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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238339, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278513

RESUMO

Abstract The present research was carried out to explore the spider fauna of Buner valley with taxonomic study from February 2018 to January 2019. For this purpose samples were collected, four times at each month from 4 tehsils: Daggar, Gagra, Mandan and Totalai. Two methods were used, hand picking and sweep net for collection of samples. During day and night, three habitats, arid area, agriculture land and building area were search for collection. A total of 534 samples of spider were collected from four sampling sites, in which 379 were belonging to family Araniedae. After confirmation, the identified species were belonging to 8 genera (Neoscona, Argiope, Cyclosa, Araneus, Cyrtophora, Larinia, Erivoxia and Poltys) and 19 species. 18 of them were identified to specie level while a single specie to its generic level. The genus Neoscona was the dominant genus 26.31% having 5 species while the genus Argiope 21.05% is the second dominant having 4 species followed by Cyclosa 15.78% having 3 species followed by Cyrtophora and Araneus 10.52% having two species both. The Poltys and Larinia 5.26% are the rarest genera represent single-single specie both. Statistical analysis show that specie richness (D) = 5.77, Simpson index (1-D) = 0.87, Shannon index (H) = 2.33. Diversity of spiders was evenly distributed and calculated Evenness value was H/InS = 0.5408. There is also few atypical species and Fisher alpha estimate high value (Fisher α) = 4.42. Chao-1 estimated we have reported 22 species.


Resumo A presente pesquisa foi realizada para explorar a fauna de aranhas do vale Buner, em um estudo taxonômico realizado de fevereiro de 2018 a janeiro de 2019. Para esse fim, foram coletadas amostras, quatro vezes por mês, a partir de 4 subdistritos: Daggar, Gagra, Mandan e Totalai. Foram utilizados dois métodos, coleta manual e rede de varredura, para a obtenção das amostras. Durante o dia e a noite, foram pesquisados ​​três habitats: área árida, área agrícola e área de construção. Foram coletadas 534 amostras de aranha em quatro locais de amostragem, sendo que 379 pertenciam à família Araneidae. Após a confirmação, as espécies identificadas pertenciam a 8 gêneros (Neoscona, Argiope, Cyclosa, Araneus, Cyrtophora, Larinia, Erivoxia e Poltys) e a 19 espécies (18 delas foram identificados em seu nível de espécie, enquanto uma única foi identificada em seu nível genérico). O gênero Neoscona foi dominante (26,31%), com 5 espécies, seguido pelos gêneros Argiope (21,05%), com 4 espécies, Cyclosa (15,78%), com 3 espécies, e Cyrtophora e Araneus (10,52%), com 2 espécies. Poltys e Larinia (5,26%) são os gêneros mais raros, representando a mesma espécie. A análise estatística mostrou que a riqueza de espécies (D) foi de 5,77, o índice de Simpson (1-D) foi de 0,87 e o índice de Shannon (H) foi de 2,33. A diversidade de aranhas foi distribuída uniformemente, e o valor calculado da uniformidade foi H / InS = 0,5408. Também existem poucas espécies atípicas, e o alfa de Fisher (Fisher α) estimou o valor de 4,42. Já Chao-1 estimou 22 espécies.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e236499, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153462

RESUMO

Abstract Distribution pattern and relative abundance of the agricultural rodent pests of rain-fed and irrigated areas of district Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan were recorded from April 2011 to November 2013 using wire mesh live traps. A total of 350 rodents (269 Rattus rattus and 81 Mus musculus) were captured under 2268 trap nights (trap success: 0.15). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 350 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 21.8 rodents per crop field. House rats (R. rattus; 76.8% of captures) were numerically dominant in almost all types of agricultural fields, and were significantly different from the mice (Mus musculus; 23.1% of captures). Both species were found together in some fields. The sex ratio revealed that males outnumbered the females in both of the reported species.


