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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246002, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285612

RESUMO

Abstract Economic valuation of ecosystem services is a new concept in forest management. Economic valuation provides basis for payment for ecosystem services (PES). Therefore, objective of this study was to evaluate eco-tourism and carbon stock services of the Maindam valley, District Swat, Pakistan. For the carbon stock calculation, a sample size of 155 plots of 0.1 hectare (Ha) was taken using preliminary survey at 95% confidence interval and 10% allowable error. The data for tourism services was collected from owners of all the hotels, 100 tourists and key informants of the area at 10% sampling intensity on pretested questionnaire for twenty years period (1997-2017). Results showed that Miandam valley has carbon stock worth US$ 16,306,000 while the value of eco-tourism was US$ 1,578,458 on annual basis. The results also showed that trend of tourism has drastically declined after the 9/11 incident for foreigners and locals and the situation was further deteriorated during the era of Talibanization or militancy from 2008-2011. This study recommends implementation of PES strategy at the rate of 5%, thus a total of US$ 78,922 can be earned from eco-tourism and carbon crediting in the study area annually, which could play important role in sustainable forest management.


Resumo A valoração econômica dos serviços ecossistêmicos é um novo conceito no manejo florestal. A avaliação econômica fornece base para o pagamento por serviços ecossistêmicos (PES). Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o ecoturismo e os serviços de estoque de carbono do vale de Miandam, distrito Swat, Paquistão. Para o cálculo do estoque de carbono, um tamanho de amostra de 155 parcelas de 0,1 hectare (ha) foi tirado, usando pesquisa preliminar com intervalo de confiança de 95% e erro admissível de 10%. Os dados para serviços de turismo foram coletados de proprietários de todos os hotéis, 100 turistas e informantes-chave da área em 10% de intensidade de amostragem em questionário pré-testado para um período de 20 anos (1997-2017). Os resultados mostraram que o vale de Miandam tem estoque de carbono no valor de US$ 16.306.000, enquanto o valor do ecoturismo foi de US$ 1.578.458 anualmente. Os resultados também mostraram que a tendência do turismo diminuiu drasticamente para estrangeiros e locais após o incidente de 11 de Setembro, e a situação se agravou ainda mais durante a era da talibanização ou militância de 2008-2011. Este estudo recomenda a implementação da estratégia de PES na taxa de 5%, portanto um total de US$ 78.922 pode ser ganho com ecoturismo e crédito de carbono na área de estudo anualmente, o que pode desempenhar um papel importante no manejo florestal sustentável.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e242636, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285595

RESUMO

Abstract Cranes are the large and attractive Creatures of nature with long necks, legs, and life-span. Adults of both sexes are the same with similar color patterns. Demoiselle cranes spend most of their lifespan on dry grasses. They are also found around the stream, rivers, shallow lakes, natural wetlands, and depressions. To evaluate the current status of habitat use and major threats a study was conducted in tehsil Domel district Bannu. Line transect method and water quality tests (temperature, PH, contamination of E-coli bacteria) were used. To determine the major threats questionnaire method was used. The whole data was analyzed by using SPSS 21 version. Based on the distribution four study sites were selected and four water samples from each study site were taken. Most sites were moderate to highly degraded except Kashoo and kurram river mixing point which was low degraded with livestock grazing and human activities. Water quality tests showed PH ranges from 7-9, temperature 6.5-8.5, and contamination of E-coli in all samples. The social survey revealed that hunting, habitat degradation, and pollution as major threats. Effective long-term conservation and management in the study area are needed to focus on the protection of disturbance-free habitat.


Resumo Guindastes são a grande e atraente criatura da natureza com um pescoço longo, pernas e vida útil. Adultos de ambos os sexos são os mesmos com padrões de cores semelhantes. Guindastes Demoiselle passam a maior parte da vida em gramíneas secas. Também se encontram ao redor do córrego, rios, lagos rasos, pântanos naturais e depressões. Para avaliar o estado atual do uso do hábitat e as principais ameaças, um estudo foi realizado no distrito de Tehsil Domel, em Bannu. Foram utilizados o método transect e testes de qualidade da água (temperatura, pH, contaminação da bactéria E. coli). Para determinar as principais ameaçasfoi utilizado o método de questionário. Todos os dados foram analisados por meio da versão SPSS 21. Com base na distribuição, foram selecionados quatro locais de estudo e quatro amostras de água de cada local de estudo. A maioria dos locais estava moderada a altamente degradada, exceto no ponto de encontro dos rios Kashoo e Kurram, que teve baixa degradação com pastagem de gado e atividades humanas. Os testes de qualidade da água mostraram variação de pH de 7-9, temperatura 6,5-8,5 e contaminação de E. coli em todas as amostras. A pesquisa do questionário revelou que a caça, a degradação do hábitat e a poluição são as principais ameaças. Efetiva conservação e gestão a longo prazo na área de estudo são necessárias para se concentrar na proteção de um hábitat livre de distúrbios.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243811, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249262

