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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238769, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249232

RESUMO

Abstract Illnesses caused by human pinworm remains a pediatric health problem in developing nations including Pakistan. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis in school children of four districts in Malakand region, Pakistan. Four hundred faecal specimens were screened from May 2014 to July 2017 using normal saline and Lugol Iodine solution. Twenty three (5.75%) individuals were found infected with E. vermicularis. Five children (1.25%) were infected with only E. vermicularis and eighteen (4.5%) were mixed with other helminths. E. vermicularis 23 (5.75%), hookworm 11 (2.75%), Ascaris lumbricoides 5 (1.25%), Taenia saginata 2 (0.5%) and Trichuris trichuira 4 (1%) were detected. Age wise 5-8 years were more parasitized followed by 13-15 and 9-12 years of age (0.0296, P<0.05). Male children were highly (0.06700, P<0.05) infected than female. Children in Malakand district were found more infected followed by Dir Upper, similar infection rate was noted in children of districts Lower Dir and Swat (0.0192, P<0.05). Children in primary level were highly (0.0013, P<0.05) infected than those of middle and high levels. Enterobiosis is still the most common parasitic diseases in children. Studies on enterobiosis should be conducted time by time to recognize the hazardous of such parasitic infection in remote areas of the country.


Resumo As doenças causadas pela traça humana continuam sendo um problema de saúde pediátrica nos países em desenvolvimento, incluindo o Paquistão. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a prevalência de Enterobius vermicularis em escolares de quatro distritos na região de Malakand, Paquistão. Quatrocentos espécimes fecais foram selecionados de maio de 2014 a julho de 2017, usando solução salina normal e solução de lugol iodo. Vinte e três (5,75%) indivíduos foram encontrados infectados por E. vermicularis. Cinco crianças (1,25%) foram infectadas apenas com E. vermicularis e dezoito (4,5%) foram misturadas com outros helmintos. Foram detectados E. vermicularis 23 (5,75%), ancilóstomo 11 (2,75%), Ascaris lumbricoides 5 (1,25%), Taenia saginata 2 (0,5%) e Trichuris trichuira 4 (1%). Com relação à idade, 5-8 anos foram mais parasitados, seguidos por 13-15 e 9-12 anos de idade (0,0296, P <0,05). Crianças do sexo masculino foram altamente (0,06700, P <0,05) infectadas do que as do sexo feminino. As crianças no distrito de Malakand foram encontradas mais infectadas, seguidas por Dir Upper, taxa de infecção semelhante foi observada em crianças dos distritos Lower Dir e Swat (0,0192, P <0,05). As crianças do nível primário foram altamente (0,0013, P <0,05) infectadas do que as dos níveis médio e alto. A enterobiose ainda é a doença parasitária mais comum em crianças. Os estudos sobre enterobiose devem ser conduzidos periodicamente para reconhecer a periculosidade dessa infecção parasitária em áreas remotas do país.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238337, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249249

RESUMO

Abstract Extensive field surveys were carried out to explore the distribution of Leisler's Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) in selected area of FATA regions, Pakistan. Specimens of Leisler's Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) (n5) were collected from Kurram Agency (Shublan) (N33.8229788 E70.1634414) at elevation 1427m and Khyber Agency (Landi Kotel) (N34.0909899 E71.1457517) at elevation 1091m for two years survey extending from May 2013 through August 2015. The mean head and body length, hind foot length, ear length and tail length the Nyctalus leisleri specimens captured from the study area was 65.08 ± 1.58 mm, 44.06 ± 0.52 mm, 8.38 ± 0.60 mm, 13.20 ± 0.99 mm and 39.46 ± 1.46 mm, respectively. For molecular analysis the sequences of COI gene were obtained and analyzed. The mean intraspecific divergences of Nyctalus leisleri was 0.04%. The mean interspecific divergences of Nyctalus noctula and Nyctalus leisleri was 0.2%. The mean concentration of each nucleotides was A = (26.3%), T = (32.8%), G = (15.9%) and C = (25.0%). The mean A+T contents were 59.2%and C+G were 40.9%. In the phylogenetic tree Nyctalus leisleri and Nyctalus noctula clustered with significant bootstrap support value.


