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1.
Food Chem X ; 21: 101187, 2024 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38370307

RESUMO

In the process of defatting milk, preheating treatment is an important factor affecting the flavor of skim milk. Here, raw milk was preheated at different times and temperatures. Then laser confocal microscopy, multiple-light scattering instrument, and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) were used to analyze the microstructure of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM), milk stability, and MFGM protein (MFGMP) components. Results showed that phospholipid domain of MFGM changed from an ordered state (Lo) to a disordered state (Ld) with increase in treatment temperature and time, leading to an increase in MFGMP content in skim milk. During the stability test, the stability of raw milk decreased significantly with increase in preheating temperature, while the opposite was true for skim milk. Finally, the results of MFGMP differentiation analysis showed that, the content of ten taste-related MFGMPs in the control group samples was significantly lower compared to the optimal group (P < 0.05).

2.
Food Res Int ; 179: 114006, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342533

RESUMO

To distinguish Chinese milks from different regions, 13 milk samples were gathered from 13 regions of China in this study: Inner Mongolia (IM), Xinjiang (XJ), Hebei (HB), Shanghai (SH), Beijing (BJ), Sichuan (SC), Ningxia (NX), Henan (HN), Tianjin (TJ), Qinghai (QH), Yunnan (YN), Guangxi (GX), and Tibet (XZ). Headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) combined with the electronic nose (E-nose) technology, was used to detect and analyze the volatile compounds in these milk samples. The qualitative and quantitative results identified 29 volatile chemicals, and we established a database of flavor profiles for the main milk-producing regions in China. E-nose analysis revealed variations in the odor of milk across different areas. Furthermore, results from partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and odor activity values (OAVs) suggested that seven volatile compounds: decane, 2-heptanone, 2-undecanone, 2-nonanone, 1-hexadecanol, 1-octen-3-ol, and (E)-2-nonenal, could be considered as key flavor compounds in Chinese milk products.


Assuntos
Leite , Odorantes , Animais , Leite/química , China , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Odorantes/análise , Análise Discriminante
3.
J Dairy Sci ; 106(12): 8538-8550, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37641261

RESUMO

Flavor sensation is one of the most prevalent characteristics of food industries and an important consumer preference regulator of dairy products. So far, many volatile compounds have been identified, and their molecular mechanisms conferring overall flavor formation have been reported extensively. However, little is known about the critical flavor compound of a specific sensory experience in terms of oxidized off-flavor perception. Therefore, the present study aimed to compare the variation in sensory qualities and volatile flavors in full-fat UHT milk (FFM) and low-fat UHT milk (LFM) samples under different natural storage conditions (0, 4, 18, 25, 30, or 37°C for 15 and 30 d) and determine the main component causing flavor deterioration in the FFM and LFM samples using sensory evaluation, electronic nose, and headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). In addition, the Pearson correlation between the volatile flavor components and oxidative off-flavors was analyzed and validated by sensory reconstitution studies. Compared with the LFM samples, the FFM samples showed a higher degree of quality deterioration with increased storage temperature. Methyl ketones of odd carbon chains (i.e., 2-heptanone, 2-nonanone, 2-undecanone, 2-tridecanone, and 2-pentadecanone) reached a maximum content in the FFM37 samples over 30 d storage. The combined results of the Pearson correlation and sensory recombination study indicated that 2-heptanone, 2-nonanone, and 2-undecanone conferred off-flavor perception. Overall, the present study results provide potential target components for detecting and developing high-quality dairy products and lay a foundation for specific sensory flavor compound exploration in the food industry.


Assuntos
Leite , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Feminino , Bovinos , Animais , Leite/química , Paladar , Cetonas/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
4.
Food Chem ; 423: 136302, 2023 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37167671

RESUMO

Infant formula is related to children's life and health. However, the existing identification methods for infant formula are time-consuming, costly and prone to environmental pollution. Therefore, a simple, efficient and less polluting identification method for infant formula is urgently needed. The aim of this study was to distinguish between goat and cow infant formula using HS-SPME-GC-MS and E-nose combined with triple-channel models. The results indicated that the main difference of them attributed to thirteen volatile compounds and three sensor variables. Based on this, the linear discriminant and partial least squares discriminant analyses were conducted, and a multilayer perceptron neural network model was constructed to identify the commercial samples. There was a high percentage of correct classifications (>90%) in samples. Together, our work demonstrated that the volatile compounds of infant formula combined with chemometric analysis were effective and rapid for detecting two infant formulas.


Assuntos
Fórmulas Infantis , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Fórmulas Infantis/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Análise Discriminante , Nariz Eletrônico , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Cabras , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos
5.
Foods ; 12(5)2023 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36900514

RESUMO

Infant formula milk powder (IFMP) is an excellent substitute for breast milk. It is known that the composition of maternal food during pregnancy and lactation and exposure level to food during infancy highly influence taste development in early infancy. However, little is known about the sensory aspects of infant formula. Herein, the sensory characteristics of 14 brands of infant formula segment 1 marketed in China were evaluated, and differences in preferences for IFMPs were determined. Descriptive sensory analysis was performed by well-trained panelists to determine the sensory characteristics of evaluated IFMPs. The brands S1 and S3 had significantly lower astringency and fishy flavor compared to the other brands. Moreover, it was found that S6, S7 and S12 had lower milk flavor scores but higher butter scores. Furthermore, internal preference mapping revealed that the attributes fatty flavor, aftertaste, saltiness, astringency, fishy flavor and sourness negatively contributed to consumer preference in all three clusters. Considering that the majority of consumers prefer milk powders rich in aroma, sweet and steamed flavors, these attributes could be considered for enhancement by the food industry.

