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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20429, 2022 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36443433

RESUMO

Lactic acid bacteria are the well acknowledged probiotics that can cure a variety of diseases. In this study, we observed the in vivo potentials of Pediococcus to treat hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia and gastrointestinal infections. A total of 77 Lactobacillus were isolated from the milk of 10 cows and 10 goats, four of those strains inhibited both carbohydrates-hydrolyzing enzymes, α-glucosidase, and α-amylase. They all showed antagonistic effects on pathogenic E. coli and S. Typhimurium which were confirmed by performing pathogen challenge test and visualizing on Electron microscopy. 16S rRNA gene sequence identified that all four strains belong to Pediococcus genus which were further distinguished as Pediococcus acidilactici by pheS gene sequence. Whole genome sequence analysis revealed their non-pathogenic properties for human and the presence of probiotic genes responsible for stress resistance, immunomodulation, adhesion, metal and drug resistance. In vivo trial with diabetes-induced mice ascertained that all Pediococcus acidilactici had significant potentials to reduce elevated glucose and low-density lipoprotein level in blood. Interestingly, two out of four strains were significantly more effective (p < 0.0001 each) than metformin in reducing the blood glucose level. This in vivo study demonstrated that Pediococcus acidilactici might be a promising probiotic to prevent hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia and gastrointestinal infections.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Gastroenteropatias , Hipercolesterolemia , Hiperglicemia , Pediococcus acidilactici , Probióticos , Feminino , Humanos , Bovinos , Camundongos , Animais , Pediococcus acidilactici/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Escherichia coli , Genômica , Hiperglicemia/prevenção & controle , Probióticos/farmacologia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Pediococcus/genética , Cabras
2.
Mymensingh Med J ; 31(4): 1034-1039, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36189549

RESUMO

The objective of study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of topical 0.2% Glyceryl trinitrate topical (GTN) ointment in the treatment of chronic anal fissure. This randomized control trial was carried out in the Colorectal Surgery Unit, Department of Surgery, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Bangladesh from May 2015 to April 2016. Total 94 patients were included in this trial, where 47(50.0%) patients were treated by 0.2% GTN ointment as Trial group 12 hourly for 8 weeks and 47(50.0%) patients by lateral internal sphincterotomy (LIS) as Control group in this study. Patients were randomized in two groups by lottery following purposive sampling. Post-procedural outcome variables with 6 months follow up were evaluated. Majority of the patients were found in between 20 to 40 years of age in both groups. The mean age was 34.6±10.4 years and 33.2±8.6 years in GTN and LIS respectively. Overall male female ratio was 0.88:1. All (100.0%) patients presented with pain in anus and 86.15% patients presented with per rectal bleeding. Pain relief in GTN arm versus LIS arm in 2nd and 6th week was 55.31% vs. 76.6%, 74.5% vs. 87.23% with no significant difference between two groups. But at 6 month it was 57.44% vs. 93.6% respectively. The fall in pain relief at 6th month in GTN arm was due to recurrence of fissure. At the end of 2nd, 6th week and 6month, cessation of bleeding improved gradually in both groups after treatment but the improvement was significantly better in LIS group than in GTN group indicating sphincterotomy stops bleeding better. Healing after 2nd week in both groups was minimum but equal 2(4.26%) patients. After 6 weeks LIS group had significant better healing than GTN 40(85.1%) versus 26(55.3%) with p value <0.001. In 6 month time GTN group had increased healing but LIS group had significant better healing than GTN group 42(89.36) vs. 32(68.08) with p value 0.004. Transient flatus and liquid incontinence were 8.51% and 6.4% respectively in LIS group with 0.0% in GTN group. Headache and recurrence were significantly higher in GTN group 61.7% and 34.04% with p<0.001. Lateral internal anal sphincterotomy is superior to the topical application of 0.2% nitroglycerin ointment in the treatment of chronic anal fissure with the advantages of good symptomatic relief, high rate of healing and a very low rate of transient continence disturbances.