Resumo Extensas pesquisas de campo foram realizadas para explorar a distribuição do morcego de Leisler Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819), em uma área selecionada das regiões das FATA, Paquistão. Espécimes do morcego de Leisler Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) (n = 5) foram coletados na Agência Kurram (Shublan) (N33.8229788 E70.1634414), na elevação 1.427 m, e na Agência Khyber (Landi Kotel) (N34.0909899 E71.1457517), na elevação 1.091 m, por dois anos de pesquisa, estendendo-se de maio de 2013 a agosto de 2015. Os comprimentos médios da cabeça, do corpo, do pé traseiro, da orelha e da cauda dos espécimes de Nyctalus leisleri capturados na área de estudo foram de 65,08 ± 1,58 mm, 44,06 ± 0,52 mm, 8,38 ± 0,60 mm, 13,20 ± 0,99 mm e 39,46 ± 1,46 mm, respectivamente. Para análise molecular, foram obtidas e analisadas as sequências do gene COI. A média das divergências intraespecíficas de Nyctalus leisleri foi de 0,04%. As divergências interespecíficas médias de Nyctalus noctula e Nyctalus leisleri foram de 0,2%. A concentração média de cada nucleotídeos foi A = 26,3%, T = 32,8%, G = 15,9% e C = 25%. Os conteúdos médios de A + T foram de 59,2% e de C + G foram de 40,9%. Na árvore filogenética, Nyctalus leisleri e Nyctalus noctula agruparam-se com um valor significativo de suporte de bootstrap.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238339, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278513

RESUMO

Abstract The present research was carried out to explore the spider fauna of Buner valley with taxonomic study from February 2018 to January 2019. For this purpose samples were collected, four times at each month from 4 tehsils: Daggar, Gagra, Mandan and Totalai. Two methods were used, hand picking and sweep net for collection of samples. During day and night, three habitats, arid area, agriculture land and building area were search for collection. A total of 534 samples of spider were collected from four sampling sites, in which 379 were belonging to family Araniedae. After confirmation, the identified species were belonging to 8 genera (Neoscona, Argiope, Cyclosa, Araneus, Cyrtophora, Larinia, Erivoxia and Poltys) and 19 species. 18 of them were identified to specie level while a single specie to its generic level. The genus Neoscona was the dominant genus 26.31% having 5 species while the genus Argiope 21.05% is the second dominant having 4 species followed by Cyclosa 15.78% having 3 species followed by Cyrtophora and Araneus 10.52% having two species both. The Poltys and Larinia 5.26% are the rarest genera represent single-single specie both. Statistical analysis show that specie richness (D) = 5.77, Simpson index (1-D) = 0.87, Shannon index (H) = 2.33. Diversity of spiders was evenly distributed and calculated Evenness value was H/InS = 0.5408. There is also few atypical species and Fisher alpha estimate high value (Fisher α) = 4.42. Chao-1 estimated we have reported 22 species.


Resumo A presente pesquisa foi realizada para explorar a fauna de aranhas do vale Buner, em um estudo taxonômico realizado de fevereiro de 2018 a janeiro de 2019. Para esse fim, foram coletadas amostras, quatro vezes por mês, a partir de 4 subdistritos: Daggar, Gagra, Mandan e Totalai. Foram utilizados dois métodos, coleta manual e rede de varredura, para a obtenção das amostras. Durante o dia e a noite, foram pesquisados ​​três habitats: área árida, área agrícola e área de construção. Foram coletadas 534 amostras de aranha em quatro locais de amostragem, sendo que 379 pertenciam à família Araneidae. Após a confirmação, as espécies identificadas pertenciam a 8 gêneros (Neoscona, Argiope, Cyclosa, Araneus, Cyrtophora, Larinia, Erivoxia e Poltys) e a 19 espécies (18 delas foram identificados em seu nível de espécie, enquanto uma única foi identificada em seu nível genérico). O gênero Neoscona foi dominante (26,31%), com 5 espécies, seguido pelos gêneros Argiope (21,05%), com 4 espécies, Cyclosa (15,78%), com 3 espécies, e Cyrtophora e Araneus (10,52%), com 2 espécies. Poltys e Larinia (5,26%) são os gêneros mais raros, representando a mesma espécie. A análise estatística mostrou que a riqueza de espécies (D) foi de 5,77, o índice de Simpson (1-D) foi de 0,87 e o índice de Shannon (H) foi de 2,33. A diversidade de aranhas foi distribuída uniformemente, e o valor calculado da uniformidade foi H / InS = 0,5408. Também existem poucas espécies atípicas, e o alfa de Fisher (Fisher α) estimou o valor de 4,42. Já Chao-1 estimou 22 espécies.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238769, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285587