Resumo O padrão de distribuição e a abundância relativa de pragas de roedores agrícolas nas áreas irrigadas e irrigadas do distrito Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão foram registrados de abril de 2011 a novembro de 2013 usando armadilhas vivas de malha de arame. Um total de 350 roedores (269 Rattus rattus e 81 Mus musculus) foram capturados em 2268 noites de armadilha (sucesso da armadilha: 0,15). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 350 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 21,8 roedores por campo agrícola. Os ratos domésticos (R. rattus; 76,8% das capturas) foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de campos agrícolas e foram significativamente diferentes dos camundongos (Mus musculus; 23,1% das capturas). Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em alguns campos. A proporção de sexo revelou que os machos superaram as fêmeas em ambas as espécies relatadas.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e236496, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249245

RESUMO

Abstract Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (the skittering frog) is one of the most widespread species in Pakistan. Present study was aimed to know the presence of Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis in urban and rural areas of Lower Dir, the North-western Pakistan. A total of 33 frogs were collected, including 15 from rural and 18 from urban areas. The frogs were caught by hands covered with gloves instead of using nets. The collection was managed from August to October 2016 and from April to May 2018. Morphometric analysis, coloration as well as photographs of the frogs have been provided in detail. Skittering frogs were seen frequent in swampy areas near the water bodies. These frogs were mostly seen after sunset.


Resumo Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (a rã que desliza) é uma das espécies mais comuns no Paquistão. O presente estudo teve como objetivo conhecer a presença de Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis em áreas urbanas e rurais de Lower Dir, noroeste do Paquistão. Um total de 33 sapos foram coletados, incluindo 15 de áreas rurais e 18 de áreas urbanas. As rãs foram apanhadas com as mãos cobertas com luvas em vez de redes. A coleta foi gerenciada de agosto a outubro de 2016 e de abril a maio de 2018. Análises morfométricas, coloração e também fotografias das rãs foram fornecidas em detalhes. Rãs saltitantes foram vistas freqüentemente em áreas pantanosas próximas aos corpos d'água. Essas rãs eram vistas principalmente após o pôr do sol.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238337, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249249

RESUMO

Abstract Extensive field surveys were carried out to explore the distribution of Leisler's Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) in selected area of FATA regions, Pakistan. Specimens of Leisler's Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) (n5) were collected from Kurram Agency (Shublan) (N33.8229788 E70.1634414) at elevation 1427m and Khyber Agency (Landi Kotel) (N34.0909899 E71.1457517) at elevation 1091m for two years survey extending from May 2013 through August 2015. The mean head and body length, hind foot length, ear length and tail length the Nyctalus leisleri specimens captured from the study area was 65.08 ± 1.58 mm, 44.06 ± 0.52 mm, 8.38 ± 0.60 mm, 13.20 ± 0.99 mm and 39.46 ± 1.46 mm, respectively. For molecular analysis the sequences of COI gene were obtained and analyzed. The mean intraspecific divergences of Nyctalus leisleri was 0.04%. The mean interspecific divergences of Nyctalus noctula and Nyctalus leisleri was 0.2%. The mean concentration of each nucleotides was A = (26.3%), T = (32.8%), G = (15.9%) and C = (25.0%). The mean A+T contents were 59.2%and C+G were 40.9%. In the phylogenetic tree Nyctalus leisleri and Nyctalus noctula clustered with significant bootstrap support value.