RESUMO

Abstract An ethnobotanical study was conducted to document indigenous medicinal plants and their usage from knowledgeable and elderly persons in Razzar and Gadoon valley of Swabi and Allai and Tanawal valley of Hazara region of Pakistan during 2016-2019. Several systematic field visits and questionnaire surveys were carried out in selected sites of the study area to gather relevant information from the local community. Rapid assessment method was adopted for data collection by interviewing the local people having enough knowledge of medicinal plants use for treatment of different ailments. UV (UV) formula was applied to calculate the relative importance of medicinal plant species in each site of the study area. In the present study, 221 medicinal plants belonging to 105 families have been reported through 580 respondents (385 males, 138 females and 57 local health healer) from the Swabi and Hazara region. The main sources of herbal medicines were leaves (21%) followed by fruits (21%), seeds (17%), whole plants (14%), roots (9%), bark (9%), flowers (7%) and gum (2%). Mentha spicata L. and Berberis lycium Royle were reported with highest UV (UV) i.e. 0.92 and 0.68 in Razzar tehsil and Gadoon valley of Swabi, whereas Mentha longifolia L and Geranium wallichianum D were reported with highest UV i.e. (0.65) and (0.88) in Allai and Tanawal valley of Hazara region, respectively. It was concluded that Swabi and Hazara region is rich in medicinal plants species and associated traditional knowledge. Moreover, ethno-medicines have played significant role in the indigenous healthcare system of the study area. However, uprooting the entire plant for ethno-medicine is a big threat to conservation of medicinal plants diversity in the study area.


Resumo Um estudo etnobotânico foi realizado para documentar as plantas medicinais indígenas e seu uso por pessoas experientes e idosas em Razzar e Gadoon, no vale de Swabi e no vale Allai e Tanawal da região de Hazara, no Paquistão, durante 2016 a 2019. Várias visitas sistemáticas de campo e pesquisas por questionário foram realizadas em locais selecionados da área de estudo para coletar informações relevantes da comunidade local. O método de avaliação rápida foi adotado para a coleta de dados por meio de entrevistas com a população local, com conhecimento suficiente do uso de plantas medicinais para o tratamento de diferentes enfermidades. A fórmula UV (UV) foi aplicada para calcular a importância relativa das espécies de plantas medicinais em cada local da área de estudo. No presente estudo, 221 plantas medicinais pertencentes a 105 famílias foram relatadas por 580 entrevistados (385 homens, 138 mulheres e 57 curandeiros locais) da região de Swabi e Hazara. As principais fontes de medicamentos fitoterápicos foram folhas (21%), seguidas de frutas (21%), sementes (17%), plantas inteiras (14%), raízes (9%), cascas (9%), flores (7%) e goma (2%). Mentha spicata L. e Berberis lycium Royle foram relatados com maior UV (UV), ou seja, 0,92 e 0,68 em Razzar tehsil e vale Gadoon de Swabi, enquanto Mentha longifolia L. e Geranium wallichianum D. foram relatados com maior UV, isto é, 0,65 e 0,88 no vale Allai e Tanawal da região de Hazara, respectivamente. Concluiu-se que a região de Swabi e Hazara é rica em espécies de plantas medicinais e conhecimentos tradicionais associados. Além disso, etnomedicamentos têm desempenhado um papel significativo no sistema de saúde indígena da área de estudo. No entanto, arrancar a planta inteira para etnomedicina é uma grande ameaça à conservação da diversidade de plantas medicinais na área de estudo.

