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1.
RSC Adv ; 14(9): 6165-6177, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38375010

RESUMO

Sorption-based atmospheric water harvesting (SBAWH) is a highly promising approach for extracting water from the atmosphere thanks to its sustainability, exceptional energy efficiency, and affordability. In this work, ZnFe2O4 and Zn0.4Co0.6Fe2O4 were evaluated for moisture adsorption. The desired materials were synthesized by a surfactant-assisted sol-gel method. Synthesized samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), and point of zero charge (PZC). Crystallinity and phase composition were evaluated by XRD analysis. Several parameters were determined using XRD analysis: lattice parameter, unit cell volume, crystallite size, and bulk density. The morphology of synthesized materials was assessed via SEM, and unveiled the acquisition of consistent, homogeneous, and uniform crystals. Elemental composition was determined through EDX spectroscopy. Water adsorption on the surface was evaluated by FTIR spectroscopy. The magnetic properties of synthesized ZnFe2O4 and cobalt-doped ZnFe2O4 ferrites were investigated using VSM. The negative charge on the Zn0.4Co0.6Fe2O4 surface was explored using PZC. Adsorption studies on synthesized materials were conducted with the help of an atmospheric water harvesting (AWH) plant created by our team. Moisture adsorption isotherms of synthesized materials were determined using a gravimetric method under varying temperature and relative humidity (45-95%) conditions. The moisture content (Mc) of Zn0.4Co0.6Fe2O4 and ZnFe2O4 was 597 mg g-1 and 104 mg g-1, respectively. Key thermodynamic properties, including isosteric heat of adsorption (Qst), change in Gibbs free energy (ΔG), and change in sorption entropy (ΔS), were evaluated. Qst was negative, which confirmed the sorption of water vapors on the material surface. ΔG and ΔS indicated that water-vapor adsorption was spontaneous and exothermic. A second-order kinetics study was carried out on synthesized materials, demonstrating their chemisorption behavior. The latter was due to the oxygen defects created by replacement of Co2+ and Fe3+ at tetrahedral and octahedral sites. Water vapors in the atmosphere became attached to the surface and deprotonation occurred, and the hydroxyl ions were formed. Water vapor attached to these hydroxyl ions. A second-order kinetics study was carried out to confirm the chemisorption behavior of synthesized materials.

2.
Adv Mater ; : e2310435, 2024 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38386499

RESUMO

An active droplet system, programmed to repeatedly move autonomously at a specific velocity in a well-defined direction, is demonstrated. Coulombic energy is stored in oversaturated interfacial assemblies of charged nanoparticle-surfactants by an applied DC electric field and can be released on demand. Spontaneous emulsification is suppressed by an increase in the stiffness of the oversaturated assemblies. Rapidly removing the field releases the stored energy in an explosive event that propels the droplet, where thousands of charged microdroplets are ballistically ejected from the surface of the parent droplet. The ejection is made directional by a symmetry breaking of the interfacial assembly, and the combined interaction force of the microdroplet plume on one side of the droplet propels the droplet distances tens of times its size, making the droplet active. The propulsion is autonomous, repeatable, and agnostic to the chemical composition of the nanoparticles. The symmetry-breaking in the nanoparticle assembly controls the microdroplet velocity and direction of propulsion. This mechanism of droplet propulsion will advance soft micro-robotics, establishes a new type of active matter, and introduces new vehicles for compartmentalized delivery. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(2)2024 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38255944

