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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e242897, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350299

RESUMO

Abstract Cyprinus carpio is the member of family cyprinidae commonly called common carp. This study was aimed to find out the comparison of brain of wild (river system) and captive (hatchery reared) population of common carp. A total of thirty samples (15 from hatchery and 15 from river Swat) were collected. All the specimens were examined in Laboratory of Parasitoloy, Zoology Department, University of Malakand. Findings indicated that wild population were greater in brain size and weight as compared to hatchery reared population. The fish samples collected from captive environment (hatchery) were showing more weight and length as compared to wild population of common carps. The mean value of total weight of hatchery fishes 345±48.68 and the mean value of brain weight of hatchery reared fishes 0.28±0.047. The mean value of wild fish's total body weight 195.16±52.58 and the mean value of brain weight of wild fishes are 0.45±0.14. Present research calls for the fact that fish in dependent environmental conditions possess brain larger in size as compared to its captive population, it is due to use and disuse of brain in their environmental requirements.


Resumo Cyprinus carpio é o membro da família cyprinidae comumente chamada de carpa comum. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a população de cérebros de carpa comum selvagem (sistema fluvial) e em cativeiro (criação em incubatório). Um total de trinta amostras (15 do incubatório e 15 do rio Swat) foram coletadas. Todos os espécimes foram examinados no Laboratório de Parasitoloy, Departamento de Zoologia da Universidade de Malakand. Os resultados indicaram que a população selvagem era maior em tamanho e peso do cérebro em comparação com a população criada em incubatório. As amostras de peixes coletadas em ambiente de cativeiro (incubatório) estavam apresentando mais peso e comprimento em comparação com a população selvagem de carpas comuns. O valor médio do peso total dos peixes de incubação 345 ± 48,68 e o valor médio do peso do cérebro de peixes criados em incubadoras 0,28 ± 0,047. O valor médio do peso corporal total dos peixes selvagens 195,16 ± 52,58 e o valor médio do peso do cérebro dos peixes selvagens são 0,45 ± 0,14. A presente pesquisa apela para o fato de que peixes em condições ambientais dependentes possuem cérebros maiores em tamanho em comparação com sua população em cativeiro, isso se deve ao uso e desuso do cérebro em suas necessidades ambientais.


Assuntos
Animais , Carpas , Cyprinidae , Encéfalo , Rios
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e242614, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350297

RESUMO

Abstract Vegetables eating raw are a leading source of transmission of infective forms of pathogenic internal parasites among human beings. This research was conducted from April to October, 2017 to assess the parasitic contamination of vegetables sold at main vegetable markets in districts Lower Dir and Peshawar, Pakistan. Eight hundred specimens of different vegetables were purchased and soaked in physiological saline solution, shaken with a mechanical shaker for 20 minutes and processed by sedimentation concentration method. Results revealed that only 19.7% (n=158/800) of the vegetables were found to be contaminated with single or multiple parasite species. Ascaris lumbricoides (the large round worm) 12.3% (n=99/800) was the most commonly detected pathogen and Taenia saginata (the beef tapeworm) 1.62% (n=13/800) was the least frequently detected one. Interestingly, significant p value (p>0.05 at 95%CI) between the number of examined and contaminated for all the variables studied including education status of the vendors, markets location, type of vegetables, means of display, washed before display, washing source of water and market type. The findings of this study evidenced that consumption of raw vegetables possesses great risk of getting parasitic infections in Lower Dir and Peshawar districts, Pakistan. Instructing the sellers and the public about parasitic disease transfer and their hygiene can reduce the infection rate of parasites of human origin.


Resumo Os vegetais crus são a principal fonte de transmissão de formas infecciosas de parasitas internos patogênicos entre os seres humanos. Esta pesquisa foi realizada de abril a outubro de 2017 para avaliar a contaminação parasitária de vegetais vendidos nos principais mercados de vegetais nos distritos de Lower Dir e Peshawar, Paquistão. Oitocentos exemplares de diferentes vegetais foram adquiridos e embebidos em solução salina fisiológica, agitados em agitador mecânico por 20 minutos e processados ​​pelo método de concentração por sedimentação. Os resultados revelaram que apenas 19,7% (n = 158/800) das hortaliças estavam contaminadas com uma ou várias espécies de parasitas. Ascaris lumbricoides (o verme redondo grande) 12,3% (n = 99/800) foi o patógeno mais comumente detectado e Taenia saginata (a tênia da carne) 1,62% (n = 13/800) foi o menos freqüentemente detectado. Curiosamente, valor de p significativo (p> 0,05 em IC de 95%) entre o número de examinados e contaminados para todas as variáveis ​​estudadas incluindo escolaridade dos vendedores, localização dos mercados, tipo de vegetais, meios de exposição, lavado antes da exposição, fonte de lavagem de água e tipo de mercado. Os resultados deste estudo evidenciaram que o consumo de vegetais crus possui grande risco de contrair infecções parasitárias nos distritos de Lower Dir e Peshawar, no Paquistão. Instruir os vendedores e o público sobre a transferência de doenças parasitárias e sua higiene pode reduzir a taxa de infecção de parasitas de origem humana.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Parasitos , Verduras/parasitologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Nematoides , Paquistão , Saúde Pública , Parasitologia de Alimentos
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e242089, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285597