RESUMO

Abstract Illnesses caused by human pinworm remains a pediatric health problem in developing nations including Pakistan. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis in school children of four districts in Malakand region, Pakistan. Four hundred faecal specimens were screened from May 2014 to July 2017 using normal saline and Lugol Iodine solution. Twenty three (5.75%) individuals were found infected with E. vermicularis. Five children (1.25%) were infected with only E. vermicularis and eighteen (4.5%) were mixed with other helminths. E. vermicularis 23 (5.75%), hookworm 11 (2.75%), Ascaris lumbricoides 5 (1.25%), Taenia saginata 2 (0.5%) and Trichuris trichuira 4 (1%) were detected. Age wise 5-8 years were more parasitized followed by 13-15 and 9-12 years of age (0.0296, P<0.05). Male children were highly (0.06700, P<0.05) infected than female. Children in Malakand district were found more infected followed by Dir Upper, similar infection rate was noted in children of districts Lower Dir and Swat (0.0192, P<0.05). Children in primary level were highly (0.0013, P<0.05) infected than those of middle and high levels. Enterobiosis is still the most common parasitic diseases in children. Studies on enterobiosis should be conducted time by time to recognize the hazardous of such parasitic infection in remote areas of the country.


Resumo As doenças causadas pela traça humana continuam sendo um problema de saúde pediátrica nos países em desenvolvimento, incluindo o Paquistão. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a prevalência de Enterobius vermicularis em escolares de quatro distritos na região de Malakand, Paquistão. Quatrocentos espécimes fecais foram selecionados de maio de 2014 a julho de 2017, usando solução salina normal e solução de lugol iodo. Vinte e três (5,75%) indivíduos foram encontrados infectados por E. vermicularis. Cinco crianças (1,25%) foram infectadas apenas com E. vermicularis e dezoito (4,5%) foram misturadas com outros helmintos. Foram detectados E. vermicularis 23 (5,75%), ancilóstomo 11 (2,75%), Ascaris lumbricoides 5 (1,25%), Taenia saginata 2 (0,5%) e Trichuris trichuira 4 (1%). Com relação à idade, 5-8 anos foram mais parasitados, seguidos por 13-15 e 9-12 anos de idade (0,0296, P <0,05). Crianças do sexo masculino foram altamente (0,06700, P <0,05) infectadas do que as do sexo feminino. As crianças no distrito de Malakand foram encontradas mais infectadas, seguidas por Dir Upper, taxa de infecção semelhante foi observada em crianças dos distritos Lower Dir e Swat (0,0192, P <0,05). As crianças do nível primário foram altamente (0,0013, P <0,05) infectadas do que as dos níveis médio e alto. A enterobiose ainda é a doença parasitária mais comum em crianças. Os estudos sobre enterobiose devem ser conduzidos periodicamente para reconhecer a periculosidade dessa infecção parasitária em áreas remotas do país.

5.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e242089, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285597

RESUMO

Abstract The study reveals the prevalence of a potential rodent-borne zoonotic helminth species, Hymenolepis diminuta in commensal rodents caught from irrigated and rain-fed areas of Swat, Pakistan. Three hundred and fifty rodents (269 rats and 81 mice) trapped during vegetative, flowering/fruiting and mature/harvesting stages of crops were studied from 2011-2013. Hymenolepisdiminuta eggs were identified on the basis of their shape, size, colour and markings on the surface of the egg shell and three pairs of embryonic hook-lets. Overall prevalence of H. diminuta was 3.14% (n=11/350). The highest prevalence 3.49% (n=5/143) of H. diminuta was noted at harvesting stages of the crops whereas the lowest 2.59% (n=2/77) during vegetative stage. Infection was higher in males 3.25% (n=7/215) than females 2.96% (n=4/135). Adult rodents were highly infected while no sub-adult was found infected. Infection was higher in mice 3.70% (3/81) than rats 2.69% (8/269) while no significance (p=1.0000:0.1250 to 32.00 CI). Rats and mice appears to show the most suitable reservoirs by hosting H. diminuta a zoonotic helminth. The presence of these rodents in all possible habitats can act as a main channel of transferring parasites through various habitats and can pose a hazard to humans in the area.


