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1.
Clin Oral Investig ; 28(7): 357, 2024 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839609

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Risk factors for non-syndromic orofacial cleft (NSOFCs) include genetic profile and environmental exposure to medication and illnesses during pregnancy. We assessed the association between the COVID-19 vaccination and the incidence of NSOFC across five Middle Eastern countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This multi-country, hospital-based, case-control study included infants with NSOFCs whose first 3 intrauterine months coincided with the time when pregnant women were allowed to receive COVID-19 vaccination in the countries participating in the study. Newborns with NSOFCs were examined for cleft type and their parents were interviewed for maternal exposures and COVID-19 vaccination. Controls were newborns matched to cases in gender and setting. RESULTS: The study recruited 977 (348 children with NSOFCs and 629 controls). Maternal use of nicotine (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 2.437; P = 0.044) and family history of NSOFC (AOR: 11.059; P < 0.001) increased significantly the AOR of having a child with NSOFC. On the other hand, COVID-19 vaccine administration to pregnant mothers have significantly decreased the AOR of having a child with NSOFC (AOR: 0.337; P = 0.006). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that COVID-19 vaccination is not related to NSOFC and might protect against having a child affected with such a congenital anomaly. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The finding of this study is important for healthcare providers for considering COVID-19 vaccination for pregnant woman. Clear communication and education about the potential risks and benefits would be crucial for informed decision-making. The study's results would directly impact pregnant individuals, as they would need accurate information to make informed decisions about their health and the health of their infants.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Fenda Labial , Fissura Palatina , Humanos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Masculino , Fenda Labial/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Recém-Nascido , Oriente Médio , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Incidência , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto
2.
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 524, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sustainable development goal 13 centres on calls for urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts. The aim of this scoping review was to map the published literature for existing evidence on the association between the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 13 and early childhood caries (ECC). METHODS: The scoping review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) guidelines. In August 2023, a search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus using search terms related to SDG13 and ECC. Only English language publications were extracted. There was no restriction on the type of publications included in the study. A summary of studies that met the inclusion criteria was conducted highlighting the countries where the studies were conducted, the study designs employed, the journals (dental/non-dental) in which the studies were published, and the findings. In addition, the SDG13 indicators to which the study findings were linked was reported. RESULTS: The initial search yielded 113 potential publications. After removing 57 duplicated papers, 56 publications underwent title and abstract screening, and two studies went through full paper review. Four additional papers were identified from websites and searching the references of the included studies. Two of the six retrieved articles were from India, and one was China, Japan, the United States, and the United Kingdom respectively. One paper was based on an intervention simulation study, two reported findings from archeologic populations and three papers that were commentaries/opinions. In addition, four studies were linked to SDG 13.1 and they suggested an increased risk for caries with climate change. Two studies were linked to SDG 13.2 and they suggested that the practice of pediatric dentistry contributes negatively to environmental degradation. One study provided evidence on caries prevention management strategies in children that can reduce environmental degradation. CONCLUSION: The evidence on the links between SDG13 and ECC suggests that climate change may increase the risk for caries, and the management of ECC may increase environmental degradation. However, there are caries prevention strategies that can reduce the negative impact of ECC management on the environment. Context specific and inter-disciplinary research is needed to generate evidence for mitigating the negative bidirectional relationships between SDG13 and ECC.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Cárie Dentária , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Humanos , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Pré-Escolar , Criança
3.
Int J Paediatr Dent ; 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sweet taste administration before dental injections helps to control associated pain in children. AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of using a sugar-free flavor on pain perception during dental injections. DESIGN: Children (n = 84) aged 4-9 (mean 6.71 ± 1.55) years who required buccal infiltration bilaterally participated in this split-mouth randomized crossover study. On the test side (flavor visit), infiltration injections were applied after receiving a sugar-free flavor. On the control side (no flavor visit), sterile water was administered. Demographic characteristics, body mass index (BMI), and sweet taste preference (STP) were recorded. Pain perception during injection was measured using heart rate (HR), sound, eyes, and motor (SEM) scale, and Wong-Baker Faces pain scale (WBFPS). RESULTS: Most children had healthy weight (72.6%) and equal STP (32.1%). In the test side, mean HR during injection, HR differences before and during injection, and SEM scores were significantly lower (p < .001, for all). There was no significant difference in the WBFPS between both visits. Flavor had a significant effect on pain reduction (p = .001 for HR, p = .000 for SEM), whereas age, gender, BMI, STP, and treatment side did not. Treatment sequence had a significant effect on total SEM scores (p = .021); children who received the flavor during their first visit had lower SEM scores. CONCLUSION: Using a sugar-free flavor before dental injections helps in reducing associated pain in children.