4.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247219, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468526

RESUMO

Military conflicts have been significant obstacles in detecting and treating infectious disease diseases due to the diminished public health infrastructure, resulting in malaria endemicity. A variety of violent and destructive incidents were experienced by FATA (Federally Administered Tribal Areas). It was a struggle to pursue an epidemiological analysis due to continuing conflict and Talibanization. Clinical isolates were collected from Bajaur, Mohmand, Khyber, Orakzai agencies from May 2017 to May 2018. For Giemsa staining, full blood EDTA blood samples have been collected from symptomatic participants. Malaria-positive microscopy isolates were spotted on filter papers for future Plasmodial molecular detection by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) of small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (ssrRNA) genes specific primers. Since reconfirming the nPCR, a malariometric study of 762 patients found 679 positive malaria cases. Plasmodium vivax was 523 (77%), Plasmodium falciparum 121 (18%), 35 (5%) were with mixed-species infection (P. vivax plus P. falciparum), and 83 were declared negative by PCR. Among the five agencies of FATA, Khyber agency has the highest malaria incidence (19%) with followed by P. vivax (19%) and P. falciparum (4.1%). In contrast, Kurram has about (14%), including (10.8%) P. vivax and (2.7%) P. falciparum cases, the lowest malaria epidemiology. Surprisingly, no significant differences in the distribution of mixed-species infection among all five agencies. P. falciparum and P. vivax were two prevalent FATA malaria species in Pakistan's war-torn area. To overcome this rising incidence of malaria, this study recommends that initiating malaria awareness campaigns in school should be supported by public health agencies and malaria-related education locally, targeting children and parents alike.


Assuntos
Plasmodium , Criança , Humanos , Epidemiologia Molecular , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Plasmodium/genética , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Plasmodium vivax/genética
5.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(4): 042302, 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34355943

RESUMO

A measurement of dielectron production in proton-proton (pp) collisions at sqrt[s]=13 TeV, recorded with the ALICE detector at the CERN LHC, is presented in this Letter. The data set was recorded with a reduced magnetic solenoid field. This enables the investigation of a kinematic domain at low dielectron (ee) invariant mass m_{ee} and pair transverse momentum p_{T,ee} that was previously inaccessible at the LHC. The cross section for dielectron production is studied as a function of m_{ee}, p_{T,ee}, and event multiplicity dN_{ch}/dη. The expected dielectron rate from hadron decays, called hadronic cocktail, utilizes a parametrization of the measured η/π^{0} ratio in pp and proton-nucleus collisions, assuming that this ratio shows no strong dependence on collision energy at low transverse momentum. Comparison of the measured dielectron yield to the hadronic cocktail at 0.15

6.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246002, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378665

RESUMO

Economic valuation of ecosystem services is a new concept in forest management. Economic valuation provides basis for payment for ecosystem services (PES). Therefore, objective of this study was to evaluate eco-tourism and carbon stock services of the Maindam valley, District Swat, Pakistan. For the carbon stock calculation, a sample size of 155 plots of 0.1 hectare (Ha) was taken using preliminary survey at 95% confidence interval and 10% allowable error. The data for tourism services was collected from owners of all the hotels, 100 tourists and key informants of the area at 10% sampling intensity on pretested questionnaire for twenty years period (1997-2017). Results showed that Miandam valley has carbon stock worth US$ 16,306,000 while the value of eco-tourism was US$ 1,578,458 on annual basis. The results also showed that trend of tourism has drastically declined after the 9/11 incident for foreigners and locals and the situation was further deteriorated during the era of Talibanization or militancy from 2008-2011. This study recommends implementation of PES strategy at the rate of 5%, thus a total of US$ 78,922 can be earned from eco-tourism and carbon crediting in the study area annually, which could play important role in sustainable forest management.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Carbono/análise , Florestas , Paquistão
7.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e242636, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346960

RESUMO

Cranes are the large and attractive Creatures of nature with long necks, legs, and life-span. Adults of both sexes are the same with similar color patterns. Demoiselle cranes spend most of their lifespan on dry grasses. They are also found around the stream, rivers, shallow lakes, natural wetlands, and depressions. To evaluate the current status of habitat use and major threats a study was conducted in tehsil Domel district Bannu. Line transect method and water quality tests (temperature, PH, contamination of E-coli bacteria) were used. To determine the major threats questionnaire method was used. The whole data was analyzed by using SPSS 21 version. Based on the distribution four study sites were selected and four water samples from each study site were taken. Most sites were moderate to highly degraded except Kashoo and kurram river mixing point which was low degraded with livestock grazing and human activities. Water quality tests showed PH ranges from 7-9, temperature 6.5-8.5, and contamination of E-coli in all samples. The social survey revealed that hunting, habitat degradation, and pollution as major threats. Effective long-term conservation and management in the study area are needed to focus on the protection of disturbance-free habitat.