Resumo O estudo revela a prevalência de uma espécie potencial de helmintos zoonóticos transmitidos por roedores, Hymenolepis diminuta, em roedores comensais capturados em áreas irrigadas e alimentadas pela chuva de Swat, Paquistão. Trezentos e cinquenta roedores (269 ratos e 81 camundongos) presos durante os estágios vegetativo, floração/frutificação e maturidade/colheita das safras foram estudados de 2011-2013. Ovos de Hymenolepisdiminuta foram identificados com base em sua forma, tamanho, cor e marcações na superfície da casca do ovo e três pares de anzóis embrionários. A prevalência geral de H. diminuta foi de 3,14% (n = 11/350). A maior prevalência 3,49% (n = 5/143) de H. diminuta foi observada na fase de colheita das lavouras, enquanto a menor 2,59% (n = 2/77) durante a fase vegetativa. A infecção foi maior nos homens 3,25% (n = 7/215) do que nas mulheres 2,96% (n = 4/135). Roedores adultos foram altamente infectados, enquanto nenhum subadulto foi encontrado infectado. A infecção foi maior em camundongos 3,70% (3/81) do que em ratos 2,69% (8/269), embora sem significância (p = 1,0000: 0,1250 a 32,00 CI). Ratos e camundongos parecem mostrar os reservatórios mais adequados hospedando H. diminuta um helmintos zoonótico. A presença desses roedores em todos os habitats possíveis pode atuar como um canal principal de transferência de parasitas através de vários habitats e pode representar um perigo para os humanos na área.

6.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238665, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153463

RESUMO

Abstract Malakand region is an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, there are limited number of studies of this disease in Pakistan. Therefore, a study was conducted to understand the level of awareness attitude and practice among the residents of Makaland towards CL and the disease vectors. This study adopted a cross-sectional approach with a total of 400 respondents (n=93 rural and n= 307 urban). Overall, the population in Malakand region (61.2%) were well-informed in the role of sand fly in transmitting diseases, but most lack knowledge on the vector's behavior and almost a quarter (24.5%) were unable to provide knowledge on proper control measures. Alarmingly, the practice and attitudes of the general population was not satisfactory as close to half (49.8%) of the population did adopt any control method. This study calls for increase in awareness through health education campaign to reduce the risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future.


Resumo A região de Malakand é uma área endêmica para leishmaniose cutânea (CL). No entanto, há um número limitado de estudos sobre esta doença no Paquistão. Portanto, foi realizado um estudo para entender o nível de atitude e prática de conscientização entre os residentes de Makaland em relação aos CL e os vetores da doença. Este estudo adotou uma abordagem transversal com um total de 400 entrevistados (n = 93 rural e n = 307 urbano). No geral, a população da região de Malakand (61,2%) estava bem informada sobre o papel da mosca na transmissão de doenças, mas a maioria não possui conhecimento sobre o comportamento do vetor e quase um quarto (24,5%) foi incapaz de fornecer conhecimento sobre medidas de controle adequadas . De maneira alarmante, a prática e as atitudes da população em geral não foram satisfatórias, pois cerca da metade (49,8%) da população adotou algum método de controle. Este estudo apela ao aumento da conscientização por meio de campanhas de educação em saúde para reduzir o risco de surtos de leishmaniose cutânea no futuro.

7.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238735, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153486

RESUMO

Abstract Using wire mesh live traps distribution pattern of the Rattus rattus and Mus musculus in different shops of three districts of Malakand region, Pakistan were recorded from September 2014 to October 2015. Over all 103 rodents (Rattus rattus 86 and Mus musculus 17) were caught during in 0.04 trap success (2448 trap nights). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 103 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 3.55 rodents per shop. R. rattus; 83.4% of captures were numerically dominant in almost all types of shops sampled, and were significantly different than Mus musculus; 16.5% of captures. Both species were found together in some shops while they were mostly trapped from the separate shops. Male rodents outnumbered the females.


Resumo Usando o padrão de distribuição de armadilhas vivas de malha de arame do Rattus rattus e Mus musculus em diferentes lojas de três distritos da região de Malakand, o Paquistão foi registrado de setembro de 2014 a outubro de 2015. No total, 103 roedores (Rattus rattus 86 e Mus musculus 17) foram pegos durante em 0,04 armadilha de sucesso (2448 noites de armadilha). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 103 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 3,55 roedores por loja. R. rattus; 83,4% das capturas foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de lojas da amostra e foram significativamente diferentes do Mus musculus; 16,5% das capturas. Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em algumas lojas, enquanto estavam na maior parte presas em lojas separadas. Os roedores machos eram mais numerosos do que as fêmeas.