Resumo Extensas pesquisas de campo foram realizadas para explorar a distribuição do morcego de Leisler Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819), em uma área selecionada das regiões das FATA, Paquistão. Espécimes do morcego de Leisler Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) (n = 5) foram coletados na Agência Kurram (Shublan) (N33.8229788 E70.1634414), na elevação 1.427 m, e na Agência Khyber (Landi Kotel) (N34.0909899 E71.1457517), na elevação 1.091 m, por dois anos de pesquisa, estendendo-se de maio de 2013 a agosto de 2015. Os comprimentos médios da cabeça, do corpo, do pé traseiro, da orelha e da cauda dos espécimes de Nyctalus leisleri capturados na área de estudo foram de 65,08 ± 1,58 mm, 44,06 ± 0,52 mm, 8,38 ± 0,60 mm, 13,20 ± 0,99 mm e 39,46 ± 1,46 mm, respectivamente. Para análise molecular, foram obtidas e analisadas as sequências do gene COI. A média das divergências intraespecíficas de Nyctalus leisleri foi de 0,04%. As divergências interespecíficas médias de Nyctalus noctula e Nyctalus leisleri foram de 0,2%. A concentração média de cada nucleotídeos foi A = 26,3%, T = 32,8%, G = 15,9% e C = 25%. Os conteúdos médios de A + T foram de 59,2% e de C + G foram de 40,9%. Na árvore filogenética, Nyctalus leisleri e Nyctalus noctula agruparam-se com um valor significativo de suporte de bootstrap.

5.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e225092, 2022. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249256

RESUMO

Abstract A new species of the genus Lutziella (Rohde, 1966) Yamaguti, 1971 is described here and named Lutziella swatensis sp.nov. from the liver of rat (Rattus rattus L.). The new species is characterized by having body flat, smooth, longer than broad with maximum width at the level of the ovary, oral sucker with weak musculature, pharynx small; eosophagus long; caeca of irregular shape which bifurcate on the anterior border of the ovary in to unequal portions, acetabulum weakly muscular, post-testicular, testes lobed, cirrus pouch somewhat median, small in size containing winding seminal vesicle, prostatic complex and short ejaculatory duct. Genital pore median. Ovary post testicular, submedian; seminal receptacle overlapping ovary, laurer's canal present. Vitellaria follicular extending on each side from almost the level of testes to anterior portion of posterior half of the body. Uterus filled with eggs occupying most of the body, eggs oval rather small, numerous, brownish in colour, excretory vesicle tubular with terminal pore. Lutziella swatensis n. sp. is the second species of the genus known from Pakistan as well as the second species described from murid rodents in the world.


Resumo Uma nova espécie do gênero Lutziella (Rohde, 1966) Yamaguti, 1971 é descrita aqui e denominada Lutziella swatensis sp.nov. do fígado do rato (Rattus rattus L.). A nova espécie é caracterizada por ter corpo liso, liso, mais longo que largo com largura máxima ao nível do ovário, otário oral com musculatura débil, faringe pequena; eosôfago longo; ceco de forma irregular que se bifurca na borda anterior do ovário em porções desiguais, acetábulo fracamente muscular, pós-testicular, testículos lobados, bolsa cirrus um pouco mediana, pequeno em tamanho contendo vesícula seminal sinuosa, complexo prostático e ducto ejaculatório curto. Mediana dos poros genitais. Ovário pós testicular, submediano; ovário sobreposto do receptáculo seminal, canal de laurer presente. Vitellaria folicular que se estende de cada lado de quase o nível dos testículos para a porção anterior da metade posterior do corpo. Útero cheio de ovos que ocupam a maior parte do corpo, oval ovos bastante pequenos, numerosos, de cor acastanhada, vesícula excretor tubular com poro terminal. Lutziella swatensis n. sp. é a segunda espécie do gênero conhecida do Paquistão, bem como a segunda espécie descrita de roedores do mundo.

7.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(4): 1009-1015, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605471

