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1.
Neurosurg Focus ; 56(5): E14, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38691865

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Chordomas are locally aggressive neoplasms of the spine or skull base that arise from embryonic remnants of the notochord. Intradural chordomas represent a rare subset of these neoplasms, and few studies have described intradural chordomas in the spine. This review evaluates the presentation, management, and outcomes of intradural spinal chordomas. METHODS: A systematic review of PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and Web of Science was performed. Studies describing at least 1 case of intradural chordomas anywhere in the spine were included. Extracted details included presenting symptoms, radiological findings, treatment course, follow-up, and disease progression. RESULTS: Thirty-one studies, with a total of 41 patients, were included in this review. Seventy-six percent (31/41) of patients had primary intradural tumors, whereas 24% (10/41) presented with metastasis. The most common signs and symptoms were pain (n = 27, 66%); motor deficits (n = 20, 49%); sensory deficits (n = 17, 42%); and gait disturbance (n = 10, 24%). The most common treatment for intradural chordoma was resection and postoperative radiotherapy. Sixty-six percent (19/29) of patients reported improvement or complete resolution of symptoms after surgery. The recurrence rate was 37% (10/27), and the complication rate was 25% (6/24). The median progression-free survival was 24 months (range 4-72 months). Four patient deaths were reported. The median follow-up time was 12 months (range 13 days-84 months). CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of intradural spinal chordomas primarily involves resection and radiotherapy. A significant challenge and complication in management is spinal tumor seeding after resection, with 9 studies proposing seeding as a mechanism of tumor metastasis in 11 cases. Factors such as tumor size, Ki-67 positivity, and distant metastasis may correlate with worse outcomes and demonstrate potential as prognostic indicators for intradural spinal chordomas. Further research is needed to improve understanding of this tumor and develop optimal treatment paradigms for these patients.


Assuntos
Cordoma , Neoplasias da Medula Espinal , Humanos , Cordoma/cirurgia , Cordoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Medula Espinal/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Medula Espinal/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Gerenciamento Clínico
2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 16(6)2024 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38539447

RESUMO

Serpins are serine proteinase inhibitors, with several serpins being overexpressed in cancer cells. Thus, we aim to analyze the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of Serpinb11 and its association with GBM survival. A cohort of 63 GBM patients recruited from King Abdullah University Hospital in Jordan underwent polymorphism analysis and overall survival (OS) assessments. The Cancer Genome Atlas (GBM) cohort was useful for validation. We constructed a risk score using the principal component analysis for the following Serpin genes: Serpinb3, Serpinb5, Serpinb6, Serpinb11, and Serpinb12, and patients were grouped into high- vs. low-risk groups based on the median cutoff. Univariable Cox models were used to study the survival outcomes. We identified a significant association between rs4940595 and survival. In the TCGA cohort, Serpinb3 alterations showed worse OS. Univariable Cox showed worse PFS outcomes with higher SERPINB5 and SERPINB6 expression. A Serpin B 5-gene risk score showed a trend towards worse PFS in the high-risk group. Upregulated DEGs showed GO enrichment in cytokine regulation and production, positive regulation of leukocyte activation, and the MAPK cascade. The high-risk group showed a significantly higher infiltration of M2 macrophages and activated mast cells. Our findings showed a significant role of the Serpin B family in GBM survival in the Jordanian population.

3.
J Multidiscip Healthc ; 17: 701-710, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38375526

RESUMO

Background: Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a common respiratory disorder that causes intermittent upper airway collapse during sleep and can lead to various acute cardiovascular complications. Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular hospitalization and all-cause mortality. Our study aimed to investigate the prevalence of individuals with AF and those considered at high risk for OSA. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a population comprising patients who had visited KAUH cardiology clinics between 2017-2019; subjects were categorized into AF patients and general cardiology patients. Patients were surveyed for OSA using the Berlin Questionnaire to assess the degree of OSA symptoms and to classify patients into high- or low-risk groups based on their responses. Results: Of the 656 patients, 545 met our inclusion criteria, of whom 192 were diagnosed with AF. Comparable demographic characteristics were observed between the AF and non-AF groups, barring higher rates of obesity (p=0.001) and smoking (p=0.042) in the AF group. The prevalence of high-risk OSA was significantly higher in AF patients (68.2%) compared to non-AF patients (29.4%), with an adjusted odds ratio of 2.473 times (95% CI: 1.434 -4.266, p=0.001) greater for AF. The age, gender, and BMI categories did not differ significantly between the two groups. Binary logistic regression revealed significant associations between OSA and risk factors such as asthma (OR=4.408, 95% CI: 2.634-7.376, p=0.001). Conclusion: These results serve to display a statistically significant increase in high-risk OSA in existing AF patients, irrespective of the presence of conventional OSA risk factors; this could imply a more immediate and direct relationship between both diseases and calls to include routine screening for OSA in patients diagnosed, newly or otherwise, with AF.

