±0.03). Comparatively self-developed Se enriched yeast increased the Se accumulation and improved antioxidant system. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was found higher in D4 (12.333±0.03) followed by D3, D2 and D1 respectively. Whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly lower (p<0.05) in D4 (0.1437±0.003) followed by D3 (0.1457±0.002). Selenium supplementation increased the bird's survival rate. Birds fed on Se enriched yeast showed higher Se deposition and better antioxidant capacity as compared to other sources of selenium. Se-enriched yeast displayed an improved result on Se deposition in tissues, and oxidative capacity, meat tenderness and immune response level as compared to other sources of selenium.


Resumo A suplementação de probióticos enriquecidos com selênio é eficaz na redução do estresse oxidativo e na manutenção da estabilidade da qualidade da carne em frangos de corte, especialmente sob estresse por calor. Um estudo experimental foi conduzido para realizar uma análise comparativa da levedura selênio com o Se inorgânico em frangos de corte sob estresse térmico. Um total de 120 pintos de um dia foi dividido em 4 grupos, cada um consistindo de 30 pintos alimentados com a mesma dieta basal, mas com diferentes fontes de selênio. A dieta basal do grupo D1 não foi suplementada com fonte de Se (controle negativo), a dieta basal do grupo D2 foi suplementada com selênio inorgânico (selenito de sódio 0,22 mg / kg fase inicial e 0,15 mg / kg fase finalizadora), a dieta basal do grupo D3 foi suplementada com selênio orgânico disponível comercialmente (fase inicial de seleno-metionina 0,22 mg / kg e fase finalizadora de 0,15 mg / kg) e a dieta basal do grupo D4 foi suplementada com selênio orgânico autodesenvolvido (fermento enriquecido com Se 0,22 mg / kg fase inicial e 0,15 mg / kg fase finalizadora). Os parâmetros de desempenho, ou seja, consumo de ração (FI), peso corporal vivo (PC) e FCR não foram significativamente (p > 0,05) afetados pela suplementação de selênio na fase inicial, mas foram significativamente (p < 0,05) afetados na fase final. A suplementação de selênio afetou significativamente (p < 0,05) o nível de Se sérico em diferentes grupos suplementados. O maior valor de Se sérico (58,20 ± 0,06) foi registrado no grupo D4. Da mesma forma, valor de selênio significativamente menor foi registrado para D4 e maior foi registrado para D1 (11,36 ± 0,08). No entanto, um valor mais baixo de Paraoxonase (PON) sérica foi registrado para D4 (13,24 ± 0,01) e mais alto para D1 (13,33 ± 0,03). A levedura enriquecida com Se comparativamente autodesenvolvida aumentou o acúmulo de Se e melhorou o sistema antioxidante. A glutationa peroxidase (GPx) foi encontrada maior em D4 (12,333 ± 0,03) seguido por D3, D2 e ​​D1 respectivamente. Enquanto a superóxido dismutase (SOD) foi significativamente menor (p < 0,05) em D4 (0,1437 ± 0,003) seguido por D3 (0,1457 ± 0,002). A suplementação de selênio aumentou a taxa de sobrevivência da ave. Aves alimentadas com levedura enriquecida com Se apresentaram maior deposição de Se e melhor capacidade antioxidante em comparação com outras fontes de selênio. A levedura enriquecida com Se apresentou um resultado melhorado na deposição de Se nos tecidos, capacidade oxidativa, maciez da carne e nível de resposta imune em comparação com outras fontes de selênio.


Assuntos
Animais , Selênio , Galinhas , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Antioxidantes
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247791, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285637

RESUMO

Abstract The growth of aquaculture sector is strongly dependent upon the continuous supply of inexpensive fish feed with balanced nutritional profile. However, fish meal (FM) is unable to satisfy this demand due to its scarce supply and high cost. In order to test the potential of cottonseed meal (CSM) as a fish meal replacer, a feeding trial of 12 weeks was conducted to check growth performance and proximate composition of Labeo rohita fingerlings. The protein ration of the test feed was satisfied by replacing FM with CSM at 0, 25, 50 and 75%. Sixteen test diets viz., TD1 (control), TD2, TD3, TD4, TD5, TD6, TD7, TD8, TD9, TD10, TD11, TD12, TD13, TD14, TD15 and TD16 were supplemented with citric acid (CA; 0 and 2.5%) and phytase (PHY; 0 and 750 FTU/kg) in a completely randomized design with 3×3 factorial arrangement. The highest weight gain (11.03g), weight gain% (249.21%), specific growth rate (1.39) and best feed conversion ratio (1.20) were recorded by fish fed with TD12. Furthermore, the same level increased the crude protein (59.26%) and fat (16.04%) being significantly different (p<0.05) than that of control. Conclusively, the addition of acidified phytase (CA; 2.5%, PHY; 750 FTU/kg) in TD12 (CSM=50%) led to the improved growth and proximate composition of L. rohita fingerlings.