RESUMO

Emerging research has revealed a complex bidirectional interaction between the gut microbiome and cannabis. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that the gut microbiota can significantly influence the pharmacological effects of cannabinoids. One notable finding is the ability of the gut microbiota to metabolise cannabinoids, including Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). This metabolic transformation can alter the potency and duration of cannabinoid effects, potentially impacting their efficacy in cancer treatment. Additionally, the capacity of gut microbiota to activate cannabinoid receptors through the production of secondary bile acids underscores its role in directly influencing the pharmacological activity of cannabinoids. While the literature reveals promising avenues for leveraging the gut microbiome-cannabis axis in cancer therapy, several critical considerations must be accounted for. Firstly, the variability in gut microbiota composition among individuals presents a challenge in developing universal treatment strategies. The diversity in gut microbiota may lead to variations in cannabinoid metabolism and treatment responses, emphasising the need for personalised medicine approaches. The growing interest in understanding how the gut microbiome and cannabis may impact cancer has created a demand for up-to-date, comprehensive reviews to inform researchers and healthcare practitioners. This review provides a timely and invaluable resource by synthesizing the most recent research findings and spotlighting emerging trends. A thorough examination of the literature on the interplay between the gut microbiome and cannabis, specifically focusing on their potential implications for cancer, is presented in this review to devise innovative and effective therapeutic strategies for managing cancer.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Alucinógenos , Neoplasias , Humanos , Agonistas de Receptores de Canabinoides , Dronabinol , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico
4.
Molecules ; 29(2)2024 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38257323

RESUMO

Cannabis, renowned for its historical medicinal use, harbours various bioactive compounds-cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids. While major cannabinoids like delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) have received extensive scrutiny for their pharmacological properties, emerging evidence underscores the collaborative interactions among these constituents, suggesting a collective therapeutic potential. This comprehensive review explores the intricate relationships and synergies between cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids in cannabis. Cannabinoids, pivotal in cannabis's bioactivity, exhibit well-documented analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. Terpenes, aromatic compounds imbuing distinct flavours, not only contribute to cannabis's sensory profile but also modulate cannabinoid effects through diverse molecular mechanisms. Flavonoids, another cannabis component, demonstrate anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective properties, particularly relevant to neuroinflammation. The entourage hypothesis posits that combined cannabinoid, terpene, and flavonoid action yields synergistic or additive effects, surpassing individual compound efficacy. Recognizing the nuanced interactions is crucial for unravelling cannabis's complete therapeutic potential. Tailoring treatments based on the holistic composition of cannabis strains allows optimization of therapeutic outcomes while minimizing potential side effects. This review underscores the imperative to delve into the intricate roles of cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids, offering promising prospects for innovative therapeutic interventions and advocating continued research to unlock cannabis's full therapeutic potential within the realm of natural plant-based medicine.


Assuntos
Canabidiol , Cannabis , Alucinógenos , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias , Terpenos/farmacologia , Agonistas de Receptores de Canabinoides , Canabidiol/farmacologia , Canabidiol/uso terapêutico , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(2)2024 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38257470

RESUMO

Three-dimensional point cloud registration is a fundamental task for localization and mapping in autonomous navigation applications. Over the years, registration algorithms have evolved; nevertheless, several challenges still remain. Recently, non-repetitive scanning LiDAR sensors have emerged as a promising 3D data acquisition tool. However, the feasibility of this type of sensor to leverage robust point cloud registration still needs to be ascertained. In this paper, we explore the feasibility of one such LiDAR sensor with a Spirograph-type non-repetitive scanning pattern for robust 3D point cloud registration. We first characterize the data of this unique sensor; then, utilizing these results, we propose a new 3D point cloud registration method that exploits the unique scanning pattern of the sensor to register successive 3D scans. The characteristic equations of the unique scanning pattern, determined during the characterization phase, are used to reconstruct a perfect scan at the target distance. The real scan is then compared with this reconstructed scan to extract objects in the scene. The displacement of these extracted objects with respect to the center of the unique scanning pattern is compared in successive scans to determine the transformations that are then used to register these scans. The proposed method is evaluated on two real and different datasets and compared with other state-of-the-art registration methods. After analysis, the performance (localization and mapping results) of the proposed method is further improved by adding constraints like loop closure and employing a Curve Fitting Derivative Filter (CFDT) to better estimate the trajectory. The results clearly demonstrate the suitability of the sensor for such applications. The proposed method is found to be comparable with other methods in terms of accuracy but surpasses them in performance in terms of processing time.