Assuntos
Aves , Ecossistema , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão , Rios , Áreas Alagadas
8.
Cell ; 184(16): 4203-4219.e32, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242577

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) protect against COVID-19. A concern regarding SARS-CoV-2 antibodies is whether they mediate disease enhancement. Here, we isolated NAbs against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) or the N-terminal domain (NTD) of SARS-CoV-2 spike from individuals with acute or convalescent SARS-CoV-2 or a history of SARS-CoV infection. Cryo-electron microscopy of RBD and NTD antibodies demonstrated function-specific modes of binding. Select RBD NAbs also demonstrated Fc receptor-γ (FcγR)-mediated enhancement of virus infection in vitro, while five non-neutralizing NTD antibodies mediated FcγR-independent in vitro infection enhancement. However, both types of infection-enhancing antibodies protected from SARS-CoV-2 replication in monkeys and mice. Three of 46 monkeys infused with enhancing antibodies had higher lung inflammation scores compared to controls. One monkey had alveolar edema and elevated bronchoalveolar lavage inflammatory cytokines. Thus, while in vitro antibody-enhanced infection does not necessarily herald enhanced infection in vivo, increased lung inflammation can rarely occur in SARS-CoV-2 antibody-infused macaques.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Haplorrinos , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Domínios Proteicos , RNA Guia/metabolismo , Receptores de IgG/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Carga Viral , Replicação Viral
9.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e243811, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076167

RESUMO

An ethnobotanical study was conducted to document indigenous medicinal plants and their usage from knowledgeable and elderly persons in Razzar and Gadoon valley of Swabi and Allai and Tanawal valley of Hazara region of Pakistan during 2016-2019. Several systematic field visits and questionnaire surveys were carried out in selected sites of the study area to gather relevant information from the local community. Rapid assessment method was adopted for data collection by interviewing the local people having enough knowledge of medicinal plants use for treatment of different ailments. UV (UV) formula was applied to calculate the relative importance of medicinal plant species in each site of the study area. In the present study, 221 medicinal plants belonging to 105 families have been reported through 580 respondents (385 males, 138 females and 57 local health healer) from the Swabi and Hazara region. The main sources of herbal medicines were leaves (21%) followed by fruits (21%), seeds (17%), whole plants (14%), roots (9%), bark (9%), flowers (7%) and gum (2%). Mentha spicata L. and Berberis lycium Royle were reported with highest UV (UV) i.e. 0.92 and 0.68 in Razzar tehsil and Gadoon valley of Swabi, whereas Mentha longifolia L and Geranium wallichianum D were reported with highest UV i.e. (0.65) and (0.88) in Allai and Tanawal valley of Hazara region, respectively. It was concluded that Swabi and Hazara region is rich in medicinal plants species and associated traditional knowledge. Moreover, ethno-medicines have played significant role in the indigenous healthcare system of the study area. However, uprooting the entire plant for ethno-medicine is a big threat to conservation of medicinal plants diversity in the study area.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Idoso , Etnobotânica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional , Paquistão , Fitoterapia
10.
Nature ; 594(7864): 553-559, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33971664

RESUMO

Betacoronaviruses caused the outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome, as well as the current pandemic of SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)1-4. Vaccines that elicit protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and betacoronaviruses that circulate in animals have the potential to prevent future pandemics. Here we show that the immunization of macaques with nanoparticles conjugated with the receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2, and adjuvanted with 3M-052 and alum, elicits cross-neutralizing antibody responses against bat coronaviruses, SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 (including the B.1.1.7, P.1 and B.1.351 variants). Vaccination of macaques with these nanoparticles resulted in a 50% inhibitory reciprocal serum dilution (ID50) neutralization titre of 47,216 (geometric mean) for SARS-CoV-2, as well as in protection against SARS-CoV-2 in the upper and lower respiratory tracts. Nucleoside-modified mRNAs that encode a stabilized transmembrane spike or monomeric receptor-binding domain also induced cross-neutralizing antibody responses against SARS-CoV and bat coronaviruses, albeit at lower titres than achieved with the nanoparticles. These results demonstrate that current mRNA-based vaccines may provide some protection from future outbreaks of zoonotic betacoronaviruses, and provide a multimeric protein platform for the further development of vaccines against multiple (or all) betacoronaviruses.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Resfriado Comum/prevenção & controle , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Pandemias , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Administração Intranasal , Animais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Resfriado Comum/imunologia , Resfriado Comum/virologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Macaca/imunologia , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Nanopartículas/química , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Traqueia , Vacinação
11.
Phys Rev Lett ; 126(16): 162001, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961482