8.
J Glaucoma ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628421

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim was to compare the long-term surgical outcomes of visco-circumferential-suture-trabeculotomy (VCST) and rigid probe viscotrabeculotomy (VT) in patients with primary congenital glaucoma (PCG). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 84 (47 right) eyes of 49 (32 males) children PCG to the pediatric ophthalmology unit of Mansoura Ophthalmic Center of Mansoura University, Egypt between 2015 and 2018. An initial office examination was followed by an examination under general anesthesia to establish the diagnosis of PCG. The children were then scheduled for surgery and the eyes randomly assigned to VCST or VT. Follow-up visits were scheduled at the first day, first week, first, and third months and then every 3 months for 1 year. RESULTS: The mean±SD age of the study children at presentation was 4.8±2.1 and 4.9±1.7 months in the VCST and the VT groups, respectively (P=0.827). The mean±SD preoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) was 29.13±3.3 and 29.89±3.2 mm Hg in the VCST and VT groups, respectively (P=0.292) and 11.9±1.3 and 13.8±1.2 mm Hg at the end of 36 moths of follow-up (P<0.001). The IOP at all follow-up time points (except at the third month, P=0.924) was statistically significantly less in the VCST group than in the VT group (at week 1, month 1, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 the P<0.001). The cumulative probability of success was 100%, 95%, 90%, and 90%, respectively in VSCT and 100%, 72.7%, 97.7%, 90.9%, and 84% in VT at 12, 24, 30, and 36 months. CONCLUSIONS: Both VCST and VT were effective and safe for lowering the IOP in PCG with VCST providing a marginal advantage over VT.

9.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(12): 121802, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597097

RESUMO

The absolute branching fraction of Λ→pµ^{-}ν[over ¯]_{µ} is reported for the first time based on an e^{+}e^{-} annihilation sample of 10×10^{9} J/ψ events collected with the BESIII detector at sqrt[s]=3.097 GeV. The branching fraction is determined to be B(Λ→pµ^{-}ν[over ¯]_{µ})=[1.48±0.21(stat)±0.08(syst)]×10^{-4}, which is improved by about 30% in precision over the previous indirect measurements. Combining this result with the world average of B(Λ→pe^{-}ν[over ¯]_{e}), we obtain the ratio {[Γ(Λ→pµ^{-}ν[over ¯]_{µ})]/[Γ(Λ→pe^{-}ν[over ¯]_{e})]} to be 0.178±0.028, which agrees with the standard model prediction assuming lepton flavor universality. The asymmetry of the branching fractions of Λ→pµ^{-}ν[over ¯]_{µ} and Λ[over ¯]→p[over ¯]µ^{+}ν_{µ} is also determined, and no evidence for CP violation is found.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596725

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Cocaine use not only depends on the reinforcing properties of the drug, but also on its pharmacological effects on alternative nondrug activities. In animal models investigating choice between cocaine and alternative sweet rewards, the latter influence can have a dramatic impact on choice outcomes. When choosing under cocaine influence is prevented by imposing sufficiently long intervals between choice trials, animals typically prefer the sweet reward. However, when choosing under the drug influence is permitted, animals shift their preference in favor of cocaine. OBJECTIVES: We previously hypothesized that this preference shift is mainly due to a direct suppression of responding for sweet reward by cocaine pharmacological effects. Here we tested this hypothesis by making rats tolerant to this drug-induced behavioral suppression. RESULTS: Contrary to our expectation, tolerance did not prevent rats from shifting their preference to cocaine when choosing under the influence. CONCLUSION: Thus, other mechanisms must be invoked to explain the influence of cocaine intoxication on choice outcomes.

11.
Curr Opin Pulm Med ; 27(6): 514-522, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620787

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Rapid eye movement (REM) obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a stage-specific OSA, in which obstructive events occur primarily during REM sleep. This review discusses REM-OSA definitions, its cardiometabolic correlates, associated comorbidities and treatment, and addresses diagnostic ambiguities and therapeutic pitfalls. RECENT FINDINGS: Current evidence indicates that REM-OSA is prevalent among younger age groups and women and is independently associated with cardiometabolic complications, particularly hypertension, metabolic complications such as insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. However, currently, there is no consensus on the accepted diagnostic criteria for REM-OSA. Available data suggest that adherence to positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy in patients with REM-OSA is suboptimal. Moreover, the currently accepted criteria for good adherence to PAP therapy of 4 h/night, 70% of the days may not be suitable for REM-OSA, as it will not cover most of the REM sleep periods. In addition, further research is needed to assess the impact of REM-OSA treatment on cardiometabolic outcomes. SUMMARY: Patients with REM-OSA are at an increased risk of cardiometabolic complications. A high index of suspicion is needed to diagnose this disorder, and close follow-up is required to enhance adherence to therapy.