RESUMO

This prospective study was conducted to find the rate of deep and risk factors associated with vein thrombosis following major abdominal surgery in Sylhet MAG Osmani Medical College Hospital from 1st November 2017 to 30th April 2018. Total 103 patients aged above 20 years both male and female who got admitted in Department of Surgery, Sylhet MAG Osmani Medical College Hospital, Sylhet for their disease requiring routine and emergency major abdominal operation during the study period and fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected in this study. Informed written consent was obtained from the patients after full explanation of the purpose of the study. After full investigations and proper preparation of each patient for operative procedure major abdominal surgery were done. Peroperative findings were noted and post-operative period were followed up routinely. Duplex scanning was done on 3rd POD in all cases. The age of the patients ranged from 25 to 74 years with the mean age of 49.5±13.8 years. There were 60(58.3%) male and 43(41.7%) female. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) developed in 5(4.9%) of cases and not developed in 98(95.1%) cases. All the five cases were confirmed by color duplex scan. DVT was detected in 2(3.3%) of the 60 males and 3(7.0%) of the 43 females undergoing major general surgical procedures. Among 63 patients in whom the duration of surgery was up to 2 hours, none developed DVT, while among the 40 patients in whom the duration of surgery lasted more than 2 hours, 5(12.5%) developed DVT. Among 23 patients in whom the surgery for malignancy was done, 4(17.4%) developed DVT, while among the 80 patients in whom surgery for non-malignancy, 1(1.2%) developed DVT. The Incidence of DVT in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery is 4.9%. Patients undergoing major abdominal surgery for malignancy and duration of operation greater than 2 hours have higher risk of developing DVT. But there is no significant increase in risk of development of DVT relation to age and sex; and also in patients on oral contraceptives, diabetes mellitus, obesity and smoking. Clinical findings alone cannot be relied upon for the diagnosis of DVT. The study has to be continued with larger sample size to get statistically significant results.


Assuntos
Trombose Venosa , Adulto , Idoso , Bangladesh , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia , Trombose Venosa/etiologia
8.
Tech Coloproctol ; 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of hemorrhoidal surgery in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) undergoing surgery at our center. METHODS: All adult patients with IBD undergoing hemorrhoidal surgery in our department between November 1, 2013 and July 7, 2020 were included in the study. At the time of surgery, the patients' IBD was in clinical, biological and endoscopic remission, and none of the patients had specific primary anoperineal lesions. RESULTS: We included 25 patients (48% female) with a mean age 48 years (± 13.1 years). There were 13 cases of CD (52%) and 12 of ulcerative colitis (UC). Pharmacological and instrumental hemorrhoidal treatment had failed in all patients. The CD lesions were exclusively ileal (77%) or ileocolic (23%). The surgical procedures performed for CD were mono-hemorrhoidectomy in three patients (21.4%), tripedicular hemorrhoidectomy in six patients (42.9%), and artery ligations with mucopexy in five patients (35.7%). UC was rectal (16.7%), rectosigmoid (66.7%), or pancolic (16.6%). The surgical procedures performed for UC were a tripedicular hemorrhoidectomy in ten patients (83.3%) and artery ligations with mucopexy in two patients (16.7%). The mean duration of postoperative follow-up was 15.1 months. None of the patients was lost to follow-up. The mean time to wound healing after resection was 71.1 days (± 21 days) for patients with CD and 56.9 days (± 6.7 days) for patients with UC (p = 0.05). Postoperative complications were reported for four patients with CD (28.8%) and two patients with UC (16.7%). There was no suppuration, stenosis, or anal incontinence sequelae. CONCLUSIONS: Hemorrhoidal surgery resulted in a non-negligible frequency of complications in our series of IBD patients, especially in those with CD. Caution is, therefore, still necessary in this patient population.