4.
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 77, 2024 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38218865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is a prevalent chronic non-communicable disease that affects millions of young children globally, with profound implications for their well-being and oral health. This paper explores the associations between ECC and the targets of the Sustainable Development Goal 8 (SDG 8). METHODS: The scoping review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) guidelines. In July 2023, a search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus using tailored search terms related to economic growth, decent work sustained economic growth, higher levels of productivity and technological innovation, entrepreneurship, job creation, and efforts to eradicate forced labor, slavery, and human trafficking and ECC all of which are the targets of the SDG8. Only English language publications, and publications that were analytical in design were included. Studies that solely examined ECC prevalence without reference to SDG8 goals were excluded. RESULTS: The initial search yielded 761 articles. After removing duplicates and ineligible manuscripts, 84 were screened. However, none of the identified studies provided data on the association between decent work, economic growth-related factors, and ECC. CONCLUSIONS: This scoping review found no English publication on the associations between SDG8 and ECC despite the plausibility for this link. This data gap can hinder policymaking and resource allocation for oral health programs. Further research should explore the complex relationship between economic growth, decent work and ECC to provide additional evidence for better policy formulation and ECC control globally.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/etiologia , Suscetibilidade à Cárie Dentária , Saúde Bucal/legislação & jurisprudência , Prevalência
5.
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 98, 2024 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38233825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Sustainable Development Goal 12 (SDG12) promotes patterns that minimize waste and maximize resource utilization. It is therefore plausible that preventing Early Childhood Caries (ECC) and promoting oral health can contribute to sustainable consumption. In addition, sustainable consumption and production can contribute to the control of ECC. This scoping review aimed to explore the possible evidence on the link between ECC and the SDG12 targets. METHODS: This scoping review identified articles on the link between resource consumption and production and caries according to the PRISMA-ScR guidelines. Three electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus) were systematically searched in August 2023, using specific search terms. Studies written in English, with full text available, addressing dental caries and linked with waste minimization and resource utilization maximisation, with results that could be extrapolated to ECC in children less than 6 years of age) were included. Descriptive statistics were planned to summarize the categories of retrieved papers. RESULTS: The initial search yielded 904 articles, with 863 screened for eligibility after the removal of duplicates. No studies were identified that reported data on an association between responsible consumption and production of resources factors and ECC. CONCLUSION: This scoping review did not identify any articles published in English on evidence of the direct associations between ECC and SDG12 targets. However, there is a plausibility of such a link using minimum intervention dentistry for ECC management as a waste prevention and resource utilisation maximization strategy.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Suscetibilidade à Cárie Dentária , Saúde Bucal , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
7.
Educ Health (Abingdon) ; 36(3): 123-130, 2023 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38133128

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of conflict and war crisis on dental students is poorly understood. Given the prolonged conflicts and political instability in the Arabic-speaking countries, it is crucial to investigate the effect of these conditions on dental students. This study aimed to assess the impact of protracted war on dental students by comparing the personal, university, and wider context challenges they face across war-affected and unaffected countries. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted including a convenience sample of dental students from 13 universities in 12 Arabic-speaking countries. Respondents were those at entry and exit points of their undergraduate dental training. A self-administered paper questionnaire collected anonymized data on sociodemographics, and personal, university, and wider context challenges that students were facing. Multivariable Poisson regression analyses were carried out. RESULTS: The overall response rate was 64.8%. The mean age was 21.2 (standard deviation = 2.1) years, with 68% of participants being female. After adjusting for age and sex, dental students in Arabic-speaking countries affected by protracted war crisis were significantly more likely to report wider context challenges compared to their counterparts in unaffected countries (n = 2448; beta = 1.12; 95% confidence interval: 1.10-1.13; P < 0.001). DISCUSSION: Dental students in Arabic-speaking countries affected by protracted war crisis were more likely to suffer from wider context challenges such as difficulties in attendance due to the deterioration of security and lack of flexibility of teaching time to accommodate the different circumstances induced by the war crisis. Supporting dental students in areas affected by protracted war crises is needed and may include developing online dental education programs.