4.
Spine J ; 24(3): 435-445, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37890727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND CONTEXT: The optimal decompression time for patients presenting with acute traumatic central cord syndrome (ATCCS) has been debated, and a high level of evidence is lacking. PURPOSE: To compare early (<24 hours) versus late (≥24 hours) surgical decompression for ATCCS. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: Medline, PubMed, Embase, and CENTRAL were searched from inception to March 15th, 2023. The primary outcome was American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) motor score. Secondary outcomes were venous thromboembolism (VTE), total complications, overall mortality, hospital length of stay (LOS), and ICU LOS. The GRADE approach determined certainty in evidence. RESULTS: The nine studies included reported on 5,619 patients, of whom 2,099 (37.35%) underwent early decompression and 3520 (62.65%) underwent late decompression. The mean age (53.3 vs 56.2 years, p=.505) and admission ASIA motor score (mean difference [MD]=-0.31 [-3.61, 2.98], p=.85) were similar between the early and late decompression groups. At 6-month follow-up, the two groups were similar in ASIA motor score (MD= -3.30 [-8.24, 1.65], p=.19). However, at 1-year follow-up, the early decompression group had a higher ASIA motor score than the late decompression group in total (MD=4.89 [2.89, 6.88], p<.001, evidence: moderate), upper extremities (MD=2.59 [0.82, 4.36], p=.004) and lower extremities (MD=1.08 [0.34, 1.83], p=.004). Early decompression was also associated with lower VTE (odds ratio [OR]=0.41 [0.26, 0.65], p=.001, evidence: moderate), total complications (OR=0.53 [0.42, 0.67], p<.001, evidence: moderate), and hospital LOS (MD=-2.94 days [-3.83, -2.04], p<.001, evidence: moderate). Finally, ICU LOS (MD=-0.69 days [-1.65, 0.28], p=.16, evidence: very low) and overall mortality (OR=1.35 [0.93, 1.94], p=.11, evidence: moderate) were similar between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: The meta-analysis of these studies demonstrated that early decompression was beneficial in terms of ASIA motor score, VTE, complications, and hospital LOS. Furthermore, early decompression did not increase mortality odds. Although treatment decision-making has been individualized, early decompression should be considered for patients presenting with ATCCS, provided that the surgeon deems it appropriate.


Assuntos
Síndrome Medular Central , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Tromboembolia Venosa , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome Medular Central/cirurgia , Descompressão Cirúrgica/efeitos adversos , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/cirurgia , Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia
5.
J Med Life ; 16(8): 1264-1273, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38024819

RESUMO

This study analyzed the 2017-2018 Jordan Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) database to determine the prevalence of domestic violence (DV) against women in Jordan and its associated sociodemographic factors. The findings revealed that among Jordanian women, the lifetime prevalence of DV by husbands was 25.9%, with emotional (20.6%), physical (17.5%), and sexual (5.1%) violence being prominently reported. DV against women was significantly associated with the age, region, and educational status of women, as well as the wealth index, but not their husbands. While the results suggest a potential reduction in DV estimates compared to the last decade, DV still represents a public health issue in Jordan. The study highlights the direct association of DV with socio-demographic characteristics and provides a gateway to identifying high-risk women and implementing appropriate interventions to reduce DV.


Assuntos
Violência Doméstica , Feminino , Humanos , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Violência Doméstica/psicologia , Escolaridade , Emoções , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 102(38): e34633, 2023 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37746954