RESUMO

The elliptic flow of electrons from beauty hadron decays at midrapidity (|y|<0.8) is measured in Pb-Pb collisions at sqrt[s_{NN}]=5.02 TeV with the ALICE detector at the LHC. The azimuthal distribution of the particles produced in the collisions can be parametrized with a Fourier expansion, in which the second harmonic coefficient represents the elliptic flow, v_{2}. The v_{2} coefficient of electrons from beauty hadron decays is measured for the first time in the transverse momentum (p_{T}) range 1.3-6 GeV/c in the centrality class 30%-50%. The measurement of electrons from beauty-hadron decays exploits their larger mean proper decay length cτ≈500 µm compared to that of charm hadrons and most of the other background sources. The v_{2} of electrons from beauty hadron decays at midrapidity is found to be positive with a significance of 3.75 σ. The results provide insights into the degree of thermalization of beauty quarks in the medium. A model assuming full thermalization of beauty quarks is strongly disfavored by the measurement at high p_{T}, but is in agreement with the results at low p_{T}. Transport models including substantial interactions of beauty quarks with an expanding strongly interacting medium describe the measurement within uncertainties.

12.
Cell ; 184(11): 2955-2972.e25, 2021 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34019795

RESUMO

Natural antibodies (Abs) can target host glycans on the surface of pathogens. We studied the evolution of glycan-reactive B cells of rhesus macaques and humans using glycosylated HIV-1 envelope (Env) as a model antigen. 2G12 is a broadly neutralizing Ab (bnAb) that targets a conserved glycan patch on Env of geographically diverse HIV-1 strains using a unique heavy-chain (VH) domain-swapped architecture that results in fragment antigen-binding (Fab) dimerization. Here, we describe HIV-1 Env Fab-dimerized glycan (FDG)-reactive bnAbs without VH-swapped domains from simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-infected macaques. FDG Abs also recognized cell-surface glycans on diverse pathogens, including yeast and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike. FDG precursors were expanded by glycan-bearing immunogens in macaques and were abundant in HIV-1-naive humans. Moreover, FDG precursors were predominately mutated IgM+IgD+CD27+, thus suggesting that they originated from a pool of antigen-experienced IgM+ or marginal zone B cells.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Polissacarídeos/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Dimerização , Epitopos/imunologia , Glicosilação , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Humanos , Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas/química , Macaca mulatta , Polissacarídeos/química , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/química , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/genética , Vacinas/imunologia , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/química , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/genética
13.
J Vis Exp ; (168)2021 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645566

RESUMO

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are well-established signaling molecules, which are important in normal development, homeostasis, and physiology. Among the different ROS, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is best characterized with respect to roles in cellular signaling. H2O2 has been implicated during the development in several species. For example, a transient increase in H2O2 has been detected in zebrafish embryos during the first days following fertilization. Furthermore, depleting an important cellular H2O2 source, NADPH oxidase (NOX), impairs nervous system development such as the differentiation, axonal growth, and guidance of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) both in vivo and in vitro. Here, we describe a method for imaging intracellular H2O2 levels in cultured zebrafish neurons and whole larvae during development using the genetically encoded H2O2-specific biosensor, roGFP2-Orp1. This probe can be transiently or stably expressed in zebrafish larvae. Furthermore, the ratiometric readout diminishes the probability of detecting artifacts due to differential gene expression or volume effects. First, we demonstrate how to isolate and culture RGCs derived from zebrafish embryos that transiently express roGFP2-Orp1. Then, we use whole larvae to monitor H2O2 levels at the tissue level. The sensor has been validated by the addition of H2O2. Additionally, this methodology could be used to measure H2O2 levels in specific cell types and tissues by generating transgenic animals with tissue-specific biosensor expression. As zebrafish facilitate genetic and developmental manipulations, the approach demonstrated here could serve as a pipeline to test the role of H2O2 during neuronal and general embryonic development in vertebrates.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Neurogênese , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Células Ganglionares da Retina/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/análise , Oxirredução , Células Ganglionares da Retina/citologia , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento
14.
Biotechnol Lett ; 43(5): 1019-1036, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33629143