Assuntos
Fissura Anal , Esfincterotomia Lateral Interna , Administração Tópica , Adulto , Canal Anal/cirurgia , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Fissura Anal/tratamento farmacológico , Fissura Anal/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitroglicerina/uso terapêutico , Pomadas/uso terapêutico , Dor , Resultado do Tratamento , Vasodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14800, 2022 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36042276

RESUMO

It is essential to predict the mining-induced subsidence for sustainable mine management. The maximum observed subsidence having a noticeable areal extent due to Northern Upper Panels (NUP) and Southern Lower Panels (SLP) at the Barapukuria longwall coal mine is 5.8 m and 4.2 m, respectively, after the extraction of a 10 m thick coal seam. The mining-induced subsidence was simulated by the Displacement Discontinuity Method. The numerical model considered the effects of the ground surface, mining panels, faults, and the dyke. The predicted and the observed subsidence due to the mining of NUP and SLP were compared by varying Young's modulus, and the 0.10 GPa Young's modulus was found to be the best match in the geo-environmental condition. The effects of the faults and the dyke in the calculation were negligible. Future subsidence was predicted by considering 30 m extraction of the thick coal seam as 15.7-17.5 m in NUP and 8.7-10.5 m in SLP. The vulnerable areas demarcated considering the tilt angle and extensile strain might extend up to the coal mine office area and some villages.


Assuntos
Minas de Carvão , Bangladesh , Carvão Mineral , Minas de Carvão/métodos
5.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e249124, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35946727

RESUMO

Current cross-sectional study was carried out between September 2019 to January 2020 at the Department of Pathology, Mardan Medical Complex (MMC), Mardan, and District Headquarter Hospital North Waziristan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. The objectives of the current study were to determine the prevalence of leishmaniasis and its associated risk factors in selected districts of KP province, Pakistan. Altogether, three hundred and seventy-four (n=374) leishmaniosis patients were included in the current study. Skin specimen from the ulcer border were collected. The slides were stained by Giemsa stain and examined for the presence of amastigote. The prevalence of leishmania infected patients in different region of KP were as follows: North Waziristan region 53.7 (n=201) District Mardan 34.7% (n=130); District Nowshera 6.7% (n=25), District Swabi 1.1% (n=4) and other Districts i.e. Dir, Malakand, Buner and Bajawarr were 3.7% (n=14). The frequency of leishmaniasis were more in male and majority of the infected patients were in the age group of <10 years. Among n=374 patients 95.7% (n= 358) had cutaneous leishmaniasis while 3% (n= 11) had mucocutaneous type of infection and 1.3% (n= 5) patients had both cutaneous and mucocutaneous infection. Upon treatment by Sodium stibogluconate (SSG) 97% (n=362) showed clinical signs of complete or partial recovery of their skin lesions. Conclusively, highest incidence of leishmania infection occurred during short study period and majority of the cases showed positive response to treatment.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Cutânea , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/etiologia , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
6.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2022 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931926

RESUMO

Aquatic ecosystems are exceedingly contrived due to industrial dispenses, as a huge amount of toxicants especially heavy metals are released, causing drastic effects on aquatic lives and the human body. This study was performed to assess the quality of point-source industrial wastewater at varying percentage levels and their subsequent hazardous effect on fish (Anabas cobojius) and human health. The perceived value revealed that water quality parameters declined with the increase of wastewater concentration and trace metal evaluation index (TEI) ascertained a high level of water pollution due to Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, and As content for all percentages of wastewater. Concentration of wastewater and culture treatment duration largely impacted on fish mortality rate, body dis-pigmentation, mucus secretion rate, coagulation of mucus all over the body, and accumulation of heavy metals by fish samples. Metal pollution index (MPI) indicated low contamination of fish by the measured elements. Zn and Hg exceeded the threshold limit of target hazard quotient (THQ > 1) and contributed significantly to non-carcinogenic health implications for both the population group. Maximum hazard index in adults and children was observed to be 10.638 and 16.548 for 100% effluent at 96-h exposure period and the overall HI value manifested a very high to medium significant health effects regardless of age. Carcinogen Pb showed insignificant risk but Cr and Ni showed extremely high to medium-high risk for both the population group, and children were found more vulnerable receptors than adults. However, source of heavy metals in wastewater and fish samples stipulated anthropogenic sources.