RESUMO

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) long-term effect is the new challenge facing healthcare providers that should be further assessed. We aim to describe the characteristics and patterns of long-term consequences of COVID-19 among recovered patients. COVID-19 patients baseline data was extracted from hospital records and alive patients filled self-reported symptoms questionnaires. A follow-up chest X-ray (CXR) was then scored based on lung abnormalities and compared with baseline CXR images. Six hundred ninety-four patients were included for the questionnaire and final analysis. Patients who were categorized as critical or severe were more prone to develop at least one symptom than those who were categorized as moderate. The most newly diagnosed comorbidities after discharge were diabetes (40.9%), cardiovascular diseases (18.6%), and hypertension (11.9%). Most patients with prolonged symptoms after discharge had a significant decrease in the quality of life. Small number of CXR showed persistent abnormalities in the middle right, the lower right, and lower left zones with an average overall score during admission 13.8 ± 4.9 and 0.3 ± 1.01 for the follow-up images. Effects of COVID-19 were found to persist even after the end of the infection. This would add on to the disease burden and would foster better management.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Alta do Paciente , Humanos , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Hospitais
7.
J Neurosurg Spine ; 39(1): 101-112, 2023 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37021771

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with brachial plexus avulsion (BPA) experience chronic deafferentation pain characterized by two patterns: continuous background pain and electrical shooting paroxysmal attacks. The authors' aim was to report the effectiveness and safety of dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) lesioning in relieving the two forms of pain over short and long periods. METHODS: All patients who underwent DREZ lesioning performed by the senior author for medically refractory BPA-related pain between July 1, 2016, and June 30, 2020, in Johns Hopkins Hospital were followed up. The intensity levels for continuous and paroxysmal pains were evaluated using the numeric rating scale (NRS) preoperatively and at 4 time points postsurgery, including the day of discharge, with a mean hospital stay of 5.6 ± 1.8 days; first postoperative clinic visit (33.0 ± 15.7 days); short-term follow-up (4.0 ± 1.4 months); and long-term follow-up (3.1 ± 1.3 years). The percent of pain relief according to the NRS was categorized into excellent (≥ 75%), fair (25%-74%), and poor (< 25%). RESULTS: A total of 19 patients were included, with 4 (21.1%) lost to long-term follow-up. The mean age was 52.7 ± 13.6 years; 16 (84.2%) were men, and 10 (52.6%) had left-sided injuries. A motor vehicle accident was the most common etiology of BPA (n = 16, 84.2%). Preoperatively, all patients had motor deficits, and 8 (42.1%) experienced somatosensory deficits. The greatest pain relief was observed at the first postoperative and short-term follow-up visits, with the lowest proportions of patients having continuous pain (26.3% and 23.5%, respectively) and paroxysmal pain (5.3% and 5.9%, respectively). Also, the highest reductions in mean NRS scores were observed for first postoperative and short-term follow-up visits (continuous 1.1 ± 2.1 and 1.1 ± 2.3; paroxysms 0.4 ± 1.4 and 0.5 ± 1.7, respectively) compared to the preoperative symptomatology (continuous 6.7 ± 3.0; paroxysms 7.9 ± 4.3) (p < 0.001). Most patients had excellent relief of continuous pain (82.4% and 81.3%) and of paroxysms (90.9% and 90.0%) at the first postoperative visit and short-term follow-up visit, respectively. The pain relief benefits had diminished by 3 years after surgery but remained significantly better than in the preoperative assessment. At the last evaluation, the proportion of patients achieving excellent relief of paroxysmal pain (66.7%) was double that for continuous pain (35.7%) (p < 0.001). New sensory phenomena were observed among 10 patients (52.6%), and 1 patient developed a motor deficit. CONCLUSIONS: DREZ lesioning is an effective and safe option for relieving BPA-associated pain, with good long-term outcomes and better benefits for paroxysmal pain than for the continuous pain component.


Assuntos
Neuropatias do Plexo Braquial , Plexo Braquial , Dor Crônica , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Feminino , Raízes Nervosas Espinhais/lesões , Seguimentos , Plexo Braquial/cirurgia
8.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 228: 107686, 2023 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36963285