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify immunogenic proteins of C. botulinum type B secretome by immunoproteomic analysis. RESULTS: In the present study, an attempt was made to elucidate the vaccine candidates/diagnostic molecules against botulism using immuno proteomic approach. C. botulinum type B secretome was elucidated when it was grown in TPGY as well as CMM media. Predominant 51 proteins were identified in both the media using 2-DE and mass spectrometry analysis. 2D gels (CMM & TPGY) were probed with respected proteins mice antiserum and obtained 17 and 10 immunogenic proteins in TPGY as well as CMM media respectively. Hypothetical protein CLOSPO_00563, ornithine carbamoyl transferase, FlaA, molecular chaperone GroEL and secreted protease proteins were found as the common immuno dominant proteins in both media. Polyclonal Antibodies raised against C. botulinum types A and E showed cross-reactivity with secretome C. botulinum type B at the lowest dilution (1:1000) but did not show cross reactivity with highest dilution (1:30,000) with C. botulinum type B secretome. Polyclonal antibodies against C. botulinum type F secretome did not show cross reactivity with C. botulinum type B secretome. CONCLUSIONS: Identified immunogenic proteins can be used as vaccine candidates and diagnostic markers for the infant and wound botulism but common immunogenic proteins may be the best vaccine candidate molecule for development of vaccine as well as diagnostic system against the infant and wound botulism.

15.
bioRxiv ; 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33442694

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) protect against COVID-19. A concern regarding SARS-CoV-2 antibodies is whether they mediate disease enhancement. Here, we isolated NAbs against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and the N-terminal domain (NTD) of SARS-CoV-2 spike from individuals with acute or convalescent SARS-CoV-2 or a history of SARS-CoV-1 infection. Cryo-electron microscopy of RBD and NTD antibodies demonstrated function-specific modes of binding. Select RBD NAbs also demonstrated Fc receptor-γ (FcγR)-mediated enhancement of virus infection in vitro , while five non-neutralizing NTD antibodies mediated FcγR-independent in vitro infection enhancement. However, both types of infection-enhancing antibodies protected from SARS-CoV-2 replication in monkeys and mice. Nonetheless, three of 31 monkeys infused with enhancing antibodies had higher lung inflammation scores compared to controls. One monkey had alveolar edema and elevated bronchoalveolar lavage inflammatory cytokines. Thus, while in vitro antibody-enhanced infection does not necessarily herald enhanced infection in vivo , increased lung inflammation can occur in SARS-CoV-2 antibody-infused macaques.

16.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 28(2): 128-131, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402708

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein, a primary target for COVID-19 vaccine development, presents its receptor binding domain in two conformations, the receptor-accessible 'up' or receptor-inaccessible 'down' states. Here we report that the commonly used stabilized S ectodomain construct '2P' is sensitive to cold temperatures, and this cold sensitivity is abrogated in a 'down' state-stabilized ectodomain. Our findings will impact structural, functional and vaccine studies that use the SARS-CoV-2 S ectodomain.


Assuntos
Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Vacinas contra COVID-19/química , Temperatura Baixa , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Desnaturação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Estabilidade Proteica , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/ultraestrutura , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície
17.
J Hosp Infect ; 107: 45-49, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has greatly increased the frequency of disinfecting surfaces in public places, causing a strain on the ability to obtain disinfectant solutions. An alternative is to use plain alcohols (EtOH and IPA) or sodium hypochlorite (SH). AIM: To determine the efficacy of various concentrations of EtOH, IPA and SH on a human coronavirus (HCoV) dried on to surfaces using short contact times. METHODS: High concentrations of infectious HCoV were dried on to porcelain and ceramic tiles, then treated with various concentrations of the alcohols for contact times of 15 s, 30 s and 1 min. Three concentrations of SH were also tested. Reductions in titres were measured using the tissue culture infectious dose 50 assay. FINDINGS: Concentrations of EtOH and IPA from 62% to 80% were very efficient at inactivating high concentrations of HCoV dried on to tile surfaces, even with a 15-s contact time. Concentrations of 95% dehydrated the virus, allowing infectious virus to survive. The dilutions of SH recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1/10 and 1/50) were efficient at inactivating high concentrations of HCoV dried on to tile surfaces, whereas a 1/100 dilution had substantially lower activity. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple concentrations of EtOH, IPA and SH efficiently inactivated infectious HCoV on hard surfaces, typical of those found in public places. Often no remaining infectious HCoV could be detected.