7.
Microb Pathog ; 170: 105699, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35944840

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent behind the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. This virus is a cumulative outcome of mutations, leading to frequent emergence of new variants and their subvariants. Some of them are a matter of high concern, while others are variants of interest for studying the mutational effect. The major five variants of concern (VOCs) are Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.315), Gamma (P.1), Delta (B.1.617.2), and Omicron (B.1.1.529.*/BA.*). Omicron itself has >100 subvariants at present, among which BA.1 (21K), BA.2 (21L), BA.4 (22A), BA.5 (22B), and BA.2.12.1 (22C) are the dominant ones. Undoubtedly, these variants and sometimes their progeny subvariants have significant differences in their spike region that impart them the unique properties they harbor. But alongside, the mutations in their non-spike regions could also be responsible elements behind their characteristics, such as replication time, virulence, survival, host immune evasion, and such. There exists a probability that these mutations of non-spike proteins may also impart epistatic effects that are yet to be brought to light. The focus of this review encompasses the non-spike mutations of Omicron, especially in its widely circulating subvariants (BA.1, BA.2, BA.4, BA.5, and BA.2.12.1). The mutations such as in NSP3, NSP6, NSP13, M protein, ORF7b, and ORF9b are mentioned few of all, which might have led to the varying properties, including growth advantages, higher transmission rate, lower infectivity, and most importantly better host immune evasion through natural killer cell inactivation, autophagosome-lysosome fusion prevention, host protein synthesis disruption, and so on. This aspect of Omicron subvariants has not yet been explored. Further study of alteration of expression or interaction profile of these non-spike mutations bearing proteins, if present, can add a great deal of knowledge to the current understanding of the viral properties and thus effective prevention strategies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Humanos , Mutação , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/genética
8.
Food Sci Nutr ; 10(6): 1789-1819, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35702283

RESUMO

The genus Syzygium comprises 1200-1800 species that belong to the family of Myrtaceae. Moreover, plants that are belonged to this genus are being used in the traditional system of medicine in Asian countries, especially in China, India, and Bangladesh. The aim of this review is to describe the scientific works and to provide organized information on the available traditional uses, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological activities of mostly available species of the genus Syzygium in Bangladesh. The information related to genus Syzygium was analytically composed from the scientific databases, including PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Web of Science, Wiley Online Library, Springer, Research Gate link, published books, and conference proceedings. Bioactive compounds such as flavanone derivatives, ellagic acid derivatives and other polyphenolics, and terpenoids are reported from several species of the genus Syzygium. However, many members of the species of the genus Syzygium need further comprehensive studies regarding phytochemical constituents and mechanism-based pharmacological activities.

10.
FASEB Bioadv ; 4(6): 379-390, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35601057

RESUMO

Increased COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy presents a major hurdle in global efforts to contain the COVID-19 pandemic. This study was designed to estimate the prevalence of adverse events after the first dose of the Covishield (AstraZeneca) vaccine among physicians in Bangladesh. A cross-sectional study was conducted using an online questionnaire for physicians (n = 916) in Bangladesh. Physicians who received at least one dose of the COVID-19 vaccine were included. The study was carried out from April 12 to May 31, 2021. More than 58% of respondents (n = 533) reported one or more adverse events. Soreness of the injected arm (71.9%), tiredness (56.1%), fever (54.4%), soreness of muscles (48.4%), headache (41.5%) and sleeping more than usual (26.8%) were the most commonly reported adverse events. Most vaccine-related reactogenicities were reported by the younger cohorts (<45 years). The majority of respondents reported severity of reactogenicity as "mild," experienced on the day of vaccination, and lasting for 1-3 days. The most common reactogenicity was pain at the injection site; the second most common was tiredness. Almost half (49.2%) of the physicians took acetaminophen (paracetamol) to minimize the effects of vaccine reactogenicity. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that physicians with diabetes and hypertension (OR = 2.729 95% CI: 1.282-5.089) and asthma with other comorbidities (OR = 1.885 95% CI: 1.001-3.551) had a significantly higher risk of vaccine-related reactogenicities than physicians without comorbidities. Further safety studies with larger cohorts are required to monitor vaccine safety and provide assurance to potential vaccine recipients.