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Peripheral nerve surgeons disagree on the optimal timing and treatment of brachial plexus injuries (BPI). This study aims to survey peripheral nerve surgeons on their management of BPI, including disagreement. METHODS: Surgeons responded to a case-based survey involving traumatic and birth injuries leading to BPI involving the upper and lower trunks, and pre- and post-ganglionic injuries. RESULTS: Out of 255 invited surgeons, 154 participated, with specialties of Neurosurgery (33.7%), Plastic surgery (32.5%), and Orthopedics (32.5%). For the adult C5-6 avulsion injury, 97.4% agreed they would operate. There was 46.2% disagreement regarding the pediatric upper trunk neuroma-in-continuity case, and similar disagreement (50.0%) was recorded on exploring the brachial plexus for a pediatric lower trunk injury case. High percentages of surgeons were more likely to explore the plexus, such as at upper BPI. Also, most participants reported nerve transfer for the upper and lower trunk avulsion injuries, but there was 55.6% disagreement regarding nerve transfer for the infant with the upper trunk neuroma-in-continuity. Among those elected to perform nerve transfer, most (70.0%-84.5%) would perform an accessory-to-suprascapular nerve transfer for upper BPI, while brachialis-to-anterior interosseous and supinator branch of the radial nerve-to-posterior interosseous were preferred for lower BPI (30.0%-55.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Substantial disagreement exists among peripheral nerve surgeons in managing adult and pediatric BPI. In adult BPI, most prefer to operate at the time of the presentation and perform extensive nerve transfers. The accessory-suprascapular transfer was recommended for upper BPI, while brachialis and radial nerves were preferred for lower BPI. The most significant disagreements exist in operation and nerve transfer for pediatric upper BPI and brachial plexus explorations. Geography, specialty, and operative volume contribute to the differences seen.


Assuntos
Plexo Braquial , Neuroma , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos , Cirurgiões , Lactente , Humanos , Adulto , Criança , Plexo Braquial/cirurgia , Plexo Braquial/lesões , Nervos Periféricos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Neuroma/cirurgia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/cirurgia
9.
Br J Neurosurg ; 37(5): 1362-1366, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endoscopic resection can be used for removing colloid cysts as a substitute for open craniotomy. Cerebral vasospasm, a possible complication of the craniotomy procedure, has not been reported as a complication of endoscopic removal of colloid cysts. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 58-year-old man developed the worst headache of his life. The CT and MRI showed a 1.3 cm midline third ventricular cyst at the level of the foramen of Monro, consistent with a colloid cyst. The patient elected to undergo an endoscopic resection of the colloid cyst. The image-guided frameless stereotactic endoscopic colloid cyst resection proceeded without events. Postoperative MRI showed a gross total resection. The patient continued to improve until post-operative day #9 when he experienced an episode of slurred speech and several episodes of legs buckling. An MRI did not show a stroke. A CT angiogram showed diffuse vasospasm, including the basilar artery and bilateral middle cerebral arteries, when compared to the patient's preoperative MRA. The patient's antihypertensive medications were stopped. The patient was started on Nimodipine, 60 mg every 4 hours, and triple H therapy (Hypertension, Hypervolemia, and Hemodilution) was applied. His blood pressure rose and his neurologic exam improved over several days. The patient returned to his baseline in 14 days without any neurological deficits. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a patient undergoing endoscopic colloid cyst resection that was complicated by diffuse cerebral vasospasm. CONCLUSIONS: We report the first case of acute, transient cerebral vasospasm following endoscopic resection of a colloid cyst.


Assuntos
Cistos Coloides , Terceiro Ventrículo , Vasoespasmo Intracraniano , Masculino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cistos Coloides/diagnóstico por imagem , Cistos Coloides/cirurgia , Cistos Coloides/complicações , Vasoespasmo Intracraniano/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasoespasmo Intracraniano/etiologia , Endoscopia/métodos , Terceiro Ventrículo/cirurgia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos
10.
Future Sci OA ; 8(7): FSO809, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36248068

RESUMO

Aims: The authors aimed to assess the ischemic stroke risk factors and scales. Materials & methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on patients with acute ischemic stroke (from January 2017 to December 2018). The scores of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at admission and discharge and of the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and Barthel Index (BI) scale post-month of the stroke were collected. Results: Out of 376 patients, 359 were included, with a mean (standard deviation) age of 67.8 (12.2) years and male predominance (56.2%). Hyperlipidemia and hypertension were the most prevalent comorbidities (91.1% and 80.5%, respectively). The NIHSS, BI and mRS scores were worse among women, with no significant effects for comorbidities. The NIHSS scores at admission and discharge were significantly correlated with the post-month BI and mRS scores. Conclusion: The study findings suggest a complex interplay of gender, strict control and prevention of the modifiable stroke risk factors, as well as the association of neurological deficits' intensity with the functional outcomes.