9.
EClinicalMedicine ; 38: 100999, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505027

RESUMO

Background: Studies of scalable psychological interventions in humanitarian setting are usually carried out when the acute emergency has stabilized. We report the first evaluation of an evidence-based group psychological intervention, Group Integrative Adapt Therapy (IAT-G), during the emergency phase of a mass humanitarian crisis amongst Rohingya refugees in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh. Methods: We did a pragmatic naturalistic evaluation (2018-2020) of a seven-session group intervention with adult Rohingya refugees with elevated symptoms of depression (≥10 on the Patient Health Questionnaire) and/or posttraumatic stress disorder, PTSD, (≥3 on the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder-8), and functional impairment (≥17 on WHO Disability Assessment Schedule or WHODAS-brief). Screening was done across the most densely populated campsites. Blind assessments were completed at baseline, posttreatment, and at 3-month follow-up using culturally adapted measures of depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress symptoms, complicated bereavement, adaptive stress associated with disrupted psychosocial support systems, functional impairment, and resilience. Findings: 383 persons were screened and of the 144 persons who met inclusion criteria all participated in the group intervention. Compared to baseline scores, IAT-G participants recorded significantly lower mean scores on key outcome indices (mental health symptoms, adaptive stress, and functional impairment) at posttreatment and 3-month follow-up (all pairwise tests significant Ps<.05). From baseline to 3-month follow-up, score changes were greatest for functional impairment (d = 2.24), anxiety (d = 2.15) and depression (d = 1.9), followed by PTSD symptoms (d = 1.17). Interpretation: A group-based intervention designed specifically to reflect the refugee experience and adapted to the language and culture, showed positive outcomes in the context of a pragmatic, naturalistic trial implemented in a mass humanitarian emergency. Funding: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees; National Health and Medical Research Council Australia.

11.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(8)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443700

RESUMO

Organophosphate (OP) compounds, a family of highly hazardous chemical compounds included in nerve agents and pesticides, have been linked to more than 250,000 annual deaths connected to various chronic diseases. However, a solid-state sensing system that is able to be integrated into a clothing system is rare in the literature. This study aims to develop a nanofiber-based solid-state polymeric material as a soft sensor to detect OP compounds present in the environment. Esters of polydiacetylene were synthesized and incorporated into a cellulose acetate nanocomposite fibrous assembly developed with an electrospinning technique, which was then hydrolyzed to generate more hydroxyl groups for OP binding. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Instron® tensile tester, contact angle analyzer, and UV-Vis spectroscopy were employed for characterizations. Upon hydrolysis, polydiacetylene esters in the cellulosic fiber matrix were found unaffected by hydrolysis treatment, which made the composites suitable for OP sensing. Furthermore, the nanofibrous (NF) composites exhibited tensile properties suitable to be used as a textile material. Finally, the NF composites exhibited colorimetric sensing of OP, which is visible to the naked eye. This research is a landmark study toward the development of OP sensing in a protective clothing system.

12.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(14): 4841-4853, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337734

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of Convalescent Plasma (CP) in reducing mortality of COVID-19 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted from PubMed, Embase, Medrxiv, and Google Scholar from April and finalized in December 2020 using the following terms: covid-19, convalescent plasma, cp, ccp, copla. The studies were screened, extracted, and evaluated by two authors independently. Comparative retrospective or prospective studies with a control group were included. Mortality was defined as the outcome of interest. Research articles not published in the English language, not available in full text, review articles, no measured outcome of interest were excluded from this study. RESULTS: Eighteen studies were included in this meta-analysis. There were 5658 patients with 2092 patients treated with CP and 3536 patients as a control group. Forest plot showed CP use was associated with decreased mortality with OR = 0.64 (95% CI 0.49 to 0.84, p<0.001) and heterogeneity (I2)= 27.62%. Few patients experienced an adverse event, but no fatal case was reported. CONCLUSIONS: Convalescent plasma is effective in reducing mortality of severe and critical COVID-19 with tolerable adverse effects.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/terapia , SARS-CoV-2 , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados como Assunto , Humanos , Imunização Passiva
13.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 20(9): 1167-1175, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224292