12.
J AOAC Int ; 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The combination of Daclatasvir (DCV) and sofosbuvir (SFV) is now widely used as an ideal treatment for hepatitis C virus infection. For this purpose, simple, sensitive, rapid and smart spectrophotometric methods were developed and validated for the determination of these drugs in their combined dosage form. OBJECTIVE: Development οf smart, sensitive, cheap spectrοphοtοmetric methοds fοr determinatiοn (DCV) and (SFV) in their combined dosage. METHODS: Ratio subtraction (RS) and amplitude modulation (AM) and mean centering spectrophotometric methods were established and validated for the estimation of sofosbuvir (SFV) in existence of daclatasvir without previous separation, utilizing unified regression equation. RESULTS: A linearity limit of 2.5-25.0 µg/mL was confirmed for the direct measurement of daclatasvir at 316 nm (because there is no interference from sofosbuvir). Linearity was confirmed over a concentration limit of 10.0-80.0 µg/mL for sofosbuvir. The current methods were established as stated by the ICH recommendations and by testing synthetic mixtures of both drugs, the specificity was examined. They were tested on their tablet dosage form and good recovery was obtained. CONCLUSIONS: The current methods were tested on their tablet dosage form and good recovery was obtained. A statistical study has been established among the current ratio approaches and a published methods and there was no apparent statistical variation was obtained. HIGHLIGHTS: Both antiviral agents can be quantified in existence of each other by the current methods, which is a great time and cost-saving valor of the developed methods. This valor is even more important in the case of the combined dosage form (Darvoni® tablets) to the pharmaceutical market.

13.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 62(2): E447-E454, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604586

RESUMO

Objective: There is diverse results on the association between physical activity and sleep. So this study investigated association of level and type of physical activity with short term insomnia among college students. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among college students in India. The sample was 662 students with 359 males and 303 females. The predictor variables were type and level of physical activity and predicted variables were sleep complaints.Physical activity components were aseesesed through international physical activity questionnaire and sleep complaints using Pitsburg sleep questionnaire. The binary logistic regression models were used for data analysis. Level of significance was set at p ≤ 0.05 for all the analysis. Results: The age (mean + SD) of the participants were 23.2 ± 3.5 years. The self reported symptoms of short trem insomnia such as global sleep quality (adjusted odds ratio(AOR) = 15.58), subjective sleep quality (AOR = 6.01), sleep latency (AOR = 5.09), sleep duration (AOR = 0.13), sleep disturbances (AOR = 4.88), day time sleep dysfunction (AOR = 5.59) had shown association with level of physical activity. There was no association of type of physical activity with any other predicted variables. Conclusions: The findings of the present study supports that level of physical activity is a key predictor of short term insomnia symptoms among college students. There should be Interventions to maintain and improve the level of physical activity among students.

14.
Int Ophthalmol ; 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609670

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare trabeculectomy with Ologen implant(Trab-Ologen) to combined viscotrabeculotomy-synechiolysis(VTS) in uncontrolled uveitic glaucoma (UG). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 47 patients subjected to VTS(24 eyes) or Trab-ologen(23 eyes) at Mansoura Ophthalmic Center between 2010 and 2016. The patients were evaluated on day 1, week 1, months 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42, and 48. RESULTS: The mean ± standard deviation age of patients in the Trab-ologen and VST groups were 38.29 ± 12.5 and 38.91 ± 11.8 years (p = 0.86), respectively. Juvenile Idiopathic arthritis (controlled on methotrexate) was the most common associated systemic disease (3 patients in each group). The mean ± standard deviation of the intraocular pressure (IOP) and IOP-lowering medications preoperatively and at the end of follow up in the Trab-ologen and VST groups were 33.1 ± 2.6 mmHg, 33.2 ± 2.6 mmHg (p = 0.91), 3.4 ± 0.5, 3.4 ± 0.5 (0.90) and 15.4 ± 1.2 mmHg, 13.0 ± 0.9 mmHg (p < 0.001), 0.6 ± 1.1, 0.7 ± 1.2 (p = 0.72), respectively. IOP control was better in the Trab-ologen group till the 30th month when it becomes better in the VST group till the end of follow-up. The most notable complication was a minimal self-limiting hyphema in the VST group. Success rates at the end of follow-up in the Trab-ologen and VST groups were 83% and 78%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Trabeculectomy with ologen implant and visco-trabeculotomy-synechiolysis were equally effective in lowering IOP in uncontrolled UG. There was no statistically significant difference in the success rates between the 2 procedures.