11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6501, 2022 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35444203

RESUMO

TaqMan probe-based commercial real-time (RT) PCR kits are expensive but most frequently used in COVID-19 diagnosis. The unprecedented scale of SARS-CoV-2 infections needs to meet the challenge of testing more persons at a reasonable cost. This study developed a simple and cost-effective alternative diagnostic method based on melting curve analysis of SYBR green multiplex assay targeting two virus-specific genes along with a host-specific internal control. A total of 180 randomly selected samples portioning into two subsets based on crude and high-quality RNA extraction were used to compare this assay with a nationwide available commercial kit (Sansure Biotech Inc., (Hunan, China)), so that we could analyze the variation and validity of this in-house developed method. Our customized-designed primers can specifically detect the viral RNA likewise Sansure. We separately optimized SYBR Green RT-PCR reaction of N, E, S, and RdRp genes based on singleplex melting curve analysis at the initial stage. After several rounds of optimization on multiplex assays of different primer combinations, the optimized method finally targeted N and E genes of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, together with the ß-actin gene of the host as an internal control. Comparing with the Sansure commercial kit, our proposed assay provided up to 97% specificity and 93% sensitivity. The cost of each sample processing ranged between ~2 and ~6 USD depending on the purification level of extracted RNA template. Overall, this one-step and one-tube method can revolutionize the COVID-19 diagnosis in low-income countries.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Benzotiazóis , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Teste para COVID-19 , Análise Custo-Benefício , Diaminas , Humanos , Quinolinas , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
12.
Mymensingh Med J ; 31(2): 372-378, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35383753

RESUMO

Thyroid swellings are common clinical problem throughout the world and also in Bangladesh. Most of thyroid swellings are multinodular, but a good percentage is solitary thyroid nodule. There is no robust, feasible method for malignancy differentiation has not been well established. The study evaluated thyroid nodules for risk of malignancy and compared history, clinical, sonographic features and FNAC findings with histopathology. This was a cross sectional study on 160 consecutive subjects of thyroid nodules done in the department of ENT and Head Neck Surgery of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital (MMCH), Mymensingh, Bangladesh during from July 2018 to December 2019. All patients were admitted and diagnosed by detail history, clinical examination, investigations and underwent thyroidectomy. Detailed history, clinical examination, ultrasonographic finding and FNAC variables were documented retrospectively and a mathematical model was established for malignancy prediction. In this study mean age of the patients of thyroid nodules was 37.54±11.49 years and majority of the patients were within 21-40 years of age. Frequency of thyroid nodules is more in female with male female ratio 1:7. Most of the thyroid nodules appeared in this study within 0-2 years (61.9%). In this series of thyroid nodules constituted 88.1% firm, 8.8% hard, 3.1% cystic. Among the patients 89(55.6%) cases have solitary thyroid nodule and 71(44.4%) cases have multinodular goitre Majority of the nodules were warm 57.5% followed by cold 42.5%. FNAC showed nodular goitre 72.5%, Follicular neoplasm 1.3%, Papillary carcinoma of thyroid 7.5%, colloid goitre 9.4%, suspicious papillary carcinoma 3.8% and lymphocytic thyroiditis 1.3%. In this study out of 85 solid nodule, 69(81.18%) were benign and 16(18.82%) was malignant and out of 3 cystic nodule 3(100%) were benign. In this study most of the benign and malignant nodules were predominantly solid. Study showed the malignancy is significantly (p=0.001) more in solid than cystic nodules. Final diagnosis in this study was done on the basis of histopathological reports. Out of 160 patients, histopathologically benign lesion was 120(75%) and malignant was 40(25%). Among malignant cases 36(22.5%) cases were papillary carcinoma, 1 case was medullary carcinoma and 3 cases were follicular carcinoma.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Papilar , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/patologia
13.
Int J Surg Case Rep ; 93: 106946, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35318186