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine by the target groups would play a crucial role in stemming the pandemic. Healthcare professionals (HCPs) are the priority group for vaccination due to them having the highest risk of exposure to infection. This survey aimed to assess their acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines in Bangladesh. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey using an online questionnaire was conducted between January 3 to 25, 2021, among HCPs (n = 834) in Bangladesh. RESULTS: Less than 50% of HCPs would receive the vaccine against COVID-19 if available and 54% were willing to take the vaccine at some stage in the future. Female participants (OR:1.64;95%CI:1.172-2.297), respondents between 18-34 years old (OR:2.42; 95% CI:1.314-4.463), HCPs in the public sector (OR:2.09; 95% CI:1.521-2.878), and those who did not receive a flu vaccine in the previous year (OR:3.1; 95% CI:1.552-6.001) were more likely to delay vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: The study revealed that, if available, less than half of the HCPs would accept a COVID-19 vaccine in Bangladesh. To ensure the broader success of the vaccination drive, tailored strategies and vaccine promotion campaigns targeting HCPs and the general population are needed.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Recusa de Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Bangladesh , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Front Public Health ; 9: 671961, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34249838

RESUMO

Background: Diabetes mellitus rates continue to rise, which coupled with increasing costs of associated complications has appreciably increased global expenditure in recent years. The risk of complications are enhanced by poor glycaemic control including hypoglycaemia. Long-acting insulin analogues were developed to reduce hypoglycaemia and improve adherence. Their considerably higher costs though have impacted their funding and use. Biosimilars can help reduce medicine costs. However, their introduction has been affected by a number of factors. These include the originator company dropping its price as well as promoting patented higher strength 300 IU/ml insulin glargine. There can also be concerns with different devices between the manufacturers. Objective: To assess current utilisation rates for insulins, especially long-acting insulin analogues, and the rationale for patterns seen, across multiple countries to inform strategies to enhance future utilisation of long-acting insulin analogue biosimilars to benefit all key stakeholders. Our approach: Multiple approaches including assessing the utilisation, expenditure and prices of insulins, including biosimilar insulin glargine, across multiple continents and countries. Results: There was considerable variation in the use of long-acting insulin analogues as a percentage of all insulins prescribed and dispensed across countries and continents. This ranged from limited use of long-acting insulin analogues among African countries compared to routine funding and use across Europe in view of their perceived benefits. Increasing use was also seen among Asian countries including Bangladesh and India for similar reasons. However, concerns with costs and value limited their use across Africa, Brazil and Pakistan. There was though limited use of biosimilar insulin glargine 100 IU/ml compared with other recent biosimilars especially among European countries and Korea. This was principally driven by small price differences in reality between the originator and biosimilars coupled with increasing use of the patented 300 IU/ml formulation. A number of activities were identified to enhance future biosimilar use. These included only reimbursing biosimilar long-acting insulin analogues, introducing prescribing targets and increasing competition among manufacturers including stimulating local production. Conclusions: There are concerns with the availability and use of insulin glargine biosimilars despite lower costs. This can be addressed by multiple activities.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Biossimilares , Insulina de Ação Prolongada , África , Bangladesh , Medicamentos Biossimilares/uso terapêutico , Brasil , Europa (Continente) , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Índia , Insulina de Ação Prolongada/uso terapêutico , Paquistão , República da Coreia
15.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 21(1): 204, 2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wedelia chinensis has been reported as a folk medicine for the treatment of different diseases including neurodegenerative disease. Although the plant has been studied well for diverse biological activities, the effect of this plant in neurological disorder is largely unknown. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the cholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant potential of W. chinensis. METHODS: The extract and fractions of the plant were evaluated for acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity by modified Ellman method. The antioxidant activity was assessed in several in vitro models/assays such as reducing power, total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic and flavonoid content, scavenging of 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical and hydroxyl radical, and inhibition of brain lipid peroxidation. Chromatographic and spectroscopic methods were used to isolate and identify the active compound from the extract. RESULTS: Among the fractions, aqueous fraction (AQF) and ethylacetate fraction (EAF) exhibited high inhibition against acetylcholinesterase (IC50: 40.02 ± 0.16 µg/ml and 57.76 ± 0.37 µg/ml) and butyrylcholinesterase (IC50: 31.79 ± 0.18 µg/ml and 48.41 ± 0.05 µg/ml). Similarly, the EAF and AQF had high content of phenolics and flavonoids and possess strong antioxidant activity in several antioxidant assays including DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging, reducing power and total antioxidant activity. They effectively inhibited the peroxidation of brain lipid in vitro with IC50 values of 45.20 ± 0.10 µg/ml and 25.53 ± 0.04 µg/ml, respectively. A significant correlation was observed between total flavonoids and antioxidant and cholinesterase inhibitory activity. Activity guided chromatographic separation led to the isolation of a major active compound from the EAF and its structure was elucidated as apigenin by spectral analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The potential ability of W. chinensis to inhibit the cholinesterase activity and peroxidation of lipids suggest that the plant might be useful for the management of AD.