15.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(4): 921-928, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605457

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis is the pathognomic sign of ischaemic heart disease. Inflammation of the coronary artery contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been reported to predict the risk of CAD and associated events in patients with ST-Segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). This study was done to investigate the role of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in predicting in-hospital adverse cardiac events in patients with STEMI thrombolysed with streptokinase (STK). This cross sectional descriptive type of study was conducted in the Department of Cardiology, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh, Bangladesh from August, 2017 to October, 2018. The STEMI patients, thrombolysed with STK had blood samples at admission, analyzed for complete blood counts and NLR calculated. They were grouped into two, low and high NLR, taking 4.50 as cut-off value. Chi square test was used to compare rate of adverse events and death in hospital stay. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate predictive ability of NLR for in-hospital cardiac events. A total of 87 (39.90%) patients had complications. Patients in high NLR group had higher rate of complications (48.3% vs. 22.5%, p<0.001) in hospital than those in low NLR group. Arrhythmias (21.1% vs. 9.9%, p<0.041), heart failure (27.9% vs. 14.1%, p=0.024), cardiogenic shock (16.3% vs. 4.2%, p<0.011), death (6.8% vs. 2.8%, p=0.227), re-infarction /post MI angina (4.1% vs. 0.0% p=0.084) occurred more in high NLR group. Mean NLR was significantly different between Group I and Group II (3.11±0.84 vs. 10.20±6.08, p<0.0001). Multivariate regression analysis showed NLR an independent predictor of in-hospital adverse cardiac events (p<0.0001). High on admission NLR is an independent predictor for in-hospital adverse cardiac events in patients with STEMI thrombolysed with streptokinase.


Assuntos
Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Estudos Transversais , Hospitais , Humanos , Linfócitos , Neutrófilos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/tratamento farmacológico , Estreptoquinase/uso terapêutico
16.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(4): 936-942, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605459

RESUMO

Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that is one of the important infectious causes of Pyrexia of Unknown Origin (PUO). The objective of the present study was to determine the seropositivity and molecular detection of human brucellosis among the patients with pyrexia of unknown origin on both risk and non-risk group of individuals in greater Mymensingh. A total of 400 blood samples were randomly collected from pyretic patients started from September 2018 to August 2019. Questionnaires were used to collect data on both risk and non-risk group of individuals. All samples were initially screened for anti-Brucella antibodies using the Brucella-specific latex agglutination test. For accurate investigation, seropositive as well as seronegative serum samples were tested by BCSP31 Brucella genus-specific TaqMan real-time PCR. Overall 32(8%) cases were positive out of 400 samples by Brucella-specific latex agglutination test and/or BCSP31 Brucella genus-specific real-time PCR. Brucella-specific latex agglutination test documented 7% (28/400) positivity for brucellosis. 22(5.5%) samples found Brucella genus-specific real-time PCR positive out of 400 samples. Most real-time PCR positive cases were found from sero-positive samples of risk group population (15/32). Sero-negative but real-time PCR positive cases also found only from risk group population (4/32). There were 10 seropositive cases where real-time PCR was negative. In addition to Brucella-specific latex agglutination test as a screening test, Brucella genus-specific real-time PCR was performed for confirmation and also to avoid unjustified costs, drug toxicity, and masking of other potentially dangerous diseases.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Febre , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Testes de Função Tireóidea
17.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(4): 954-959, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605462