RESUMO

Synthetic sub-urethral sling has become the most widely used technique for the surgical management of stress urinary incontinence. Despite a higher success rate, complications like migration, encrustation, and stone formation have been reported by a mid-urethral sling (MUS). Among mid-urethral sling procedures, mini vaginal tape (MVT) is very popular. As periurethral stone formation and urethrovaginal fistula are very uncommon after MVT, case report on this issue is sparse. The current case report features a 55-year female presented with lower abdominal pain and continuous urinary incontinence, 10 years after the MVT. She was diagnosed as a case of periurethral stone with urinary incontinence due to urethro-vaginal fistula. Our surgical team successfully removed the stone formed by the encrustation of the displaced tape and repaired the fistula. Following the MVT, a high degree of suspicion and long-term follow-up is mandatory for the diagnosis and management of these rare complications.

14.
J Med Virol ; 94(3): 1035-1049, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34676891

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has evolved into eight fundamental clades with four of these clades (G, GH, GR, and GV) globally prevalent in 2020. To explain plausible epistatic effects of the signature co-occurring mutations of these circulating clades on viral replication and transmission fitness, we proposed a hypothetical model using in silico approach. Molecular docking and dynamics analyses showed the higher infectiousness of a spike mutant through more favorable binding of G614 with the elastase-2. RdRp mutation p.P323L significantly increased genome-wide mutations (p < 0.0001), allowing for more flexible RdRp (mutated)-NSP8 interaction that may accelerate replication. Superior RNA stability and structural variation at NSP3:C241T might impact protein, RNA interactions, or both. Another silent 5'-UTR:C241T mutation might affect translational efficiency and viral packaging. These four G-clade-featured co-occurring mutations might increase viral replication. Sentinel GH-clade ORF3a:p.Q57H variants constricted the ion-channel through intertransmembrane-domain interaction of cysteine(C81)-histidine(H57). The GR-clade N:p.RG203-204KR would stabilize RNA interaction by a more flexible and hypo-phosphorylated SR-rich region. GV-clade viruses seemingly gained the evolutionary advantage of the confounding factors; nevertheless, N:p.A220V might modulate RNA binding with no phenotypic effect. Our hypothetical model needs further retrospective and prospective studies to understand detailed molecular events and their relationship to the fitness of SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Epistasia Genética , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Mutação , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética
15.
Tech Coloproctol ; 26(2): 143-146, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34855026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to assess the efficacy of sinus laser therapy (SiLaT) for the treatment of pilonidal disease. METHODS: All adult patients treated with SiLaT in our department between June 1, 2018, and August 23, 2019, were included in the study. Success was defined as the closure of cutaneous orifices and the absence of discharge or abscesses. RESULTS: We included 29 consecutive patients (22 males) with a median age of 32.5 ± 10.5 years. Eight patients had already undergone prior surgery for pilonidal disease. The procedure was performed under spinal (55%) or general (45%) anesthesia. The mean follow-up was 370.3 days (± 165.8 days). We observed 2 primary failures (6.9%) and 7 recurrences (24.1%). Ultimately, 20 patients were considered to have been cured (69%). The mean time to healing was 25 days (± 8.1 days). No serious complications were reported. Usual activities were resumed within a mean of 4.9 days (± 7.2), and 86% of patients reported being "very satisfied" with the treatment. The body mass index was lower for patients who were cured (24.0 ± 3.6) than for those who experienced treatment failure (27.6 ± 3.4; p = 0.018). The cured patients were less likely to have one or more secondary openings (35.0 versus 88.9%, p = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: Almost 70% of our patients were cured by SiLaT. Complications were rare and mild. The technique appeared to be less effective for overweight patients and those with one or more secondary openings associated with pilonidal pits.