16.
Heliyon ; 7(7): e07487, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34307938

RESUMO

Proper assessment of reference evapotranspiration (ET 0 ) is necessary for pastoral activity and water management. The Penman-Monteith FAO56 (ET pmf ) method has been recommended as the identical ET 0 estimation model; nonetheless, it belongs to a vast climatic data requirement. There is an urgent need to discover an ideal alternate model for evaluating ET 0 in particular places where all climatic data is insufficient. The performances of 15 empirical models were assessed to get the best alternative model by comparing it with the PMF-56 model. These 15 models were evaluated by employing a daily scatter plot and three well known numerical approaches: relative root-mean-square error, mean absolute error and Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient in this study. Furthermore, a linear regression model was implemented to calibrate and validate the empirical models' performances throughout the 1981-2005 and 2006-2018 time intervals, separately. The outcomes displayed that the ET pmf rose primarily and declined later on a monthly period with the topmost amount in April and the lowermost amount in January. Overall, the Abtew model was the best alternate method showing the highest determination coefficient values more than 0.85 from January to December. In contrast, the Penman, WMO, Trabert, Valiantzas1, Valiantzas2, Valiantzas3 and Jensen-Haise models presented moderate performances with fewer inaccuracies. Afterwards, modification, the version of the above-described models every month has been upgraded deliberately related to actual. The Abtew model had simplicity in the computation process, only used maximum temperature and solar radiation data and linearly well connected to the PMF-56 model.

17.
Curr Med Res Opin ; 37(9): 1529-1545, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166174

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Prevalence rates for diabetes mellitus continue to rise, which, coupled with increasing costs of complications, has appreciably increased expenditure in recent years. Poor glycaemic control including hypoglycaemia enhances complication rates and associated morbidity, mortality and costs. Consequently, this needs to be addressed. Whilst the majority of patients with diabetes have type-2 diabetes, a considerable number of patients with diabetes require insulin to help control their diabetes. Long-acting insulin analogues were developed to reduce hypoglycaemia associated with insulin and help improve adherence, which can be a concern. However, their considerably higher costs have impacted on their funding and use, especially in countries with affordability issues. Biosimilars can help reduce the costs of long-acting insulin analogues thereby increasing available choices. However, the availability and use of long-acting insulin analogues can be affected by limited price reductions versus originators and limited demand-side initiatives to encourage their use. Consequently, we wanted to assess current utilisation rates for long-acting insulin analogues, especially biosimilars, and the rationale for patterns seen, across multiple Asian countries ranging from Japan (high-income) to Pakistan (lower-income) to inform future strategies. METHODOLOGY: Multiple approaches including assessing utilization and prices of insulins including biosimilars among six Asian countries and comparing the findings especially with other middle-income countries. RESULTS: Typically, there was increasing use of long-acting insulin analogues among the selected Asian countries. This was especially the case enhanced by biosimilars in Bangladesh, India, and Malaysia reflecting their perceived benefits. However, there was limited use in Pakistan due to issues of affordability similar to a number of African countries. The high use of biosimilars in Bangladesh, India and Malaysia was helped by issues of affordability and local production. The limited use of biosimilars in Japan and Korea reflects limited price reductions and demand-side initiatives similar to a number of European countries. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing use of long-acting insulin analogues across countries is welcomed, adding to the range of insulins available, which increasingly includes biosimilars. A number of activities are needed to enhance the use of long-acting insulin analogue biosimilars in Japan, Korea and Pakistan.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Biossimilares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hipoglicemiantes , Insulina de Ação Prolongada , Ásia , Medicamentos Biossimilares/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina , Insulina de Ação Prolongada/uso terapêutico , Japão , Paquistão
18.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238339, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161423