6.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e248359, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345547

RESUMO

Abstract Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) is one of the major rice diseases in Malaysia. This disease causes substantial yield loss as high as 70%. Development of rice varieties which inherited BLB resistant traits is a crucial approach to promote and sustain rice industry in Malaysia. Hence, this study aims were to enhance BLB disease resistant characters of high yielding commercial variety MR219 through backcross breeding approach with supporting tool of marker-assisted selection (MAS). Broad spectrum BLB resistance gene, Xa7 from donor parent IRBB7 were introgressed into the susceptible MR219 (recurrent parent) using two flanking markers ID7 and ID15. At BC3F4, we managed to generate 19 introgressed lines with homozygous Xa7 gene and showed resistant characteristics as donor parent when it was challenged with Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae through artificial inoculation. Recurrent parent MR219 and control variety, MR263 were found to be severely infected by the disease. The improved lines exhibited similar morphological and yield performance characters as to the elite variety, MR219. Two lines, PB-2-107 and PB-2-34 were chosen to be potential lines because of their outstanding performances compared to parent, MR219. This study demonstrates a success story of MAS application in development of improved disease resistance lines of rice against BLB disease.


Resumo A mancha bacteriana das folhas (BLB) é uma das principais doenças do arroz na Malásia. Essa doença causa perdas substanciais de rendimento de até 70%. O desenvolvimento de variedades de arroz que herdaram características de resistência ao BLB é uma abordagem crucial para promover e sustentar a indústria do arroz na Malásia. Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo foi aumentar os caracteres BLB resistentes a doenças da variedade comercial MR219 de alto rendimento por meio de uma abordagem de cruzamento retrocruzamento com ferramenta de apoio de seleção assistida por marcador (MAS). O gene de resistência a BLB de amplo espectro, Xa7 do pai doador IRBB7, foi introgressado no MR219 suscetível (pai recorrente) usando dois marcadores flanqueadores ID7 e ID15. No BC3F4, conseguimos gerar 19 linhagens introgressadas com o gene Xa7 homozigoto e apresentamos características de resistência como genitor doador quando desafiado com Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae por inoculação artificial. O pai recorrente MR219 e a variedade controle, MR263, estavam gravemente infectados pela doença. As linhas melhoradas exibiram características morfológicas e de desempenho de rendimento semelhantes às da variedade elite, MR219. Duas linhas, PB-2-107 e PB-2-34, foram escolhidas como linhas potenciais por causa de seus desempenhos excelentes em comparação com a mãe, MR219. Este estudo demonstra uma história de sucesso de aplicação de MAS no desenvolvimento de linhas de arroz melhoradas com resistência a doenças contra a doença BLB.


Assuntos
Oryza , Xanthomonas , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 842024.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469251

RESUMO

Abstract Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) is one of the major rice diseases in Malaysia. This disease causes substantial yield loss as high as 70%. Development of rice varieties which inherited BLB resistant traits is a crucial approach to promote and sustain rice industry in Malaysia. Hence, this study aims were to enhance BLB disease resistant characters of high yielding commercial variety MR219 through backcross breeding approach with supporting tool of marker-assisted selection (MAS). Broad spectrum BLB resistance gene, Xa7 from donor parent IRBB7 were introgressed into the susceptible MR219 (recurrent parent) using two flanking markers ID7 and ID15. At BC3F4, we managed to generate 19 introgressed lines with homozygous Xa7 gene and showed resistant characteristics as donor parent when it was challenged with Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae through artificial inoculation. Recurrent parent MR219 and control variety, MR263 were found to be severely infected by the disease. The improved lines exhibited similar morphological and yield performance characters as to the elite variety, MR219. Two lines, PB-2-107 and PB-2-34 were chosen to be potential lines because of their outstanding performances compared to parent, MR219. This study demonstrates a success story of MAS application in development of improved disease resistance lines of rice against BLB disease.