Assuntos
Sobrepeso , Seio Pilonidal , Adulto , Humanos , Lasers , Masculino , Seio Pilonidal/cirurgia , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Supuração , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e225092, 2022. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249256

RESUMO

Abstract A new species of the genus Lutziella (Rohde, 1966) Yamaguti, 1971 is described here and named Lutziella swatensis sp.nov. from the liver of rat (Rattus rattus L.). The new species is characterized by having body flat, smooth, longer than broad with maximum width at the level of the ovary, oral sucker with weak musculature, pharynx small; eosophagus long; caeca of irregular shape which bifurcate on the anterior border of the ovary in to unequal portions, acetabulum weakly muscular, post-testicular, testes lobed, cirrus pouch somewhat median, small in size containing winding seminal vesicle, prostatic complex and short ejaculatory duct. Genital pore median. Ovary post testicular, submedian; seminal receptacle overlapping ovary, laurer's canal present. Vitellaria follicular extending on each side from almost the level of testes to anterior portion of posterior half of the body. Uterus filled with eggs occupying most of the body, eggs oval rather small, numerous, brownish in colour, excretory vesicle tubular with terminal pore. Lutziella swatensis n. sp. is the second species of the genus known from Pakistan as well as the second species described from murid rodents in the world.


Resumo Uma nova espécie do gênero Lutziella (Rohde, 1966) Yamaguti, 1971 é descrita aqui e denominada Lutziella swatensis sp.nov. do fígado do rato (Rattus rattus L.). A nova espécie é caracterizada por ter corpo liso, liso, mais longo que largo com largura máxima ao nível do ovário, otário oral com musculatura débil, faringe pequena; eosôfago longo; ceco de forma irregular que se bifurca na borda anterior do ovário em porções desiguais, acetábulo fracamente muscular, pós-testicular, testículos lobados, bolsa cirrus um pouco mediana, pequeno em tamanho contendo vesícula seminal sinuosa, complexo prostático e ducto ejaculatório curto. Mediana dos poros genitais. Ovário pós testicular, submediano; ovário sobreposto do receptáculo seminal, canal de laurer presente. Vitellaria folicular que se estende de cada lado de quase o nível dos testículos para a porção anterior da metade posterior do corpo. Útero cheio de ovos que ocupam a maior parte do corpo, oval ovos bastante pequenos, numerosos, de cor acastanhada, vesícula excretor tubular com poro terminal. Lutziella swatensis n. sp. é a segunda espécie do gênero conhecida do Paquistão, bem como a segunda espécie descrita de roedores do mundo.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Ratos , Trematódeos , Infecções por Trematódeos , Gastrópodes , Paquistão , Meio Ambiente
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238337, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249249

RESUMO

Abstract Extensive field surveys were carried out to explore the distribution of Leisler's Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) in selected area of FATA regions, Pakistan. Specimens of Leisler's Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) (n5) were collected from Kurram Agency (Shublan) (N33.8229788 E70.1634414) at elevation 1427m and Khyber Agency (Landi Kotel) (N34.0909899 E71.1457517) at elevation 1091m for two years survey extending from May 2013 through August 2015. The mean head and body length, hind foot length, ear length and tail length the Nyctalus leisleri specimens captured from the study area was 65.08 ± 1.58 mm, 44.06 ± 0.52 mm, 8.38 ± 0.60 mm, 13.20 ± 0.99 mm and 39.46 ± 1.46 mm, respectively. For molecular analysis the sequences of COI gene were obtained and analyzed. The mean intraspecific divergences of Nyctalus leisleri was 0.04%. The mean interspecific divergences of Nyctalus noctula and Nyctalus leisleri was 0.2%. The mean concentration of each nucleotides was A = (26.3%), T = (32.8%), G = (15.9%) and C = (25.0%). The mean A+T contents were 59.2%and C+G were 40.9%. In the phylogenetic tree Nyctalus leisleri and Nyctalus noctula clustered with significant bootstrap support value.