11.
Int J Gen Med ; 15: 7669-7683, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36217367

RESUMO

Background: Dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are growing health problems, particularly in developing countries. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and pattern of dyslipidemia and its associated factors among patients with T2DM. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients with T2DM attending Family Medicine Clinics in Jordan between August 2017 and March 2019. The socio-demographics, clinical features, medications, and laboratory findings were collected. These laboratory findings included high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), and triglycerides (TGs). Results: A total of 870 patients with T2DM were included. The prevalence of dyslipidemia among patients with T2DM was 91.4%. The most common patterns of dyslipidemia were low HDL-C (66.2%), high LDL-C (62.1%), and hypertriglyceridemia (58.2%). Female gender, obesity, and hypertension were associated with diabetic dyslipidemia patterns. T2DM duration and poor glycemic control were associated with high LDL-C and hypercholesterolemia. Hypertriglyceridemia was associated with poor glycemic control and smoking. Conclusion: Dyslipidemia is highly prevalent among patients with T2DM. Evidence -based interventions are needed to prevent and control dyslipidemia among patients with T2DM in Jordan.

12.
Int J Clin Pract ; 2022: 3406783, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36101813

RESUMO

Background: Infliximab (IFX) biosimilar was the first biosimilar approved in Jordan in 2014, with limited evidence of its safety and effectiveness from the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of IFX biosimilar in active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients over 34 weeks by investigating (1) the adverse events (AEs), serious adverse events (SAEs), and therapy discontinuation and (2) the score changes of the 28-Joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28) and the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI). Methods: This multicenter prospective cohort study collected clinical parameters within hospital settings every four weeks. The numbers and percentages of observed AEs and SAEs were informed. The DAS28 utilizing Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), HAQ-DI, and ESR were reported at baseline and 14th and 30th weeks; thus, they were reported as means (SD). Results: A total of 22 RA patients were enrolled and initiated IFX biosimilar, of which nine (41.0%) discontinued the study, but their data were analyzed up to the point of withdrawal. A total of 35 AEs were reported in 14 patients, including two (5.7%) SAEs. None of the participants discontinued treatment due to AEs. The mean (SD) score of DAS28-ESR significantly decreased from 6.55 (1.16) at baseline to 4.59 (1.45) at week 14 (p < 0.0001) and to 4.77 (1.09) at week 30 (p < 0.0001). Similarly, the mean (SD) HAQ-DI score significantly decreased from 0.95 (0.74) at baseline to 0.48 (0.62) at week 14 (p=0.008) and to 0.71 (0.78) at week 30 (p=0.483). The mean (SD) value of ESR decreased from 58.75 (26.94) at baseline to 47.92 (33.89) at week 14 (p=0.082) and to 39.83 (17.38) at week 30 (p=0.005). Conclusion: IFX biosimilar demonstrated safety and effectiveness in managing RA patients bringing real-world clinical support for biosimilars' role in rheumatology.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos , Artrite Reumatoide , Medicamentos Biossimilares , Humanos , Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos Biossimilares/efeitos adversos , Infliximab/efeitos adversos , Jordânia , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
Int J Clin Pract ; 2022: 9617319, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36072822

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the risk factors for COVID-19 mortality among hospitalized patients in Jordan. All COVID-19 patients admitted to a tertiary hospital in Jordan from September 20, 2020, to August 8, 2021, were included in this study. Demographics, clinical characteristics, comorbidities, and laboratory results were extracted from the patients' electronic records. Multivariable logistic and machine learning (ML) methods were used to study variable importance. Out of 1,613 COVID-19 patients, 1,004 (62.2%) were discharged from the hospital (survived), while 609 (37.8%) died. Patients who were of elderly age (>65 years) (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.28-3.16), current smokers (OR, 1.61; 95%CI, 1.17-2.23), and had severe or critical illness at admission ((OR, 1.56; 95%CI, 1.05-2.32) (OR, 2.94; 95%CI, 2.02-4.27); respectively), were at higher risk of mortality. Comorbidities including chronic kidney disease (OR, 2.90; 95% CI, 1.90-4.43), deep venous thrombosis (OR, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.08-6.35), malignancy (OR, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.46-3.38), diabetes (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.04-1.65), and heart failure (OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.02-2.23) were significantly associated with increased risk of mortality. Laboratory abnormalities associated with mortality included hypernatremia (OR, 11.37; 95% CI, 4.33-29.81), elevated aspartate aminotransferase (OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.42-2.31), hypoalbuminemia (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.37-2.25), and low platelets level (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.05-1.95). Several demographic, clinical, and laboratory risk factors for COVID-19 mortality were identified. This study is the first to examine the risk factors associated with mortality using ML methods in the Middle East. This will contribute to a better understanding of the impact of the disease and improve the outcome of the pandemic worldwide.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Idoso , Humanos , Oriente Médio , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Centros de Atenção Terciária
14.
Int J Gen Med ; 15: 7053-7062, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36090704