Resumo O crescimento do setor de aquicultura é fortemente dependente do fornecimento contínuo de rações baratas para peixes com perfil nutricional equilibrado. Porém, a farinha de peixe (FM) não consegue atender a essa demanda devido à sua escassa oferta e alto custo. Com o objetivo de testar o potencial da farinha de semente de canola (MSC) como substituto da farinha de peixe, um ensaio alimentar de 12 semanas foi conduzido para verificar o desempenho de crescimento e a composição centesimal de alevinos de Labeo rohita. A ração de proteína da ração teste foi satisfeita substituindo FM por CSM em 0, 25, 50 e 75%. Dezesseis dietas de teste, viz., TD1 (controle), TD2, TD3, TD4, TD5, TD6, TD7, TD8, TD9, TD10, TD11, TD12, TD13, TD14, TD15 e TD16 foram suplementadas com ácido cítrico (CA; 0 e 2,5%) e fitase (PHY; 0 e 750 FTU / kg) em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com arranjo fatorial 3 × 3. O maior ganho de peso (11,03g), % de ganho de peso (249,21%), taxa de crescimento específico (1,39) e melhor taxa de conversão alimentar (1,20) foram registrados por peixes alimentados com TD12. Além disso, o mesmo nível aumentou a proteína bruta (59,26%) e a gordura (16,04%), sendo significativamente diferente (p <0,05) do controle. Conclusivamente, a adição de fitase acidificada (CA; 2,5%, PHY; 750 FTU / kg) em TD12 (CSM = 50%) levou a um melhor crescimento e composição próxima de alevinos de L. rohita.


Assuntos
Animais , Cyprinidae , 6-Fitase , Óleo de Sementes de Algodão , Dieta/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246568, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278537

RESUMO

Abstract Fishmeal; being a limited and costly feed ingredient is continuously been substituted with locally available plant proteins. However, the occurrence of anti-nutritional factors in plant meal suppresses its potential to be fully replaced. Therefore, in this study we aimed to study the synergistic effects of dietary additives like citric acid and phytase enzyme supplementation on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings. Canola meal (CM) was used as a test ingredient to replace fishmeal (FM) as; 0%, 25%, 50% and 75%. These four diets were further supplemented by varying levels of phytase (0 and 750 FTU kg-1) and citric acid (0% and 2.5%) to formulate total sixteen test diets as T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, T12, T13, T14, T15 and T16. Each treatment contained three replicates; applied to fish groups having 15 fingerlings each; following 3×3 factorial arrangement. 1% of chromic oxide was added as an inert marker. Maximum weight gain% (288%) and the lowest value of FCR (1.07) were recorded when fish was fed on diet T12 as compared to fish fed control diet (T1). Similarly, optimum nutrient digestibility values such as crude protein (77%), crude fat (84%) and gross energy (70%) were noted on same level. It was concluded that 50% canola meal can optimally replace fishmeal when supplemented with phytase and citric acid at the levels of 750 FTU kg-1 and 2.5%, respectively.