Resumo Extensas pesquisas de campo foram realizadas para explorar a distribuição do morcego de Leisler Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819), em uma área selecionada das regiões das FATA, Paquistão. Espécimes do morcego de Leisler Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) (n = 5) foram coletados na Agência Kurram (Shublan) (N33.8229788 E70.1634414), na elevação 1.427 m, e na Agência Khyber (Landi Kotel) (N34.0909899 E71.1457517), na elevação 1.091 m, por dois anos de pesquisa, estendendo-se de maio de 2013 a agosto de 2015. Os comprimentos médios da cabeça, do corpo, do pé traseiro, da orelha e da cauda dos espécimes de Nyctalus leisleri capturados na área de estudo foram de 65,08 ± 1,58 mm, 44,06 ± 0,52 mm, 8,38 ± 0,60 mm, 13,20 ± 0,99 mm e 39,46 ± 1,46 mm, respectivamente. Para análise molecular, foram obtidas e analisadas as sequências do gene COI. A média das divergências intraespecíficas de Nyctalus leisleri foi de 0,04%. As divergências interespecíficas médias de Nyctalus noctula e Nyctalus leisleri foram de 0,2%. A concentração média de cada nucleotídeos foi A = 26,3%, T = 32,8%, G = 15,9% e C = 25%. Os conteúdos médios de A + T foram de 59,2% e de C + G foram de 40,9%. Na árvore filogenética, Nyctalus leisleri e Nyctalus noctula agruparam-se com um valor significativo de suporte de bootstrap.


Assuntos
Animais , Quirópteros , Paquistão , Filogenia
18.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e236496, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249245

RESUMO

Abstract Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (the skittering frog) is one of the most widespread species in Pakistan. Present study was aimed to know the presence of Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis in urban and rural areas of Lower Dir, the North-western Pakistan. A total of 33 frogs were collected, including 15 from rural and 18 from urban areas. The frogs were caught by hands covered with gloves instead of using nets. The collection was managed from August to October 2016 and from April to May 2018. Morphometric analysis, coloration as well as photographs of the frogs have been provided in detail. Skittering frogs were seen frequent in swampy areas near the water bodies. These frogs were mostly seen after sunset.


Resumo Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (a rã que desliza) é uma das espécies mais comuns no Paquistão. O presente estudo teve como objetivo conhecer a presença de Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis em áreas urbanas e rurais de Lower Dir, noroeste do Paquistão. Um total de 33 sapos foram coletados, incluindo 15 de áreas rurais e 18 de áreas urbanas. As rãs foram apanhadas com as mãos cobertas com luvas em vez de redes. A coleta foi gerenciada de agosto a outubro de 2016 e de abril a maio de 2018. Análises morfométricas, coloração e também fotografias das rãs foram fornecidas em detalhes. Rãs saltitantes foram vistas freqüentemente em áreas pantanosas próximas aos corpos d'água. Essas rãs eram vistas principalmente após o pôr do sol.


Assuntos
Animais , Anuros , Paquistão
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e236499, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153462

RESUMO

Abstract Distribution pattern and relative abundance of the agricultural rodent pests of rain-fed and irrigated areas of district Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan were recorded from April 2011 to November 2013 using wire mesh live traps. A total of 350 rodents (269 Rattus rattus and 81 Mus musculus) were captured under 2268 trap nights (trap success: 0.15). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 350 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 21.8 rodents per crop field. House rats (R. rattus; 76.8% of captures) were numerically dominant in almost all types of agricultural fields, and were significantly different from the mice (Mus musculus; 23.1% of captures). Both species were found together in some fields. The sex ratio revealed that males outnumbered the females in both of the reported species.