RESUMO

Background: Population-based serosurveillance is a cornerstone to furthering our understanding of the COVID-19 pandemic at the community levels. In Jordan, four waves (phases) of seroprevalence epidemiological investigations were conducted using representative population-based national samples. This study aims to estimate the population-based seropositivity, herd immunity, and vaccination coverage at the fourth wave. Methods: Multistage sampling technique was implemented to recruit a nationally representative sample for the fourth wave of the seroprevalence investigation (June to August 2021). Electronically collected data utilized a questionnaire on background demographics, chronic diseases, and COVID-19 vaccination history. Also, blood samples were collected to detect the presence of total Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG using Wantai/ELISA assays. Prevalence estimates were presented using percentage and 95% Confidence Intervals (C.I.). Results: There were 8821 participants included in this study, with a mean age of 31.3 years, and 61.7% were females. COVID-19 national seroprevalence and vaccination coverage estimates were 74.1% (95% C.I.: 73.1-74.9%) and 38.4% (95% C.I.: 37.1-39.6%), respectively. Among children, seroprevalence estimates were similar to unvaccinated adults. Among COVID-19 adults, 57.2% were vaccinated. Among vaccinated participants, 91.5% were seropositive, while among unvaccinated, 63.2% were seropositive. By age group, seroprevalence ranged between 53.0% and 86.9%. Seroprevalence estimates were significantly different by gender, vaccination status and dose, and residence. Conclusion: The reported interplay between seropositivity and vaccination coverage estimate seems insufficient to provide herd immunity levels to combat new variants of SARS-CoV-2. Children and healthcare workers seem to be an epidemiologically influential group in spreading COVID-19. As the globe is still grappling with SARS-CoV-2 infection, national seroepidemiological evidence from Jordan calls for more focus on vaccination coverage, especially among epidemiologically vulnerable groups, to optimize herd immunity.

15.
Int J Womens Health ; 14: 1251-1266, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36092127

RESUMO

Background: Syrian refugee women not only suffered the refuging journey but also faced the burden of being the heads of their households in a new community. We aimed to investigate the mental health status, traumatic history, social support, and post-traumatic growth (PTG) of Syrian refugee women. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a structured interviewer-administered survey between August and November 2019. Syrian refugee women who head their households and live outside camps were eligible. The survey included items investigating socio-demographic characteristics and conflict-related physical trauma history. The Refugee Health Screener-15 (RHS-15) scale was used to screen for emotional distress symptoms of depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), with a score range of 0-4 and higher scores indicating emotional distress. The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) was utilized to assess the perceived support from family, friends, and significant others (score range 1-7), with scores of 3-5 and 5.1-7.0 representing moderate and high support, respectively. The PTG Inventory (PTGI) scale investigated the positive transformation following trauma; the score range was 0-5, and the cutoff point of ≥3 defined moderate-to-high growth levels. Results: Out of 140 invited refugee women, 95 were included, with a response rate of 67.9%. Their mean (SD) age was 41.30 (11.75) years, 50.5% were widowed, and 17.9% reported their husbands as missing persons. High levels of conflict-related traumatic exposure were found, including threats of personal death (94.7%), physical injury (92.6%), or both (92.6%); and a history of family member death (92.6%), missing (71.6%), or injury (53.7%). The mean (SD) RHS-15 score was above average (2.08 (0.46)), and most women (90.5%) were at high risk for depression, anxiety, and PTSD symptoms. The mean (SD) MSPSS score was 5.08 (0.71), representing moderate social support, with friends' support being the highest (5.23 (0.85)). The mean (SD) PTGI score was 2.44 (0.48), indicating low growth, with only 12.6% of women experiencing moderate-to-high growth levels. Spiritual change and personal strength had the highest sub-scores, with moderate-to-high growth levels experienced by 97.9% and 84.2%, respectively. Most women were more optimistic and religious, had feelings of self-reliance and better difficulties adapting, and were stronger than they thought. Statistically significant correlations of MSPSS and its subscales with RHS-15 and PTGI were detected. Conclusion: Significant but unspoken mental health problems were highly prevalent among Syrian refugee women and an imminent need for psychological support to overcome traumatic exposure. The role of social support seems to be prominent and needs further investigation.