Assuntos
Educação a Distância , Estudantes de Odontologia , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
8.
Front Oral Health ; 4: 1211242, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38024146

RESUMO

Background: Child neglect is a public health, human rights, and social problem, with potentially devastating and costly consequences. The aim of this study was to: (1) summarize the oral health profile of children across the globe; (2) provide a brief overview of legal instruments that can offer children protection from dental neglect; and (3) discuss the effectiveness of these legal instruments. Methods: We summarized and highlighted the caries profile and status of implementation of legislation on child dental neglect for 26 countries representing the World Health Organization regions: five countries in Africa (Nigeria, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Zimbabwe), eight in the Americas (Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Mexico, Peru, Unites States of America, Uruguay), six in the Eastern Mediterranean (Egypt, Iran, Libya, Jordan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia), four in Europe (Italy, Latvia, Serbia, United Kingdom), two in South-East Asia (India and Indonesia) and one country (China) with its special administrative region (Hong Kong) in the Western Pacific. Results: Twenty-five of the 26 countries have legal instruments to address child neglect. Only two (8.0%) of these 25 countries had specific legal instruments on child dental neglect. Although child neglect laws can be interpreted to establish a case of child dental neglect, the latter may be difficult to establish in countries where governments have not addressed barriers that limit children's access to oral healthcare. Where there are specific legal instruments to address child dental neglect, a supportive social ecosystem has also been built to facilitate children's access to oral healthcare. A supportive legal environment, however, does not seem to confer extra protection against risks for untreated dental caries. Conclusions: The institution of specific country-level legislation on child dental neglect may not significantly reduce the national prevalence of untreated caries in children. It, however, increases the prospect for building a social ecosystem that may reduce the risk of untreated caries at the individual level. Social ecosystems to mitigate child dental neglect can be built when there is specific legislation against child dental neglect. It may be more effective to combine public health and human rights-based approaches, inclusive of an efficient criminal justice system to deal with child dental neglect.