Resumo A mancha bacteriana das folhas (BLB) é uma das principais doenças do arroz na Malásia. Essa doença causa perdas substanciais de rendimento de até 70%. O desenvolvimento de variedades de arroz que herdaram características de resistência ao BLB é uma abordagem crucial para promover e sustentar a indústria do arroz na Malásia. Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo foi aumentar os caracteres BLB resistentes a doenças da variedade comercial MR219 de alto rendimento por meio de uma abordagem de cruzamento retrocruzamento com ferramenta de apoio de seleção assistida por marcador (MAS). O gene de resistência a BLB de amplo espectro, Xa7 do pai doador IRBB7, foi introgressado no MR219 suscetível (pai recorrente) usando dois marcadores flanqueadores ID7 e ID15. No BC3F4, conseguimos gerar 19 linhagens introgressadas com o gene Xa7 homozigoto e apresentamos características de resistência como genitor doador quando desafiado com Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae por inoculação artificial. O pai recorrente MR219 e a variedade controle, MR263, estavam gravemente infectados pela doença. As linhas melhoradas exibiram características morfológicas e de desempenho de rendimento semelhantes às da variedade elite, MR219. Duas linhas, PB-2-107 e PB-2-34, foram escolhidas como linhas potenciais por causa de seus desempenhos excelentes em comparação com a mãe, MR219. Este estudo demonstra uma história de sucesso de aplicação de MAS no desenvolvimento de linhas de arroz melhoradas com resistência a doenças contra a doença BLB.

8.
Taiwan J Ophthalmol ; 13(3): 398-401, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38089523

RESUMO

We report an unusual case of metastatic esophageal carcinoma to the vitreous associated with focal retinitis in a 44-year-old male. A 44-year-old male patient, known case of locally advanced esophageal carcinoma, presented with a 3-day history of left eye floaters. The initial diagnosis was inflammatory vitreo-retinitis that responded to systemic steroids. Four months later, the patient presented with relapsed intraocular inflammation, vitreous biopsy using a 25G needle was performed, and cytology confirmed the presence of metastatic carcinoma consistent with his primary esophageal cancer. The patient received external beam radiotherapy to his ocular and brain metastasis, and his eye examination was stable. Five months later, the patient passed away due to progressive brain metastasis.

9.
Heliyon ; 9(12): e22825, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38125542

RESUMO

In this paper, the Gaussian optical properties and the first- and third-order isotropic and anisotropic chromatic aberrations of the Glaser magnetic lens have been derived analytically and then calculated numerically based on two methods: the differential-algebraic DA and the electron optical aberration integrals. These coefficients have been recalculated for object magnetic immersion OMI. The expressions of chromatic aberration coefficients with the inclusion of the OMI effect of round electron lenses were not published in the literature until the present work. The numerical results of high-order chromatic aberration coefficients of Glaser magnetic lenses calculated using the DA method are shown to be in excellent agreement with those calculated using the integral aberration method and with the minor relative errors of order (10-7- 10-8), indicating that all the formulas for the chromatic aberration coefficients are entirely correct. For this purpose, COSY INFINITY 10 and Mathematica 11 were used, and both proved to be excellent computer programs for this work.