16.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; 16(8): 945-952, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35929952

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify early indicators for invasive mechanical ventilation utilization among COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated COVID-19 patients who were admitted to hospital from 20 September 2020, to 8 August 2021. Multivariable logistic regression and machine learning (ML) methods were employed to assess variable significance. RESULTS: Among 1,613 confirmed COVID-19 patients, 365 patients (22.6%) received invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Factors associated with IMV included older age >65 years (OR,1.46; 95%CI, 1.13-1.89), current smoking status (OR, 1.71; 95%CI, 1.22-2.41), critical disease at admission (OR, 1.97; 95%CI, 1.28-3.03), and chronic kidney disease (OR, 2.07; 95%CI, 1.37-3.13). Laboratory abnormalities that were associated with increased risk for IMV included high leukocyte count (OR, 2.19; 95%CI, 1.68-2.87), low albumin (OR, 1.76; 95%CI, 1.33-2.34) and high AST (OR, 1.71; 95%CI, 1.31-2.22). CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that there are several factors associated with the increased need for IMV among COVID-19 patients. These findings will help in early identification of patients at high risk for IMV and reallocation of hospital resources toward patients who need them the most to improve their outcomes.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Albuminas , COVID-19/terapia , Humanos , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
17.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0272312, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35905120

RESUMO

Mature B-cell neoplasms are typically divided into Hodgkin and Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas. Hodgkin Lymphoma is characterized by the neoplastic Reed-Sternberg cells, usually harbored in an inflammatory background, with a frequent clinical presentation of mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Many studies link between autoimmunity and lymphomagenesis, a large proportion of these studies evidently trace the pathogenesis back to the misdirected detection of self-derived nucleic acids by Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs), especially those of the intracellular type. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between a selected SNP in TLR9 (TLR9-1237T>C; rs5743836) and the risk and overall survival of HL patients in a Jordanian Arab population. A total of 374 subjects; 136 cases of Hodgkin lymphoma and 238 matched healthy controls were incorporated in this study. Genomic DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Genotyping of the genetic polymorphisms was conducted using a sequencing protocol. The results show a statistically significant higher distribution of the rs5743836 (TLR9-1237T>C) allele among the case population, with a p-value of 0.031 (<0.05). This distribution proved significant when studied in the codominant (only significant in the T/C genotype, p-value = 0.030), dominant (p-value = 0.025), and overdominant (p-value = 0.035) models. None of the models showed any statistically significant difference in survival associated with the rs5743836 (TLR9-1237T>C) SNP.


Assuntos
Doença de Hodgkin , Receptor Toll-Like 9 , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Doença de Hodgkin/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptor Toll-Like 9/genética
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35742449