RESUMO

Abstract The study reveals the prevalence of a potential rodent-borne zoonotic helminth species, Hymenolepis diminuta in commensal rodents caught from irrigated and rain-fed areas of Swat, Pakistan. Three hundred and fifty rodents (269 rats and 81 mice) trapped during vegetative, flowering/fruiting and mature/harvesting stages of crops were studied from 2011-2013. Hymenolepisdiminuta eggs were identified on the basis of their shape, size, colour and markings on the surface of the egg shell and three pairs of embryonic hook-lets. Overall prevalence of H. diminuta was 3.14% (n=11/350). The highest prevalence 3.49% (n=5/143) of H. diminuta was noted at harvesting stages of the crops whereas the lowest 2.59% (n=2/77) during vegetative stage. Infection was higher in males 3.25% (n=7/215) than females 2.96% (n=4/135). Adult rodents were highly infected while no sub-adult was found infected. Infection was higher in mice 3.70% (3/81) than rats 2.69% (8/269) while no significance (p=1.0000:0.1250 to 32.00 CI). Rats and mice appears to show the most suitable reservoirs by hosting H. diminuta a zoonotic helminth. The presence of these rodents in all possible habitats can act as a main channel of transferring parasites through various habitats and can pose a hazard to humans in the area.


Resumo O estudo revela a prevalência de uma espécie potencial de helmintos zoonóticos transmitidos por roedores, Hymenolepis diminuta, em roedores comensais capturados em áreas irrigadas e alimentadas pela chuva de Swat, Paquistão. Trezentos e cinquenta roedores (269 ratos e 81 camundongos) presos durante os estágios vegetativo, floração/frutificação e maturidade/colheita das safras foram estudados de 2011-2013. Ovos de Hymenolepisdiminuta foram identificados com base em sua forma, tamanho, cor e marcações na superfície da casca do ovo e três pares de anzóis embrionários. A prevalência geral de H. diminuta foi de 3,14% (n = 11/350). A maior prevalência 3,49% (n = 5/143) de H. diminuta foi observada na fase de colheita das lavouras, enquanto a menor 2,59% (n = 2/77) durante a fase vegetativa. A infecção foi maior nos homens 3,25% (n = 7/215) do que nas mulheres 2,96% (n = 4/135). Roedores adultos foram altamente infectados, enquanto nenhum subadulto foi encontrado infectado. A infecção foi maior em camundongos 3,70% (3/81) do que em ratos 2,69% (8/269), embora sem significância (p = 1,0000: 0,1250 a 32,00 CI). Ratos e camundongos parecem mostrar os reservatórios mais adequados hospedando H. diminuta um helmintos zoonótico. A presença desses roedores em todos os habitats possíveis pode atuar como um canal principal de transferência de parasitas através de vários habitats e pode representar um perigo para os humanos na área.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Coelhos , Ratos , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Hymenolepis diminuta , Helmintíase Animal , Helmintos , Muridae
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 2): 150563, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601178

RESUMO

In their natural environment, date palms are exposed to chronic atmospheric ozone (O3) concentrations from local and remote sources. In order to elucidate the consequences of this exposure, date palm saplings were treated with ambient, 1.5 and 2.0 times ambient O3 for three months in a free-air controlled exposure facility. Chronic O3 exposure reduced carbohydrate contents in leaves and roots, but this effect was much stronger in roots. Still, sucrose contents of both organs were maintained at elevated O3, though at different steady states. Reduced availability of carbohydrate for the Tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) may be responsible for the observed reduced foliar contents of several amino acids, whereas malic acid accumulation in the roots indicates a reduced use of TCA cycle intermediates. Carbohydrate deficiency in roots, but not in leaves caused oxidative stress upon chronic O3 exposure, as indicated by enhanced malonedialdehyde, H2O2 and oxidized glutathione contents despite elevated glutathione reductase activity. Reduced levels of phenolics and flavonoids in the roots resulted from decreased production and, therefore, do not indicate oxidative stress compensation by secondary compounds. These results show that roots of date palms are highly susceptible to chronic O3 exposure as a consequence of carbohydrate deficiency.