Assuntos
2-Propanol/farmacologia , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Etanol/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Inativação de Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Cerâmica , Porcelana Dentária , Desinfetantes/química , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Propriedades de Superfície
18.
J Appl Microbiol ; 131(1): 93-104, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211361

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to assess antibacterial activity of a novel Bacillus velezensis strain NST6, and further identify its active compound against pathogenic Staphylococcus strains for clinical therapeutic applications. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, a novel B. velezensis strain NST6 harbouring strong antimicrobial activity against human pathogenic bacteria was isolated from a soil sample. The solvent extract of the strain exhibited strong antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in disc diffusion assay and measurement of minimal inhibitory concentration and bactericidal concentration, of which it showed notable efficacy to Staphylococcus species including Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Strong antibacterial effect against pathogenic S. aureus and low toxicity of the bacterial extract were further validated in Caenorhabditis elegans model. Moreover, by antibacterial activity-guided fractionation using RP-HPLC and LC-MS, we defined C15 -bacillomycin D as the anti-staphylococcal compound produced by the strain. CONCLUSION: The primary anti-staphylococcal compound from B. velezensis NST6 was identified as a cyclic lipopeptide, C15 -bacillomycin D, which proved its potential to treat Staphylococcus strains in vitro and in vivo experiments with insignificant level of toxicity. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: We provide an alternative treatment option to Staphylococcus infections by investigating the specific anti-staphylococcal activity of C15 -bacillomycin D produced by a B. velezensis strain.

19.
J Exp Med ; 218(2)2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180929

RESUMO

Typhoid Vi vaccines have been shown to be efficacious in children living in endemic regions; however, a widely accepted correlate of protection remains to be established. We applied a systems serology approach to identify Vi-specific serological correlates of protection using samples obtained from participants enrolled in an experimental controlled human infection study. Participants were vaccinated with Vi-tetanus toxoid conjugate (Vi-TT) or unconjugated Vi-polysaccharide (Vi-PS) vaccines and were subsequently challenged with Salmonella Typhi bacteria. Multivariate analyses identified distinct protective signatures for Vi-TT and Vi-PS vaccines in addition to shared features that predicted protection across both groups. Vi IgA quantity and avidity correlated with protection from S. Typhi infection, whereas higher fold increases in Vi IgG responses were associated with reduced disease severity. Targeted antibody-mediated functional responses, particularly neutrophil phagocytosis, were also identified as important components of the protective signature. These humoral markers could be used to evaluate and develop efficacious Vi-conjugate vaccines and assist with accelerating vaccine availability to typhoid-endemic regions.


Assuntos
Febre Tifoide/imunologia , Vacinas Tíficas-Paratíficas/imunologia , Vacinas Conjugadas/imunologia , Adulto , Carga Bacteriana , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Fatores de Tempo , Febre Tifoide/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Tíficas-Paratíficas/farmacologia , Vacinas Conjugadas/farmacologia
20.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(16): 162001, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124836

RESUMO

In this Letter, we report the first measurement of the inelastic cross section for antideuteron-nucleus interactions at low particle momenta, covering a range of 0.3≤p<4 GeV/c. The measurement is carried out using p-Pb collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon-nucleon pair of sqrt[s_{NN}]=5.02 TeV, recorded with the ALICE detector at the CERN LHC and utilizing the detector material as an absorber for antideuterons and antiprotons. The extracted raw primary antiparticle-to-particle ratios are compared to the results from detailed ALICE simulations based on the geant4 toolkit for the propagation of (anti)particles through the detector material. The analysis of the raw primary (anti)proton spectra serves as a benchmark for this study, since their hadronic interaction cross sections are well constrained experimentally. The first measurement of the inelastic cross section for antideuteron-nucleus interactions averaged over the ALICE detector material with atomic mass numbers ⟨A⟩=17.4 and 31.8 is obtained. The measured inelastic cross section points to a possible excess with respect to the Glauber model parametrization used in geant4 in the lowest momentum interval of 0.3≤p<0.47 GeV/c up to a factor 2.1. This result is relevant for the understanding of antimatter propagation and the contributions to antinuclei production from cosmic ray interactions within the interstellar medium. In addition, the momentum range covered by this measurement is of particular importance to evaluate signal predictions for indirect dark-matter searches.

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