9.
BMC Oral Health ; 23(1): 747, 2023 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37821894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the scoping review was to identify and synthesize the available literature concerning the relationship between the status of refugees, migrants, and internally displaced persons (IDPs) and Early Childhood Caries (ECC) as it relates to the United Nation's Sustainable Development Goal 16 (SDG 16). METHODS: Data regarding the links between the status of refugees, migrants, and internally displaced persons (IDPs) and Early Childhood Caries (ECC), and the associations between ECC and maternal and child exposure to physical and sexual abuse, insecurity, crime, exploitation, torture, and displacement were extracted. The search was carried out in January 2023 across three databases (PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus). Only publications in English with accessible full texts were included. Descriptive statistics were utilized to summarize the categories of the retrieved papers, and graphical representation was employed for visualization purposes. The relationships between the publications and each of the 10 targets of Sustainable Development Goal 16 (SDG 16) were also assessed. RESULTS: Forty-five studies were reviewed. Most studies (42.2%) originated from the Americas Regions, while no studies were identified from the Africa Region. A significant portion (46.7%) of the papers focused on abuse, violence, and neglect as risk factors for ECC. Migrants, refugees, and IDPs were the most investigated populations (44.4%). Only one study specifically focused on IDPs and migrants respectively. The prevalence of untreated caries was higher among migrants, refugees, and IDPs compared to the host community, ECC was more prevalent among children who experienced abuse, neglect, or were in protective care. The was no clear direction on the associations between ECC and intimate partner violence, adverse childhood experiences, and wars. In terms of the SDGs, the reviewed publications addressed four targets (SDG16.1, SDG16.2, SDG16.3, and SDG16.5) out of the ten targets outlined in SDG 16. CONCLUSION: There is available evidence regarding the connections between ECC and war, refugees, migration, violence, and neglect, as outlined in SDG 16. Future studies are needed to investigate how forced movements directly affects ECC status, how disruptions of peace and stability is a risk factor for ECC, and the associations between ECC and other indicators related to SDG 16 targets.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Refugiados , Migrantes , Humanos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Suscetibilidade à Cárie Dentária , Violência , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/etiologia
10.
BMC Oral Health ; 23(1): 246, 2023 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37118740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The environmental etiology of non-syndromic orofacial clefts (NSOFCs) is still under research. The aim of this case-control study is to assess COVID-19 associated factors that may be related to the risk of NSOFC in five Arab countries. These factors include COVID-19 infection, COVID-19 symptoms, family member or friends infected with COVID-19, stress, smoking, socioeconomic status and fear of COVID-19. METHODS: The study took place in governmental hospitals in five Arab countries from November 2020 to November 2021. Controls are matched in the month of delivery and site of recruitment. A clinical examination was carried out using LASHAL classification. Maternal exposure to medication, illnesses, supplementation, COVID-19 infection during their pregestation and 1st trimester periods were evaluated using a validated questionnaire. Maternal exposure to stress was assessed using the Life Events scale, fear of covid-19 scale, family member or friend affected with covid-19 infection, pregnancy planning and threatened abortion. RESULTS: The study recruited 1135 infants (386 NSOFC and 749 controls). Living in urban areas, maternal exposure to medications 3-months pregestation, maternal exposure to any of the prenatal life events and maternal fear of COVID-19 significantly increased the risk of having a child with NSOFC. On the other hand, mothers exposed to supplementation 3-months pregestation, mothers suspected of having COVID-19 infection, family members or friends testing positive with COVID-19 significantly decreased the risk of having a child with NSOFC. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that NSOFC may be associated with maternal exposure to lifetime stress and COVID-19 fear in particular, with no direct effect of the COVID-19 infection itself. This highlights the importance of providing psychological support for expecting mothers during stressful events that affect populations such as the COVID-19 pandemic, in addition to the usual antenatal care.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Fenda Labial , Fissura Palatina , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Gravidez , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fenda Labial/epidemiologia , Fissura Palatina/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Mães , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Egito/epidemiologia
11.
BMC Oral Health ; 23(1): 50, 2023 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36710323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maintaining good oral hygiene is key to preventing dental caries and periodontal disease. Children and adolescents with good oral hygiene behaviours are likely to grow into adults with the same behaviours. This study assessed the frequency of using various oral hygiene methods among children and adolescents from different countries and individual, familial and country-level factors associated with the use of these methods. METHODS: A multi-country online survey collected data from caregivers of children in 2020-21 about children's use of oral hygiene methods including toothbrush, fluoridated toothpaste, mouthwash, dental floss and miswak using self-administered, close-ended questions. Adjusted multilevel logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between each of the five oral hygiene methods (dependent variables) and the independent factors: sex, age, and history of dental visits (individual factors), mother's education and area of residence (familial factors) as well as country income and region (country-level factors). RESULTS: A total of 4766 parents/caregivers were included from 20 countries (77.4% Eastern Mediterranean-region and 41.6% lower middle income countries). The most frequent oral hygiene methods were using toothbrush and toothpaste (90% and 60.3%). The use of oral hygiene methods differed by age, sex and history of dental visits as well as mother's education and area of residence (P < 0.05). In addition, children from low income countries had significantly lower odds of using mouthwashes and dental floss than those from high income countries (AOR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.31, 0.98 and AOR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.12, 0.97) whereas children from the European region had higher odds of using mouthwash (AOR = 2.82, 95% CI 1.27, 6.26) and those from the region of the Americas had higher odds of using dental floss (AOR = 3.84, 95% CI 1.28, 11.52) than those from the Eastern Mediterranean region. CONCLUSIONS: The use of various oral hygiene methods is associated with individual, familial and country-level factors. Oral health promotion programs should be developed taking into account these influences.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Higiene Bucal , Adulto , Adolescente , Humanos , Criança , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Cremes Dentais , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Saúde Bucal
12.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(10): 1607-1613, 2022 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332214