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic made it clear to the world that better preparedness for future pandemics is paramount. This study aims to explore how the 2018 Jordan's Pandemic Influenza Preparedness (PIP) assessment plan (conducted utilizing a standardized tool of the CDC National Inventory of Core Capabilities for Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Response) reflected on the initial COVID-19 response. A qualitative, single intrinsic case study design, utilizing interpretivist approach, was utilized to interview subject-matter experts and explore the potential reflection of PIP assessment on COVID-19 response. Utilizing a mini-Delphi approach, the interviews aimed at generating an in-depth understanding of how the Jordan's PIP risk assessment reflects on the country's response to COVID-19. The following 12 core capabilities, along with their reflections on COVID-19, were assessed: country planning, research and use of findings, communications, epidemiologic capability, laboratory capability, routine influenza surveillance, national respiratory disease surveillance, outbreak response, resources for containment, community-based interventions to prevent the spread of influenza, infection control (IC), and health sector pandemic response. Jordan's experience and preparedness for influenza may have served as a crucial guide to establishing success in COVID-19 control and mitigation. Surveillance, outbreak, and research activities were very well established in Jordan's PIP, whereas surge capacity in human capital and health facility were identified as two high-risk areas. However, the limitation in these two areas was met during the COVID-19 response. Still, human capital suffered fatigue, and there was an evident lack of laboratory testing plans when COVID-19 cases increased. Jordan's experience with PIP may have served as a guide for establishing successful COVID-19 control and mitigation. The established PIP principles, systems, and capacities seem to have reflected well on fighting against COVID-19 in terms of more efficient utilization of available surveillance, laboratory, outbreak management, and risk communications. This reflection facilitated a better mitigation and control of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Influenza Humana , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle
19.
Int J Emerg Med ; 15(1): 23, 2022 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35619089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated potassium level is a common and reversible peri-arrest condition. Diagnosis and management of hyperkalemia in a short time is critical, where electrocardiogram (ECG) alterations might be helpful. We aimed to investigate the role of clinical features and ECGs in early diagnosing and treating hyperkalemia. METHODS: Prospectively, adult patients who presented to the emergency department (ED) from July 2019 to March 2020 with hyperkalemia (serum potassium ≥5.5mmol/L) were included. History was obtained, and laboratory investigations and ECGs were performed at the presentation and before initiating hyperkalemia therapy. Hyperkalemia severity was divided into mild (5.5-5.9mmol/L), moderate (6.0-6.4mmol/L), and severe (≥6.5mmol/L). A cardiologist and emergency physician blinded to laboratory values, study design, and patients' diagnoses interpreted ECGs and presenting symptoms independently to predict hyperkalemia. RESULTS: Sixty-seven hyperkalemic patients with a mean (±SD) serum potassium level of 6.5±0.7mmol/L were included in this study. The mean age was 63.9±15.1, and 58.2% were females. Hyperkalemia was mild in 10.4%, moderate in 40.3%, and severe in 49.3%. Almost two thirds of patients (71.6%) had hypertension, 67.2% diabetes, and 64.2% chronic kidney disease. About one-quarter of patients (22.4%) were asymptomatic, while fatigue (46.3%), dyspnea (28.4%), and nausea/vomiting (20.9%) were the most common presenting symptoms. Normal ECGs were observed in 25.4% of patients, while alterations in 74.6%. Atrial fibrillation (13.4%), peaked T wave (11.9%), widened QRS (11.9%), prolonged PR interval (10.5%), and flattening P wave (10.5%) were the most common. Peaked T wave was significantly more common in severe hyperkalemia (87.5%) than in mild and moderate hyperkalemia (12.5%, 0.0%, respectively) (p=0.041). The physicians' sensitivities for predicting hyperkalemia were 35.8% and 28.4%, improved to 51.5% and 42.4%, respectively, when limiting the analyses to severe hyperkalemia. The mean (±SD) time to initial hyperkalemia treatment was 63.8±31.5 min. Potassium levels were positively correlated with PR interval (r=0.283, p=0.038), QRS duration (r=0.361, p=0.003), peaked T wave (r=0.242, p=0.041), and serum levels of creatinine (r=0.347, p=0.004), BUN (r=0.312, p=0.008), and CK (r=0.373, p=0.039). CONCLUSIONS: The physicians' abilities to predict hyperkalemia based on ECG and symptoms were poor. ECG could not be solely relied on, and serum potassium tests should be conducted for accurate diagnosis.

20.
Pharm Pract (Granada) ; 20(1): 2637, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35497892

RESUMO

Introduction: With more than one billion current smokers, 80% of them living in low and middle-income countries, tobacco smoking is considered a global public health problem. Jordan has one of the highest estimate rates of tobacco use in the region and world. Still, tobacco use interventions, that could significantly reduce the number of smoking-related diseases and reduce health care costs, are scarce. While such interventions could be carried out by community pharmacists, given their unique position to counsel patients and provide effective cessation interventions, the role of community pharmacists in tobacco control services in Jordan has never been fully investigated. Objective: This study aimed at assessing the community pharmacists' knowledge, attitudes, and practice towards smoking cessation and identifying their perceived barriers for smoking cessation counselling utilizing a sample of community pharmacists in Northern Jordan. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted among community pharmacies in Irbid city, North of Jordan, between April and August 2018. A random sample of 95 pharmacies was selected using the multistage random sampling technique. A structured English questionnaire, consisting of 5 parts, was used. The Survey assessed pharmacists' socio-demographics, knowledge, attitude, practice and perceived barriers related to tobacco use cessation services. Results: One hundred and fifty pharmacists completed the survey. Their mean age was 30.71±10.10 years. The mean of pharmacists' knowledge score was 3.74±0.38, while their positive and negative attitude were 3.87±0.43 and 3.18±0.66 respectively. Pharmacists' mean smoking cessation practice was 2.01+0.64. Barriers to providing cessation interventions included the lack of training on nicotine replacement therapy products (86%), the lack of smoking cessation programs (84%) and low demands from smokers (83.3%). Conclusion: While knowledge related to tobacco use cessation services among the community pharmacists was sub-optimal, a good positive attitude and a low practice levels were observed. The lack of educational materials, low patients' demand, knowledge deficits, low training and the lack of cessation programs have been identified as barriers hindering the provision of smoking cessation services. Furthermore, the study identified factors that will increase community pharmacists' participation in smoking cessation, help in raising pharmacists' awareness of smoking as a public health problem and the importance of their role.

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