Resumo A farinha de peixe, por ser um ingrediente alimentar limitado e caro, é continuamente substituída por proteínas vegetais disponíveis localmente. No entanto, a ocorrência de fatores antinutricionais na farinha de plantas suprime seu potencial de ser totalmente substituída. Portanto, neste estudo objetivamos estudar os efeitos sinérgicos de aditivos dietéticos como ácido cítrico e suplementação com enzima fitase sobre o desempenho de crescimento e digestibilidade de nutrientes de alevinos de Cirrhinus mrigala. A farinha de canola (CM) foi usada como ingrediente de teste para substituir a farinha de peixe (FM) como: 0%, 25%, 50% e 75%. Essas quatro dietas foram suplementadas por níveis variados de fitase (0 e 750 FTU kg-1) e ácido cítrico (0% e 2,5%) para formular um total de 16 dietas de teste como T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, T12, T13, T14, T15 e T16. Cada tratamento continha três repetições; aplicado a grupos de peixes com 15 alevinos cada; seguindo o arranjo fatorial 3 × 3. 1% de óxido crômico foi adicionado como um marcador inerte. % de ganho de peso máximo (288%) e o valor mais baixo de FCR (1,07) foram registrados quando os peixes foram alimentados com dieta T12 em comparação com peixes alimentados com dieta controle (T1). Da mesma forma, valores ótimos de digestibilidade de nutrientes, como proteína bruta (77%), gordura bruta (84%) e energia bruta (70%) foram anotados no mesmo nível. Concluiu-se que 50% da farinha de canola pode substituir de forma ideal a farinha de peixe quando suplementada com fitase e ácido cítrico nos níveis de 750 FTU kg-1 e 2,5%, respectivamente.


Assuntos
Animais , 6-Fitase , Nutrientes , Galinhas , Ácido Cítrico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
9.
Cureus ; 14(10): e30583, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36420248

RESUMO

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disorder with chronic deterioration that arises after exposure to traumatic events. In these events, a persistent maladaptive reaction was found as a result of severe psychological stress and trauma. It is usually accompanied by mood alteration, disturbing memories, evading behavior, and hyperarousal. Many studies found a connection between PTSD and both ischemic heart disease (IHD) and atrial fibrillation (AF). Impairment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic nervous system can contribute to hypercoagulability, elevated cardiac reactivity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and chronic inflammation, as all of these processes are implicated in IHD and AF risk. PTSD tends to have a more long-term course and is associated with more autonomic reactivity rather than a direct negative impact. More research is needed to understand the mechanisms underlying the increased AF risk in patients with PTSD and to identify supposed objectives for screening, intervention, and treatment. Highlighting the connection between PTSD and cardiovascular events would lead clinicians to develop screening tests that might help with the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular events for these patients.

10.
Materials (Basel) ; 15(19)2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36233878

RESUMO

Fly oil shale ash (FOSA) is a waste material known for its pozzolanic activity. This study intends to investigate the optimum thermal treatment conditions to use FOSA efficiently as a cement replacement material. FOSA samples were burned in an electric oven for 2, 4, and 6 h at temperatures ranging from 550 °C to 1000 °C with 150 °C intervals. A total of 333 specimens out of 37 different mixes were prepared and tested with cement replacement ratios between 10% and 30%. The investigated properties included the mineralogical characteristics, chemical elemental analysis, compressive strength, and strength activity index for mortar samples. The findings show that the content of SiO2 + Al2O3 + Fe2O3 was less than 70% in all samples. The strength activity index of the raw FOSA at 56 days exceeded 75%. Among all specimens, the calcined samples for 2 h demonstrated the highest pozzolanic activity and compressive strength with a 75% strength activity index. The model developed by RSM is suitable for the interpretation of FOSA in the cementitious matrix with high degrees of correlation above 85%. The optimal compressive strength was achieved at a 30% replacement level, a temperature of 700 °C for 2 h, and after 56 days of curing.

11.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e244158, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36074417

RESUMO

Intestinal parasitism is the main cause of disease all over the world and described as a significant community health problem. The current study intended to find out the occurrence and identification of hazard factors linked with IPIs among 4-12 years aged shool-age children residing in Lower Dir district, Pakistan during 2019 - 2020. A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted using a pre-arranged pre-tested survey. Anthropometric data and stool collection were done to obtain the findings. The direct wet mount preparation in saline/iodine/methods was used for stool examination. Data were investigated using the GraphPad Prism 5. A total of 400 children studied (mean age of 8.6±3.6 years) the total incidence rate for the intestinal parasitic disease was established to be 71.75%. Of the 400 children studied, the overall prevalence rate for intestinal parasitic infections was found to 71.75% Ascaris lumbricoides (33.1%), Trichuris trichiura (1.04%), E. vermicularis (1.39%), Hookworm (19.86%) were identified in children living in the study area. We concluded that there is a mass scale campaigns were required to generate alertness about health and sanitation in children and the need for the development of effective poverty control programs because deworming (killing of worm with drugs) alone is not adequate to control parasitic infections.