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The availability of evidence-based information sources for dentists is essential to influence antibiotic prescribing practices and we need to understand how dentists interact with such sources and how this influences their practice. The present study aimed to evaluate dentists' preferred sources of information and their awareness of available information and initiatives on prudent antibiotic prescribing practices in Jordan. METHODOLOGY: An online cross-sectional questionnaire was administered to dentists between July to September 2021. It was an adapted version of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) survey for antibiotic use and resistance. RESULTS: A total of 204 dentists responded to the survey. The main sources of information regarding avoiding unnecessary antibiotic prescribing were published guidelines (35.5%), the dental professional body (20.0%), colleagues or peers (18.6%), and scientific organizations (17.2%), with the influence of these sources on changing prescribers' views being 40.7%, 9.8%, 10.3%, and 14.2%, respectively. Of the surveyed dentists, 9.3%, 33.8%, and 56.9% were aware, unaware, and unsure of the presence of national action plans on antimicrobial resistance, respectively. Dentists reported their desire to receive more information about resistance to antibiotics (57.8%), medical conditions for which antibiotics are used (52.9%), how to use antibiotics (41.2%), prescribing of antibiotics (39.7%), and links between the health of humans, animals, and the environment (26.0%). CONCLUSIONS: The study provided insights into the information available to and used by dentists, which can inform effective antimicrobial stewardship strategies for improving antibiotic prescribing.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Padrões de Prática Odontológica , Humanos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Odontólogos , Jordânia
13.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0276191, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36301839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: E-cigarette use is a trend worldwide nowadays with mounting evidence on associated morbidities and mortality. Dentists can modify the smoking behaviors of their patients. This study aimed to explore the knowledge, beliefs, attitude, and practice of E-cigarette use among dental students. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This multinational, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study recruited undergraduate dental students from 20 dental schools in 11 countries. The outcome variable was current smoking status (non-smoker, E-cigarette user only, tobacco cigarette smoker only, dual user). The explanatory variables were country of residence, sex, age, marital status, and educational level. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to explore the explanatory variables associated with E-cigarette smoking. RESULTS: Of the 5697 study participants, 5156 (90.8%) had heard about E-cigarette, and social media was the most reported source of information for 33.2% of the participants. For the 5676 current users of E-cigarette and/or tobacco smoking, 4.5% use E-cigarette, and 4.6% were dual users. There were significant associations between knowledge and country (P< 0.05), educational level (B = 0.12; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.21; P = 0.016) and smoking status (P< 0.05). The country of residence (P< 0.05) and smoking status (P< 0.05) were the only statistically significant factors associated with current smoking status. Similarly, there were statistically significant associations between attitude and country (P< 0.05 for one country only compared to the reference) and history of previous E-cigarette exposure (B = -0.52; 95% CI: -0.91, -0.13; P = 0.009). Also, the practice of E-cigarettes was significantly associated with country (P< 0.05 for two countries only compared to the reference) and gender (B = -0.33; 95% CI: -0.52, -0.13; P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: The knowledge of dental students about E-cigarette was unsatisfactory, yet their beliefs and attitudes were acceptable. Topics about E-cigarette should be implemented in the dental curriculum.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Vaping , Humanos , Estudantes de Odontologia , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde
14.
Eur Arch Paediatr Dent ; 23(4): 587-599, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35751744

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate clinical and radiographic outcomes of vital pulp therapy (VPT) in deeply carious young permanent first molars (PFM) affected with MIH over 24 months. METHODS: In this prospective randomized clinical trial, n = 50 children with deeply carious young PFM affected with MIH, and diagnosed with reversible or irreversible pulpitis were randomized into 2 groups: indirect pulp treatment (IPT) and pulpotomy (partial or complete). Teeth were followed up clinically and radiographically for 24 months. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test; P ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: A total of  n = 50 teeth/patients (n = 26 females (52%), n = 24 males (48%)) were included, and 14 upper and 36 lower PFM were treated. Mean age was 11 ± 3.2 years. Clinical and radiographic success rates were: 96% for IPT, 90% for PP and 82% for CP (and 86% for both types of pulpotomy combined) over 24 months. There were no significant differences in outcomes between treatment groups. Age, gender and tooth location/jaw were found to have no statistically significant difference in outcomes among treatment groups, nor did pulpal status or root maturity, regardless of type of VPT and follow up period. CONCLUSIONS: VPT is a valid treatment option in deeply carious young permanent first molars affected with MIH over 24 months. IPT had a higher clinical and radiographic success rate (96%) than partial or cervical pulpotomy (total 86%), but the difference was not statistically significant. Future randomized clinical trials on VPT for teeth affected with MIH are recommended with larger sample size and longer follow-up.