10.
Malays J Med Sci ; 30(5): 116-128, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37928782

RESUMO

Background: Uncontrolled hypertension can cause cardiovascular disease and is an important public health issue. Single-pill combination (SPC) therapies possess combined blood pressure (BP)-lowering effect and may improve compliance to treatment. This study assessed the effectiveness of valsartan (Val)-based SPC therapies in achieving BP control in hypertensive patients. Methods: This was a retrospective study. Data were extracted from the hybrid medical records of patients from the Institut Jantung Negara (IJN), Malaysia. Adults with established diagnosis of hypertension and on prescription of Val-based SPC therapies as part of routine medical care from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2018, with ≥ 1 year of follow-up were included. Primary endpoint was proportion of patients achieving therapeutic BP control (BP < 140/90 mmHg). Secondary outcomes included change from baseline (CFB) in systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP), and subgroup analysis was based on baseline SBP categories and presence of diabetes. Results: Study included 409 hypertensive patients. The mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of the population was 65.1 (10.6) years old, with male predominance (61.6%). Proportion of patients achieving target BP between baseline and follow-up were 57.0% (P < 0.001). Mean CFB in SBP and DBP were recorded as 19.52 mmHg and 7.47 mmHg, respectively. Over half of the patients achieved the target BP in all subgroups categorised by SBP at baseline, except the subgroup of SBP 160 mmHg-179 mmHg. SPC therapies were continued in 97.3% of patients at 1-year follow-up. Conclusion: Patients using Val-based SPC therapies had significant reduction in BP with good tolerability, with 57% of patients achieving target BP over a prolonged 1-year follow-up period. Uptake of SPC therapy is warranted to improve patient care and outcomes in hypertension.

11.
Nat Chem Biol ; 19(12): 1551-1560, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37932529

RESUMO

Monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIAs) represent a large class of plant natural products with marketed pharmaceutical activities against a wide range of indications, including cancer, malaria and hypertension. Halogenated MIAs have shown improved pharmaceutical properties; however, synthesis of new-to-nature halogenated MIAs remains a challenge. Here we demonstrate a platform for de novo biosynthesis of two MIAs, serpentine and alstonine, in baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and deploy it to systematically explore the biocatalytic potential of refactored MIA pathways for the production of halogenated MIAs. From this, we demonstrate conversion of individual haloindole derivatives to a total of 19 different new-to-nature haloserpentine and haloalstonine analogs. Furthermore, by process optimization and heterologous expression of a modified halogenase in the microbial MIA platform, we document de novo halogenation and biosynthesis of chloroalstonine. Together, this study highlights a microbial platform for enzymatic exploration and production of complex natural and new-to-nature MIAs with therapeutic potential.


Assuntos
Catharanthus , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Monoterpenos/metabolismo , Alcaloides Indólicos/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
12.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 23(1): 545, 2023 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37940867

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a common treatment modality for coronary artery disease. Accurate prediction of patients at risk for complications and hospital readmission after PCI could improve the overall clinical management. We aimed to develop and validate predictive models to predict any cardiac event within a year post PCI procedure. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study utilizing data from the National Cardiovascular Disease (NCVD)-PCI registry. The data collected (N = 28,007) were split into training set (n = 24,409) and testing set (n = 3598). Four predictive models (logistic regression [LR], random forest method, support vector machine [SVM], and artificial neural network) were developed and validated. The outcome on risk prediction were compared. RESULTS: The demographic and clinical features of patients in the training and testing cohorts were similar. Patients had mean age ± standard deviation of 58.15 ± 10.13 years at admission with a male majority (82.66%). In over half of the procedures (50.61%), patients had chronic stable angina. Within 1 year of follow up mortality, target vessel revascularization (TVR), and composite event of mortality and TVR were 3.92%, 9.48%, and 12.98% respectively. LR was the best model in predicting mortality event within 1-year post-PCI (AUC: 0.820). SVM had the highest discrimination power for both TVR event (AUC: 0.720) and composite event of mortality and TVR (AUC: 0.720). CONCLUSIONS: This study successfully identified optimal prediction models with the good discriminatory ability for mortality outcome and good discrimination ability for TVR and composite event of mortality and TVR with a simple machine learning framework.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Rev Mal Respir ; 2023 Nov 09.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37951745