Assuntos
Enteropatias Parasitárias , Animais , Ascaris lumbricoides , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Strongyloides
12.
Cureus ; 14(8): e28462, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36176868

RESUMO

Metformin, a biguanide hypoglycemic agent that is safe and effective for treating acne in women with the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), has shown growing evidence of improving insulin resistance, hyperandrogenism, dyslipidemia, overall cardiovascular health, quality of life, psychological wellbeing, and general health outcomes. This study aims to identify and summarize the effects of metformin in patients with PCOS-associated acne. This systematic review was based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A systematic search was done on PubMed, PubMed Central, Cochrane, Google Scholar, and Science Direct databases from 2011 up to 23 February 2022. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cross-sectional studies, observational studies, literature reviews, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses published in English were selected. The data was extracted to a predefined template. Each study was individually checked by using a quality assessment. The initial search generated a total of 218 studies. Nine studies were included in the final selection: two RCTs, one hospital-based longitudinal study, one hospital-based clinical trial, three cross-sectional studies, three systematic reviews with meta-analyses, and one narrative review. Metformin is generally effective and safe for improving PCOS-associated acne and the quality of life. More clinical trials are required to determine the indications for prescribing metformin in patients with PCOS-associated acne.

13.
Cureus ; 14(7): e27394, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36046299

RESUMO

The period of adolescence is a stage during which individuals experience several physical and psychological changes which increase their vulnerabilities to environmental influences. Cannabis exposure is one environmental factor that may put their health at risk. Various research agree that a connection exists between the onset of depression and cannabis use. Cannabis can affect the adolescents' brain, making them susceptible to depression. Depression is a disorder that manifests in a myriad of ways that can be detrimental to individuals. This problem is not only confined to the individuals themselves, but it is also a societal problem. The relationship that exists between cannabis use and depression is an extremely complex one. This study's main objective is to review previously conducted research regarding the association between cannabis use and depression in adolescents.

14.
J Surg Res ; 280: 248-257, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36027658

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite an increasing number of women pursuing careers in science, engineering, and medicine, gender disparities in patents persist. This study sought to analyze trends in inventor's gender for surgical device patents filed and granted in Canada and the United States from 2015 to 2019. METHODS: This study analyzed patents filed and granted by the Canadian Intellectual Property Office (CIPO) in the category of "Diagnosis; Surgery; Identification" and the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) in the category of "Surgery" from 2015 to 2019. The gender of the patent applicants was determined using a gender algorithm that predicts gender based on first names. Gender matches with names having a probability of less than 95% were excluded. RESULTS: We identified 14,312 inventors on patents filed and 12,737 inventors on patents granted by the CIPO for "Diagnosis; Surgery; Identification". In the USPTO category of "Surgery," we identified 75,890 inventors on patents filed and 44,842 inventors on patents granted. Female inventors accounted for 7%-10% of inventors from 2015 to 2019 for both patents filed and granted. The proportion of female inventors on patents granted was significantly lower than for patents filed for four of the 5 y analyzed for both the USPTO and CIPO. CONCLUSIONS: Female representation in surgical device patenting has stagnated, between 7 and 10%, from 2015 to 2019 in Canada and the United States. This underrepresentation of female inventors in surgical device patenting represents sizable gender disparity.


Assuntos
Equipamentos Cirúrgicos , Mulheres Trabalhadoras , Feminino , Humanos , Canadá , Estados Unidos
15.
Int J Pharm ; 624: 121992, 2022 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35809831

RESUMO

The objective of the investigation was to determine the ocular biodistribution of cysteamine, a reducing agent used for treatment of cystine crystals in cystinosis, following topical administration of a sustained release formulation and traditional eyedrop formulation. To the right eye only, rabbits received a 50 µL drop of 0.44% cysteamine eyedrops at one drop per waking hour for 2, 6, 12, and 24 h. A second group received one 100 µL drop of a sustained release formulation containing encapsulated cysteamine microspheres suspended in a thermoresponsive gel. Upon serial sacrifice, ocular tissues from both eyes and plasma were obtained and quantified for cysteamine using LC-MS/MS. Cysteamine was detected in the cornea, aqueous humor and vitreous humor. Systemic plasma concentrations of cysteamine from treatment groups were below the limit of detection. As expected, 0.44% cysteamine eyedrops when administered hourly maintained drug concentrations within the cornea at a magnitude 5 times higher than a single dose of the sustained release formulation over 12 h. The sustained release formulation maintained cysteamine presentation across 12 h from a single drop. These studies demonstrate distribution of cysteamine to the eye following topical administration, including high drug uptake to the cornea and low systemic distribution.