Resumo O padrão de distribuição e a abundância relativa de pragas de roedores agrícolas nas áreas irrigadas e irrigadas do distrito Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão foram registrados de abril de 2011 a novembro de 2013 usando armadilhas vivas de malha de arame. Um total de 350 roedores (269 Rattus rattus e 81 Mus musculus) foram capturados em 2268 noites de armadilha (sucesso da armadilha: 0,15). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 350 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 21,8 roedores por campo agrícola. Os ratos domésticos (R. rattus; 76,8% das capturas) foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de campos agrícolas e foram significativamente diferentes dos camundongos (Mus musculus; 23,1% das capturas). Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em alguns campos. A proporção de sexo revelou que os machos superaram as fêmeas em ambas as espécies relatadas.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Coelhos , Ratos , Chuva , Roedores , Paquistão , Simbiose , Agricultura
20.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238339, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278513

RESUMO

Abstract The present research was carried out to explore the spider fauna of Buner valley with taxonomic study from February 2018 to January 2019. For this purpose samples were collected, four times at each month from 4 tehsils: Daggar, Gagra, Mandan and Totalai. Two methods were used, hand picking and sweep net for collection of samples. During day and night, three habitats, arid area, agriculture land and building area were search for collection. A total of 534 samples of spider were collected from four sampling sites, in which 379 were belonging to family Araniedae. After confirmation, the identified species were belonging to 8 genera (Neoscona, Argiope, Cyclosa, Araneus, Cyrtophora, Larinia, Erivoxia and Poltys) and 19 species. 18 of them were identified to specie level while a single specie to its generic level. The genus Neoscona was the dominant genus 26.31% having 5 species while the genus Argiope 21.05% is the second dominant having 4 species followed by Cyclosa 15.78% having 3 species followed by Cyrtophora and Araneus 10.52% having two species both. The Poltys and Larinia 5.26% are the rarest genera represent single-single specie both. Statistical analysis show that specie richness (D) = 5.77, Simpson index (1-D) = 0.87, Shannon index (H) = 2.33. Diversity of spiders was evenly distributed and calculated Evenness value was H/InS = 0.5408. There is also few atypical species and Fisher alpha estimate high value (Fisher α) = 4.42. Chao-1 estimated we have reported 22 species.


Resumo A presente pesquisa foi realizada para explorar a fauna de aranhas do vale Buner, em um estudo taxonômico realizado de fevereiro de 2018 a janeiro de 2019. Para esse fim, foram coletadas amostras, quatro vezes por mês, a partir de 4 subdistritos: Daggar, Gagra, Mandan e Totalai. Foram utilizados dois métodos, coleta manual e rede de varredura, para a obtenção das amostras. Durante o dia e a noite, foram pesquisados ​​três habitats: área árida, área agrícola e área de construção. Foram coletadas 534 amostras de aranha em quatro locais de amostragem, sendo que 379 pertenciam à família Araneidae. Após a confirmação, as espécies identificadas pertenciam a 8 gêneros (Neoscona, Argiope, Cyclosa, Araneus, Cyrtophora, Larinia, Erivoxia e Poltys) e a 19 espécies (18 delas foram identificados em seu nível de espécie, enquanto uma única foi identificada em seu nível genérico). O gênero Neoscona foi dominante (26,31%), com 5 espécies, seguido pelos gêneros Argiope (21,05%), com 4 espécies, Cyclosa (15,78%), com 3 espécies, e Cyrtophora e Araneus (10,52%), com 2 espécies. Poltys e Larinia (5,26%) são os gêneros mais raros, representando a mesma espécie. A análise estatística mostrou que a riqueza de espécies (D) foi de 5,77, o índice de Simpson (1-D) foi de 0,87 e o índice de Shannon (H) foi de 2,33. A diversidade de aranhas foi distribuída uniformemente, e o valor calculado da uniformidade foi H / InS = 0,5408. Também existem poucas espécies atípicas, e o alfa de Fisher (Fisher α) estimou o valor de 4,42. Já Chao-1 estimou 22 espécies.


Assuntos
Animais , Aranhas , Paquistão , Ecossistema , Biodiversidade
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