RESUMO

Multiple cystic lung diseases comprise a wide range of various diseases, some of them of genetic origin. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a disease occurring almost exclusively in women, sporadically or in association with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Patients with LAM present with lymphatic complications, renal angiomyolipomas and cystic lung disease responsible for spontaneous pneumothoraces and progressive respiratory insufficiency. TSC and LAM have been ascribed to mutations in TSC1 or TSC2 genes. Patients with TSC are variably affected by cutaneous, cognitive and neuropsychiatric manifestations, epilepsy, cerebral and renal tumors, usually of benign nature. Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome is caused by mutations in FLCN encoding folliculin. This syndrome includes lung cysts of basal predominance, cutaneous fibrofolliculomas and various renal tumors. The main complications are spontaneous pneumothoraces and renal tumors requiring systematic screening. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is involved in the pathophysiology of TSC, sporadic LAM and Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome. MTOR inhibitors are used in LAM and in TSC while Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome does not progress towards chronic respiratory failure. Future challenges in these often under-recognized diseases include the need to reduce the delay to diagnosis, and to develop potentially curative treatments. In France, physicians can seek help from the network of reference centers for the diagnosis and management of rare pulmonary diseases.

14.
IUBMB Life ; 2023 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38014654

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a therapeutically efficient type of stem cells validated by their ability to treat many inflammatory and chronic conditions. The biological and therapeutic characteristics of MSCs can be modified depending on the type of microenvironment at the site of transplantation. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a commonly diagnosed metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia, which alters over time the cellular and molecular functions of many cells and causes their damage. Hyperglycemia can also impact the success rate of MSCs transplantation; therefore, it is extremely significant to investigate the effect of high glucose on the biological and therapeutic attributes of MSCs, particularly their immunomodulatory abilities. Thus, in this study, we explored the effect of high glucose on the immunosuppressive characteristics of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAD-MSCs). We found that hAD-MSCs cultured in high glucose lost their immunomodulatory abilities and became detectable by immune cells. The decline in the immunosuppressive capabilities of hAD-MSCs was mediated by significant decrease in the levels of IDO, IL-10, and complement factor H and substantial increase in the activity of immunoproteasome. The protein levels of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1), which are integral regulators of glycolysis, revealed a marked decline in high glucose exposed MSCs. The findings of our study indicated the possibility of immunomodulatory shift in MSCs after being cultured in high glucose, which can be translationally employed to explain their poor survival and short-lived therapeutic outcomes in diabetic patients.

15.
Cureus ; 15(8): e44405, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37791149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused a global pandemic of severe upper respiratory tract infections known as COVID-19. This single-center study aimed to investigate the demographics, comorbidities, symptoms, and disease severity of COVID-19 patients in Pakistan. METHODS: A retrospective descriptive study was conducted at the Pakistan Kidney and Liver Institute and Research Center from April 2020 to August 2020. A total of 430 PCR-positive COVID-19 patients were categorized into symptomatic and asymptomatic groups. The symptomatic group was further classified into severe and non-severe subgroups. Patients' demographics, comorbid conditions, presenting symptoms, laboratory parameters, and clinical outcomes were assessed in these two subgroups. Statistical tests were applied to determine significant differences. RESULTS: A total of 430 patients with COVID-19 presented in our center, of whom 334 (78%) were symptomatic and included in the study. Severe disease was observed in 83 (24.8%) symptomatic patients, with a male predominance (75.9%) and higher mean age (61.7 ± 13.2). Travel to high-risk destinations (p < 0.002) and close contact with COVID-19 patients (p < 0.001) were significant risk factors. Major comorbid conditions included diabetes mellitus (30.5%) and hypertension (39.8%). Frequent symptoms included fever (71.8%), cough (68.8%), dyspnea (53.8%), and myalgias (35.9%). Higher C-reactive protein (median = 12.76 vs. 1.45, p = 0.001), ferritin (median = 996.70 vs. 628, p = 0.004), and D-dimers (median = 1121 vs. 439.50, p = 0.009) were noted in severe vs non-severe disease. Lymphopenia was more prevalent in severe vs. non-severe disease (83.1% vs. 14.3% p-value = 0.033). More deaths (28.9%) and ICU admissions (53%) with a prolonged hospital stay (median = 25 days, IQR = 16.0-31.0) were noted in the severe group. CONCLUSION: This retrospective study provides insights into the clinical characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 patients. Age, male gender, comorbidities, and specific symptoms were associated with disease severity. Inflammatory markers, including D-dimers, ferritin, and CRP, were elevated in severe cases. These findings contribute to a better understanding of COVID-19 and may aid in clinical management and decision-making for patients affected by the disease.