6.
Molecules ; 24(15)2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382452

RESUMO

Skim milk has a poor flavor due to the lack of fat. Finding ways to improve the flavor quality of skim milk has attracted the attention of more and more researchers. The purpose of this study was to create a skim milk product with good flavor by processing. Briefly, raw milk was treated by preheating at pasteurization (85 °C, 15 s) and ultra-high temperature (UHT) instantaneous sterilization (137-141 °C, 4 s). Subsequently, the sample was centrifuged to remove fat and obtain two kinds of skim milk, namely, PSM (skim milk obtained by preheating at 85 °C, 15 s) and USM (skim milk obtained by preheating at 137-141 °C, 4 s). The results showed that the intensity of the main sensory attributes (overall liking, milk aroma, etc.) and the concentrations of the key flavor compounds (2-heptanone, 2-nonanone, decanal, hexanoic acid, etc.) were significantly higher in the USM (p < 0.05) than that of the PSM and RSM (skim milk without preheating). Principal component analysis (PCA) with E-Nose (electronic nose) showed that the RSM had significant differences in the milk aroma compared with the PSM and USM. Furthermore, it was found that there were good relationships between volatile compounds and sensory attributes by partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis. These findings provided insights into improving the flavor quality of skim milk by preheating treatment instead of any flavor additives.


Assuntos
Qualidade dos Alimentos , Leite/química , Leite/normas , Pasteurização , Animais , Nariz Eletrônico , Análise de Alimentos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Temperatura Alta , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
7.
Molecules ; 24(9)2019 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035485

RESUMO

It is well known that the flavor of skim milk is inferior to whole milk due to the lack of fat. With the popularity of low-fat dairy products, improving the flavor of skim milk is a main focus for food scientists. During the production of skim milk, preheating treatments have a significant effect for the flavor of skim milk. In this study, to explore the optimal processing conditions, milk was preheated at 30 °C, 40 °C, 50 °C, 60 °C for 30 min prior to defatting. When the optimal temperature was determined, milk was then preheated at the optimal temperature for 10 min, 20 min, 30 min, 40 min and 50 min, respectively, to obtain the best preheating time. Distinctions between skim milk samples with different processing conditions were studied by sensory evaluation, e-tongue and HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis. Principle components analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were selected to associate with e-tongue results and compare the similarities and differences among the skim milks. Sensory and e-tongue results matched and both showed that a preheating temperature of 50 °C and 30 min time might be the optimal combination of processing conditions. Thirteen volatiles, including ketones, acids, aldehydes, alcohols, alkanes and sulfur compounds, were analyzed to evaluate flavor of the skim milks produced by different preheating treatments. Combined with previous studies, the results indicated that most volatile compounds were decreased by reducing the fat concentration and the typical compound 2-heptanone was not detected in our skim milk samples.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Nariz Eletrônico , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Leite/química , Animais , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
8.
Molecules ; 24(7)2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987409

RESUMO

In this experiment, a new type of nutritional drink-millet skim milk beverage-was developed based on combining skim milk with millet and nutritional resource utilization. The effects of NaHCO3 concentrations in soaking water (0, 0.5 g/100 mL, and 1.0 g/100 mL) and blanching time (0, 15, and 30 min) on the physicochemical properties of millet skim milk were studied. The parameter changes caused by the above treatment were evaluated via color analysis, physicochemical analysis and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Soaking in water containing NaHCO3 had a significant (p < 0.05) effect on pH, specific gravity, viscosity, and stability. The blanching treatment had a significant (p < 0.05) influence on the total solids of the samples. However, blanching only slightly affected the physical properties of the samples. In addition, soaking and blanching treatments had significant (p < 0.05) effects on the b* value of millet skim milk beverage, whereas there was no significant (p > 0.05) change in L* and a*. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the blanching treatment had a significant (p < 0.05) effect on band 5 and band 6 and that the soaking treatment also had a significant effect on the bands of 6 and 7 (p < 0.05). By analyzing the substantial effects, we concluded that the optimum process conditions were soaking with 0.5 g/100 mL NaHCO3 solution and blanching for 15 min.


Assuntos
Bebidas/análise , Leite/química , Milhetes/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Animais , Fenômenos Químicos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Pigmentos da Retina
9.
Food Chem ; 245: 439-445, 2018 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29287393

RESUMO

The dose-dependent effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG; at 0, 50, 100, 200, 500, and 1000 mg/L) on the physical, chemical, and oxidative stability of porcine myofibrillar protein (MP)-soybean oil emulsion systems were investigated. The results showed EGCG at all levels effectively suppressed lipid oxidation in MP emulsion composite gels during the entire chill storage (at 4 °C for 0, 3, or 7 days). The incorporation of EGCG at higher concentrations (>100 mg/L) promoted the loss of sulfhydryls, reduction of surface hydrophobicity, and aggregation and cross-linking of MP. As a result, high concentrations of EGCG (500 and 1000 mg/L) hampered emulsification and gel formation of MP. However, EGCG at lower concentrations (50-200 mg/L) improved the oxidative stability of meat emulsions without jeopardizing the textural stability.


Assuntos
Catequina/análogos & derivados , Fenômenos Químicos , Proteínas Musculares/química , Óleo de Soja/química , Animais , Catequina/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Emulsões , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Carne , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos
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