Assuntos
Hipoplasia do Esmalte Dentário , Pulpite , Adolescente , Compostos de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Criança , Hipoplasia do Esmalte Dentário/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dente Molar/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Pulpite/tratamento farmacológico , Pulpite/terapia , Pulpotomia , Silicatos/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Fam Relat ; 71(3): 865-875, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35601541

RESUMO

Objective: The aim was to assess the reported family relationships during the COVID-19 pandemic and the association between these relationships and individual, interpersonal, and country-level income in eight Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries. Background: COVID-19 causes fear of infection, loss of loved ones, and economic problems that may affect family relationships. Methods: Data were collected from eight MENA countries using an online survey (July-August 2020). The dependent variable was change in family relationship during COVID-19, and the independent variables were individual, interpersonal, and country-level factors represented by sociodemographic factors, COVID-19 status, financial impact (whether participants lost or had reduced wages) and country income. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results: There were 1854 responses, mean (SD) age of 30.6 (9.9) years, 65.8% were female, 3.4% tested COVID-19 positive, and 20.8% reported lost/reduced wages. Family relationships were more likely to improve or remain unchanged (84.3%) for participants who had a history of COVID-19 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.54, 95% confidence interval [CI]: [1.25, 10.01]). However, family relationships were more likely to not improve for those who knew someone who died of COVID-19 (AOR = 0.76, 95% CI [0.58, 0.99]) and those with lost/reduced wages (AOR = 0.69, 95% CI [0.52, 0.94]). Conclusion: Family relationship improved or remained unchanged for those who tested positive for COVID-19 and did not improve for those who lost wages or lost someone due to COVID-19. Implications: Policy makers should develop strategies to provide social and financial support to employees to reduce the losses and adverse social impact caused by the pandemic.

16.
BMC Oral Health ; 22(1): 18, 2022 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35081945

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: E-cigarette use has become popular, particularly among the youth. Its use is associated with harmful general and oral health consequences. This survey aimed to assess self-reported oral hygiene practices, oral and general health events, and changes in physiological functions (including physical status, smell, taste, breathing, appetite, etc.) due to E-cigarette use among dental students. METHODS: This online, multicounty survey involved undergraduate dental students from 20 dental schools across 11 different countries. The questionnaire included demographic characteristics, E-cigarette practices, self-reported complaints, and associated physiological changes due to E-cigarette smoking. Data were descriptively presented as frequencies and percentages. A Chi-square test was used to assess the potential associations between the study group and sub-groups with the different factors. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS at P < 0.05. RESULTS: Most respondents reported regular brushing of their teeth, whereas only 70% used additional oral hygiene aids. Reported frequencies of complaints ranged from as low as 3.3% for tongue inflammation to as high as 53.3% for headache, with significant differences between E-cigarette users and non-users. Compared to non-smokers, E-cigarette users reported significantly higher prevalence of dry mouth (33.1% vs. 23.4%; P < 0.001), black tongue (5.9% vs. 2.8%; P = 0.002), and heart palpitation (26.3%% vs. 22.8%; P = 0.001). Although two-thirds of the sample reported no change in their physiological functions, E-cigarette users reported significant improvement in their physiological functions compared to never smokers or tobacco users. CONCLUSION: Dental students showed good oral hygiene practices, but E-cigarette users showed a higher prevalence of health complications.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Vaping , Adolescente , Humanos , Saúde Bucal , Autorrelato , Estudantes de Odontologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Vaping/epidemiologia
17.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(7)2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356779