16.
Cureus ; 15(9): e45420, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37854730

RESUMO

Background The burden of chronic rhinosinusitis symptoms experienced by Saudi citizens is considered an important factor in getting an overall insight of the problem in the region, therefore our study aimed to determine the prevalence of risk factors of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps and correlate the risk factors with various sociodemographic parameters among Saudi population. Methods This study analyzed five-year cross-sectional data from 2017-2021. A total of 386 participants were enrolled and subsequently divided into four groups: aged 18-25 years, 26-35 years, 36-45 years, and > 45 years. A study was conducted utilizing non-probability sampling targeting a population of Saudi nationality living in selected regions of Saudi Arabia. Data was collected through an online questionnaire which had been distributed through social media and had been analyzed accordingly using a statistical package for social sciences. Results In this study, 272 (70.5%) participants were female and 114 (29.5%) were male. A total of 374 (96.9%) participants were Saudis while 12 (3.1%) were non-Saudis. Risk factors were compared by age and gender of study participants. Having polyps in the nose (p-value 0.016) and a family history of polyps (p-value 0.049) showed a significant association with the gender of study participants. The frequency of having nasal polyps was significantly higher among male participants, however, having a family history of nasal polyps was significantly higher among female participants. The educational status of study participants showed a significant association with the use of cortisone (p-value 0.032) and having a broken nose (p-value 0.032). Having a family history of nasal polyps showed a significant (p-value 0.017) association with the socioeconomic status of study participants. Conclusion Nasal polyps are more common in males than females, however, having a family history of nasal polyps was significantly higher among female participants.

17.
Cureus ; 15(9): e45055, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37829969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Laxatives are over-the-counter medications used as a treatment for constipation. The lipid-lowering effect of the long-term use of laxatives has been proposed. AIM: To investigate the possible impact of the chronic use of laxatives on serum lipid profile, body mass index (BMI), and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). METHODS: An observational retrospective cohort study was conducted to analyze data related to patients who received laxatives for six or 12 months or more in the KAUH database system. BMI, weight, cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and HbA1c data were collected retrospectively from hospital records for three time points: baseline, six months, and 12 months of laxative treatment from the starting date for each patient. RESULTS: A total of 106 patients' records fulfilled the inclusion criteria, 46 (43%) males with a mean age of 66 and 60 (57%) females with a mean age of 63. A significant decrease in plasma cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels was observed in those who used laxatives for 12 months. Furthermore, an overall BMI and ALT reduction was seen in the combined. On the other hand, HbA1c levels appeared to improve in the combined group but not statistically significant. The change in the cholesterol level could be observed in patients receiving statin treatment and those without, with no statistical significance between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Chronic laxative use for 12 months or more is associated with a decreased total and LDL-C level with no significant effect on high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Additionally, there was a significant reduction in BMI and ALT. This effect is more prominent with combined therapy. Further multicentric studies on larger sample sizes are recommended to confirm our findings.