RESUMO

The present research was carried out to explore the spider fauna of Buner valley with taxonomic study from February 2018 to January 2019. For this purpose samples were collected, four times at each month from 4 tehsils: Daggar, Gagra, Mandan and Totalai. Two methods were used, hand picking and sweep net for collection of samples. During day and night, three habitats, arid area, agriculture land and building area were search for collection. A total of 534 samples of spider were collected from four sampling sites, in which 379 were belonging to family Araniedae. After confirmation, the identified species were belonging to 8 genera (Neoscona, Argiope, Cyclosa, Araneus, Cyrtophora, Larinia, Erivoxia and Poltys) and 19 species. 18 of them were identified to specie level while a single specie to its generic level. The genus Neoscona was the dominant genus 26.31% having 5 species while the genus Argiope 21.05% is the second dominant having 4 species followed by Cyclosa 15.78% having 3 species followed by Cyrtophora and Araneus 10.52% having two species both. The Poltys and Larinia 5.26% are the rarest genera represent single-single specie both. Statistical analysis show that specie richness (D) = 5.77, Simpson index (1-D) = 0.87, Shannon index (H) = 2.33. Diversity of spiders was evenly distributed and calculated Evenness value was H/InS = 0.5408. There is also few atypical species and Fisher alpha estimate high value (Fisher α) = 4.42. Chao-1 estimated we have reported 22 species.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Animais , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Paquistão
19.
Acta Biomater ; 131: 493-507, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139367

RESUMO

This study first reports the development of a smart drug delivery system (DDS) for multimodal synergistic cancer therapy combining chemo-photothermal-starvation approaches. A magnetic photothermal agent was synthesized by preparing iron oxide (IO) nanoparticles (NPs) with covalently attached indocyanine green (ICG) and glucose oxidase (GOx) (ICGOx@IO). Synthesized ICGOx@IO NPs were co-encapsulated with doxorubicin (Dox) and EGCG ((-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate) inside PLGA (poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)) NPs using multiple emulsion solvent evaporation method. Such formulation gave the advantage of triggered drug release by near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation (808 nm at 1 W/cm2). RGD peptide was attached to the surface of PLGA NPs and the final hydrodynamic size was around 210 nm. Dual targeting by peptide and 240 mT external magnet significantly improved cellular uptake. Cellular uptake was observed using FACS, electron and optical microscopy. Dual targeting along with laser irradiation could reduce in vitro cell viability by 90 ± 2% (Dox-equivalent dose: 10 µg/ml) and complete tumor ablation was achieved in vivo due to synergetic therapeutic effect. Another attractive feature of the DDS was the significant reduction of cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin by EGCG. This new platform is thus expected to hold strong promise for future multimodal combination therapy of cancers. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Doxorubicin is one of the most studied and effective chemotherapeutic agents whose application is hindered due to its cardiotoxicity. In this study, we used (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) to overcome that limitation. However, drug delivery to tumor sites with no/minimum accumulation in healthy organs is always challenging. Although peptide-based targeting is very popular, the effectiveness of receptor/ligand binding active targeting is sometimes questioned which motivated us to apply dual targeting approach. Multimodal therapies can exhibit synergistic effects and subsequently reduce the required dose of drug over monotherapy. We aimed to achieve chemo-photothermal-starvation combination therapy in this study and such achievement is yet to be reported. Our developed system also has the advantage of triggered drug release by near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation.


Assuntos
Hipertermia Induzida , Nanopartículas , Neoplasias , Cardiotoxicidade , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Humanos , Fototerapia
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