RESUMO

Biocides, including disinfectants and antiseptics, are used for a variety of topical and hard surface applications in health care facilities. Biocides play a significant role for preventing and controlling nosocomial infections. However, failures in the antimicrobial activities of biocides have been reported. The resistance mechanism to disinfectants is usually determined by genes which are related to resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds, namely, qacE, qacΔE1 that are found in Gram-negative bacteria. The aim of this study is to detect the prevalence of Biocides resistance genes, qacE and qacΔE1, in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas spp. It was carried out from March 2017 to July 2018 in the department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Samples were collected from Outpatient of ENT department, MMCH. In this study, 300 clinical samples of CSOM cases were tested by the PCR method. The present study shows detection of biocide resistance genes (qacE, qacΔE1) among 87 isolated Pseudomonas spp by uniplex PCR. Among 72 clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa 67(93.05%) had the gene qacEΔ1 and 25(34.72%) had the gene qacE. In addition other 15 Pseudomonas spp 3(20%) isolates had the qacEΔ1 gene and 2(13.33%) isolates had the qacE gene. In this study there is a marked difference in detection of the qacEΔ1 gene between the MDR and non MDR P. aeruginosa isolates. The qacEΔ1 was identified in 50 of 54(92.59%) MDR isolates and 7 of 18(38.89%) non MDR strains respectively. While gene qacE was detect 25(46.29%) MDR isolates and did not show any qacEΔ1gene in non MDR isolates. This study shows that the genes, qacE, qacΔE1 are widespread among Pseudomonas aeruginosa, they are higher in MDR strains than non MDR strains.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pseudomonas/genética
18.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(4): 967-972, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605464

RESUMO

Scrub typhus, caused by the bacterium- Orientia tsutsugamushi is one of the leading causes of undifferentiated treatable febrile illness in Asia pacific region. It is grossly under diagnosed in many tropical countries of South Asia including Bangladesh, due to wide range of non-specific clinical presentations, low index of suspicion among clinicians, limited awareness and lack of accurate diagnostic facilities. This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at Department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College to diagnose scrub typhus by rapid Immunochromatographic test (ICT) as well as molecular detection of O. tsutsugamushi by Nested PCR and automated nucleotide sequencing among suspected febrile patients in Mymensingh, Bangladesh during 2019-20. Blood samples were collected from 402 febrile patients of suspected Rickettsial illness, referred from inpatient and outpatient departments of Medicine and Pediatrics, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital (MMCH). Among the enrolled 402 patients, 89 samples (22.13%) were seropositive by Immunochromatographic test (ICT) and 65 samples (16.16%) were positive for O. tsutsugamushi DNA by Nested PCR, targeting 47KDa gene. Therefore, 113/402 (28.10%) samples were positive for scrub typhus by PCR and/ or ICT. Highest number of patients was detected positive by nested PCR during the first 5-10 days of fever but only 2 cases were positive after 20 days. In case of ICT, highest positivity for only IgM (8.13%) and both antibodies (2.43%) were documented in first 5-10 days of fever, but IgG positivity was highest (41.66) in >20 days of fever. From 65 PCR positive samples, automated nucleotide sequencing was performed on 20 randomly selected samples and all were genetically confirmed to be O. tsutsugamushi.


Assuntos
Tifo por Ácaros , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Hospitais , Humanos , Tifo por Ácaros/diagnóstico , Tifo por Ácaros/epidemiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
19.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(4): 986-990, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605467

RESUMO

Typhoid fever caused by Salmonella typhi is one of the major health problems in developing countries including Bangladesh. Still now blood culture is gold standard method for diagnosing typhoid fever, but this method is laborious, requires several days and detection rate is low. Failure of early laboratory diagnosis often leads to increased morbidity and mortality. This study was intended to apply a nested PCR in blood for early diagnosis of typhoid fever. In this cross sectional study blood samples were collected from 200 suspected typhoid fever patients attending Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh. Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (n PCR) of flagellin gene was done in all the blood samples. At the same time all blood samples were subjected to culture by lytic centrifugation method. Culture positive isolates were identified as S. typhi by biochemical tests. Among the 200 blood samples, 57 (28.5%) were positive for S. typhi on nested PCR where as blood culture was positive for S. typhi in 16 (8%) samples. Among the 57 PCR positive samples, only 15 (26.3%) samples were culture positive for S. typhi and rest 42 (73.7%) were culture negative. So, in culture negative cases PCR can be used as a rapid diagnostic test for diagnosing typhoid fever. Considering time requirement, PCR takes one day, whereas blood culture takes 3 or more days to confirm diagnosis.


Assuntos
Febre Tifoide , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Salmonella typhi/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Febre Tifoide/diagnóstico
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