18.
Front Oncol ; 13: 1263347, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37799466

RESUMO

Extranodal extension (ENE) is a pattern of cancer growth from within the lymph node (LN) outward into perinodal tissues, critically defined by disruption and penetration of the tumor through the entire thickness of the LN capsule. The presence of ENE is often associated with an aggressive cancer phenotype in various malignancies including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). In HNSCC, ENE is associated with increased risk of distant metastasis and lower rates of locoregional control. ENE detected on histopathology (pathologic ENE; pENE) is now incorporated as a risk-stratification factor in human papillomavirus (HPV)-negative HNSCC in the eighth edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) TNM classification. Although ENE was first described almost a century ago, several issues remain unresolved, including lack of consensus on definitions, terminology, and widely accepted assessment criteria and grading systems for both pENE and ENE detected on radiological imaging (imaging-detected ENE; iENE). Moreover, there is conflicting data on the prognostic significance of iENE and pENE, particularly in the context of HPV-associated HNSCC. Herein, we review the existing literature on ENE in HNSCC, highlighting areas of controversy and identifying critical gaps requiring concerted research efforts.

19.
Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open ; 11(10): e5342, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37850205

RESUMO

Background: Abdominoplasty techniques are well documented. The ideal position of the umbilicus has, however, received limited attention. Unfortunately, umbilicus position is not universally agreed upon in male cosmetic abdominoplasty. This study was conducted to determine the ideal umbilicus anthropometric measurements in young men, and the relationships between umbilical position and anterior trunk and torso reference points that may be applicable to intraoperative positioning. It is aimed also at investigating whether umbilicus position would be more accurately determined by considering nipple position instead of the abdominal crease, as recently proposed. Methods: Several anthropometric measurements of various anterior abdominal and thoracic landmarks were conducted on 60 young and middle-aged male volunteers and 30 cadavers at São Paulo city. All statistical analysis was completed using Stata software. Results: Of all the measured reference points, a much stronger correlation (0.513) was demonstrated between umbilicus-anterior axillary fold (U-AX) and inter-nipple (N-N) distances with a constant golden number ratio relationship (N-N = U-AX × 0.618) compared with the weak correlation of 0.034 between umbilicus-xiphisternum and umbilicus-abdominal crease. In 75% of volunteers, the calculated U-AX was within ±3 cm of actual measurement, and in 33.33% within ±1 cm. Conclusions: U-AX = 1.618 × N-N equation is more predictive of adequate umbilicus repositioning during abdominoplasty in male patients. Chest and abdomen of men are a single aesthetic unit. Proper positioning of the nipples and umbilicus, as well as harmonious abdominal and torso proportions are critical for an optimal final aesthetic outcome.

20.
Am J Emerg Med ; 73: 187-196, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37679264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Renal colic is a disease in which a calculus obstructs the urinary tract, resulting in severe pain do ureteric peristaltic movements. Other symptoms, such as hematuria, nausea, and vomiting, may accompany the pain. This network meta-analysis aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of different analgesic agents for the treatment of acute renal colic. METHODS: Medline, Embase, and CENTRAL databases were searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared different analgesic agents, either alone or in combination were included. For the management of acute renal colic, analgesic agents were selected based on the current standard medical practice. The medications included intravenous acetaminophen, ketamine, ketorolac, and morphine. This study sought to evaluate the pain score on the visual analog scale (VAS) at 15, 30, and 60 min; adverse events; and the utilization of rescue therapy. The efficacy of different analgesic agents was explored through a frequentist network meta-analysis using the Netmeta statistical package in R software. All treatments were ranked using the Netrank function, yielding P-scores. RESULTS: Twelve RCTs were deemed eligible. As per the P-scores, acetaminophen was the most effective in reducing pain score at 15 min (P-score = 0.74). Ketorolac was the most effective in reducing the pain score at 30 and 60 min (P-score = 0.84) (P-score = 0.99), whereas morphine was the least effective (P-score = 0.07). Moreover, morphine was correlated with the highest odds of adverse events after treatment (P-score = 0.89). Morphine was the most frequently required rescue therapy in cases of suboptimal pain relief (P-score = 0.96). CONCLUSION: This network meta-analysis demonstrated that ketorolac and acetaminophen were the most effective analgesic agents according to the pain score. Morphine showed the highest adverse event profile and the highest rate at which rescue therapy was required for the management of acute renal colic.

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