Assuntos
Cisteamina , Cistinose , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Córnea , Cisteamina/química , Cistinose/tratamento farmacológico , Preparações de Ação Retardada/uso terapêutico , Microesferas , Soluções Oftálmicas , Coelhos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Distribuição Tecidual
16.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e261446, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35830131

RESUMO

Asiatic black bear has long been in conflict with human beings crop raiding is a major cause of this conflict frequently noted in South Asia. Crops raided by black bears affected by temporal, spatial and anthropogenic attributes. Insight in this conflict and its mitigation is vital for the conservation of this threatened species. Present study aimed to evaluate crop raiding by black bears in the mountainous region of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Field surveys were carried out to observe spatial and temporal crop raiding features between 2015-2020 and data gathered using designed questionnaires randomly tailored in villages nearby the forests. Results revealed that maize was the sole crop raided by black bears. A total of 28-acre area was raided by black bear in the fall season (Aug-November) resulting in a damage of 51 metric tons, whole raiding was carried out at night. Each respondent received crop damage on 0.09 acre with a loss of 0.17 metric ton yield. Crop quantity and area were significantly correlated to each other. District Neelum shared 49% of the total crop loss, while 47% of the maize was raided at the altitudinal range of 2100-2500 m. crop raiding was highly significantly ( χ 2 = 1174.64 ; d f = 308 ;   p < 0.01 ) dependent upon distance to the forest. Linear regression revealed that maize quantity was determined by area, time and the total field area. Farmers faced 3.8 million PKRs loss due to crop damage by black bears. Despite the huge loss, the majority (23%) of the respondents did not respond to the query on mitigation measures indicating a poor adaptation of preventive measures. Preferred strategy to avoid crop damage was making noise (27.8%) when bears attacked their crops. A start of compensation scheme to the farmers is recommended that will have turned their negative attitude into a positive one toward the wildlife and black bear particularly. Study provides a new insight in human-bear conflict, particularly in spatial and temporal context of crop raiding in AJ&K.


Assuntos
Ursidae , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas , Florestas , Humanos , Paquistão
17.
HPB (Oxford) ; 24(10): 1770-1779, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35871133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) remains associated with significant complication and readmission rates. Infection constitutes a significant proportion of morbidity. We aim to evaluate whether CT scans performed prior to discharge for suspected infection prevents readmission. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients undergoing PD at a tertiary referral center from 2010 to 2018. RESULTS: A total of 982 patients underwent PD: 74% had no clinical infection at the index admission. Of the non-infected patients, 59% exhibited leukocytosis, 27% underwent a CT scan, and 33.6% were readmitted. Of the non-infected patients, 148 (20.3%) experienced major complications, and this was the strongest predictor of readmission (OR: 10.5, [95% CI: 6.5-17], p = 0.0001). In the non-infected patients who had major complications, CT scanning was predictive of lower risk of readmission (OR: 0.38, [95% CI: 0.17-0.83], p = 0.015). Leukocytosis was also found to be predictive of lower risk of readmission (OR: 0.42, [95% CI: 0.18-0.98], p = 0.044). These findings did not hold true for those who had yet to experience major complications on their index admission. CONCLUSION: CT scanning without evidence of infection was associated with reduction of readmission in the cohort with major complications and showed a trend towards preventing readmission in the overall cohort. Development of clinical algorithms to maximize the utility of this test is warranted.


Assuntos
Pancreaticoduodenectomia , Readmissão do Paciente , Humanos , Pancreaticoduodenectomia/efeitos adversos , Leucocitose/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
18.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e261655, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35703631