RESUMO

More research is needed on the drivers of irrational antibiotic prescribing among healthcare professionals and to ensure effective prescribing and an adequate understanding of the issue of antibiotic resistance. This study aimed at evaluating prescribers' knowledge, attitudes and behaviors about antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance. A cross-sectional study was conducted utilizing an online questionnaire and included physicians and dentists from all sectors in Jordan. A total of 613 prescribers were included (physicians n = 409, dentists n = 204). Respondents' knowledge on effective use, unnecessary use or associated side effects of antibiotics was high (>90%), compared with their knowledge on the spread of antibiotic resistance (62.2%). For ease of access to the required guidelines on managing infections, and to materials that advise on prudent antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance, prescribers agreed in 62% and 46.1% of cases, respectively. 28.4% of respondents had prescribed antibiotics when they would have preferred not to do so more than once a day or more than once a week. Among respondents who prescribed antibiotics, 63.4% would never or rarely give out resources on prudent use of antibiotics for infections. The findings are of importance to inform antibiotic stewardships about relevant interventions aimed at changing prescribers' behaviors and improving antibiotic prescribing practices.

19.
Int J Paediatr Dent ; 31(6): 801-809, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of child abuse cases is increasing worldwide; therefore, it is important to educate individuals having contact with children about it. This includes dentists who play a pivotal role in detecting and reporting child abuse. AIM: To identify and compare the final- year dental student's knowledge, attitudes, and practice in relation to child abuse. DESIGN: A 38- item and four- part online questionnaire was distributed to students of 11 dental schools in 10 countries. SPSS and GraphPad Prism were used for data analysis. The levels of statistical significance were determined using a chi- square test. P ≤ .05 was considered to be statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 660 students completed the survey. Fifty- six percent of the students received formal training on child abuse, and 86% wanted additional training. The knowledge of child abuse was significantly higher in Australia, the United States, and Jordan compared with other countries. Internet (60.3%) was commonly used as an information source for child abuse. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that dental students lack knowledge and experience in recognizing and reporting child abuse. Most respondents indicated a desire for additional training; therefore, dental schools should review what they are currently teaching and make changes as appropriate.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Estudantes de Odontologia , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/diagnóstico , Odontólogos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Notificação de Abuso , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
BMC Oral Health ; 21(1): 126, 2021 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Universal health care (UHC) may assist families whose children are most prone to early childhood caries (ECC) in accessing dental treatment and prevention. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between UHC, health expenditure and the global prevalence of ECC. METHODS: Health expenditure as percentage of gross domestic product, UHC service coverage index, and the percentage of 3-5-year-old children with ECC were compared among countries with various income levels using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Three linear regression models were developed, and each was adjusted for the country income level with the prevalence of ECC in 3-5-year-old children being the dependent variable. In model 1, UHC service coverage index was the independent variable whereas in model 2, the independent variable was the health expenditure as percentage of GDP. Model 3 included both independent variables together. Regression coefficients (B), 95% confidence intervals (CIs), P values, and partial eta squared (ƞ2) as measure of effect size were calculated. RESULTS: Linear regression including both independent factors revealed that health expenditure as percentage of GDP (P < 0.0001) was significantly associated with the percentage of ECC in 3-5-year-old children while UHC service coverage index was not significantly associated with the prevalence of ECC (P = 0.05). Every 1% increase in GDP allocated to health expenditure was associated with a 3.7% lower percentage of children with ECC (B = - 3.71, 95% CI: - 5.51, - 1.91). UHC service coverage index was not associated with the percentage of children with ECC (B = 0.61, 95% CI: - 0.01, 1.23). The impact of health expenditure on the prevalence of ECC was stronger than that of UHC coverage on the prevalence of ECC (ƞ2 = 0.18 vs. 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Higher expenditure on health care may be associated with lower prevalence of ECC and may be a more viable approach to reducing early childhood oral health disparities than UHC alone. The findings suggest that currently, UHC is weakly associated with lower global prevalence of ECC.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Gastos em Saúde , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Suscetibilidade à Cárie Dentária , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Prevalência , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde
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