RESUMO

Growing human population is a solemn risk to biodiversity at a global level. Massive anthropogenic pressure and invasion in the natural habitats initiated the human-wildlife conflict in rural areas. Present study aimed to assess human-wildlife conflict in Musk Deer National Park (MDNP) from 2013 to 2018. Results revealed an estimated 241784 nomadic and 5589 residential livestock heads grazed in different areas of MDNP during the summer season. A total of 126 heads were depredated by carnivores during the study period. Majority (n=39) of livestock heads were killed in May (n=29). Livestock depredation resulted in economic losses worth 3.115 million PKRs (25744 US$) to the herder community while farmers received 1.629 million PKRs (13466 US$) losses due to crop raiding. Most (64%) of the respondents believed human-wildlife conflict heightened due to scarcity of food or prey in the natural habitats of carnivores. Majority (92%) of the respondents did not like the presence of predators in MDNP. Loss compensation schemes could turn this negative attitude into the positive one and increase tolerance about the presence of carnivores in their vicinity. This study provides an insight into the human-wildlife conflict in MDNP and paves a way for understanding the conflict and conservation of carnivore species in the study area.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Cervos , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Humanos , Paquistão , Parques Recreativos
19.
Eye Vis (Lond) ; 9(1): 18, 2022 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35526055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ability to view the posterior segment in keratoprosthesis (Kpro) implanted patients is limited. The purpose of this retrospective, observational study was to investigate the use of ultra-wide field (UWF) scanning laser ophthalmoscopy imaging and its utility for serial evaluation of the retina and optic nerve in patients with either a Boston type I or II Kpro. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed for patients with a Boston type I or II Kpro seen at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center. Images were graded for quality by two masked observers on a defined four-point scale ("Poor", "Fair", "Good", or "Very good") and assessed for visible posterior segment anatomy. Interobserver agreement was described using the Kappa statistic coefficient (κ) with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: A total of 19 eyes from 17 patients were included in this study. Eighteen eyes had a type I Kpro, while one eye had a type II Kpro. UWF imaging from 41 patient visits were reviewed by two observers. Interobserver agreement between the two graders was fair for image quality (κ = 0.36), moderate for visibility of the macula with discernible details (κ = 0.59), moderate for visibility of the anterior retina with discernable details (κ = 0.60), and perfect agreement for visibility of the optic nerve with discernible details (κ = 1.0). In 6 eyes, UWF imaging was performed longitudinally (range 3-9 individual visits), allowing for long-term follow-up (range 3-46 months) of posterior segment clinical pathology. CONCLUSIONS: UWF imaging provides adequate and reliable visualization of the posterior segment in Kpro implanted patients. This imaging modality allowed for noninvasive longitudinal monitoring of retinal and optic nerve disease in this selected patient population.

20.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 8(5): 651-661, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35589178

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to analyze the impact of the American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association, and Heart Rhythm Society (ACC/AHA/HRS) guidelines for cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator (CRT-D) update on utilization and efficacy of CRT-D. BACKGROUND: In September 2012, the ACC/AHA/HRS guidelines for CRT-D were modified to include left bundle branch block (LBBB) as a Class I indication. METHODS: The IBM Watson MarketScan Database was queried between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2018, for CRT-D implants or upgrades. The primary outcome was heart failure (HF) hospitalization following left ventricular lead implant. Secondary outcomes included all-cause mortality and device-related lead revision. RESULTS: A total of 27,238 patients were analyzed: 18,384 pre-update and 8,854 post-update. Mean age was 69 ± 11 years, 73% men, and 98% with history of HF hospitalization. The proportion of patients with LBBB increased from 29% to 55% (P < 0.001) after the update. Patients receiving CRT-D post-update demonstrated a greater prevalence of comorbidities, including atrial fibrillation (47% vs 40%; P < 0.001), diabetes mellitus (45% vs 39%; P < 0.001), chronic kidney disease (24% vs 15%; P < 0.001), and HF hospitalization in the year before CRT-D (40% vs 37%; P < 0.001). Despite greater baseline comorbidities, HF hospitalization significantly declined post-update (HR: 0.89; P < 0.001). Multivariate predictors of reduced HF hospitalization included angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor prescription (HR: 0.48; P < 0.001) and presence of LBBB (HR: 0.71; P < 0.001). All-cause mortality was not significantly different between the 2 groups, and fewer lead revisions were noted post-update (0.6% vs 1.7%; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The revised 2012 guidelines led to an increased proportion of LBBB patients receiving CRT-D at the population-level. This change was associated with reduced HF hospitalization, despite broadening therapy to patients with more comorbid conditions.


Assuntos
Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Arritmias Cardíacas/terapia , Bloqueio de Ramo/epidemiologia , Bloqueio de Ramo/terapia , Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Desfibriladores Implantáveis/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Seleção de Pacientes , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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