Assuntos
Ozônio , Phoeniceae , Antioxidantes , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Ozônio/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta
5.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e242614, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816974

RESUMO

Vegetables eating raw are a leading source of transmission of infective forms of pathogenic internal parasites among human beings. This research was conducted from April to October, 2017 to assess the parasitic contamination of vegetables sold at main vegetable markets in districts Lower Dir and Peshawar, Pakistan. Eight hundred specimens of different vegetables were purchased and soaked in physiological saline solution, shaken with a mechanical shaker for 20 minutes and processed by sedimentation concentration method. Results revealed that only 19.7% (n=158/800) of the vegetables were found to be contaminated with single or multiple parasite species. Ascaris lumbricoides (the large round worm) 12.3% (n=99/800) was the most commonly detected pathogen and Taenia saginata (the beef tapeworm) 1.62% (n=13/800) was the least frequently detected one. Interestingly, significant p value (p>0.05 at 95%CI) between the number of examined and contaminated for all the variables studied including education status of the vendors, markets location, type of vegetables, means of display, washed before display, washing source of water and market type. The findings of this study evidenced that consumption of raw vegetables possesses great risk of getting parasitic infections in Lower Dir and Peshawar districts, Pakistan. Instructing the sellers and the public about parasitic disease transfer and their hygiene can reduce the infection rate of parasites of human origin.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos , Nematoides , Parasitos , Verduras/parasitologia , Animais , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Paquistão , Saúde Pública
6.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e242897, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816975

RESUMO

Cyprinus carpio is the member of family cyprinidae commonly called common carp. This study was aimed to find out the comparison of brain of wild (river system) and captive (hatchery reared) population of common carp. A total of thirty samples (15 from hatchery and 15 from river Swat) were collected. All the specimens were examined in Laboratory of Parasitoloy, Zoology Department, University of Malakand. Findings indicated that wild population were greater in brain size and weight as compared to hatchery reared population. The fish samples collected from captive environment (hatchery) were showing more weight and length as compared to wild population of common carps. The mean value of total weight of hatchery fishes 345±48.68 and the mean value of brain weight of hatchery reared fishes 0.28±0.047. The mean value of wild fish's total body weight 195.16±52.58 and the mean value of brain weight of wild fishes are 0.45±0.14. Present research calls for the fact that fish in dependent environmental conditions possess brain larger in size as compared to its captive population, it is due to use and disuse of brain in their environmental requirements.


Assuntos
Carpas , Cyprinidae , Animais , Encéfalo , Rios
7.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e242089, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378679

RESUMO

The study reveals the prevalence of a potential rodent-borne zoonotic helminth species, Hymenolepis diminuta in commensal rodents caught from irrigated and rain-fed areas of Swat, Pakistan. Three hundred and fifty rodents (269 rats and 81 mice) trapped during vegetative, flowering/fruiting and mature/harvesting stages of crops were studied from 2011-2013. Hymenolepisdiminuta eggs were identified on the basis of their shape, size, colour and markings on the surface of the egg shell and three pairs of embryonic hook-lets. Overall prevalence of H. diminuta was 3.14% (n=11/350). The highest prevalence 3.49% (n=5/143) of H. diminuta was noted at harvesting stages of the crops whereas the lowest 2.59% (n=2/77) during vegetative stage. Infection was higher in males 3.25% (n=7/215) than females 2.96% (n=4/135). Adult rodents were highly infected while no sub-adult was found infected. Infection was higher in mice 3.70% (3/81) than rats 2.69% (8/269) while no significance (p=1.0000:0.1250 to 32.00 CI). Rats and mice appears to show the most suitable reservoirs by hosting H. diminuta a zoonotic helminth. The presence of these rodents in all possible habitats can act as a main channel of transferring parasites through various habitats and can pose a hazard to humans in the area.


Assuntos
Helmintíase Animal , Helmintos , Hymenolepis diminuta , Doenças dos Roedores , Animais , Feminino , Camundongos , Muridae , Ratos , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia
8.
Hum Exp Toxicol ; 40(7): 1194-1207, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530773

RESUMO

Methotrexate (MTX) is frequently used drug in treatment of cancer and autoimmune diseases. Unfortunately, MTX has many side effects including the hepato-renal toxicity. In this study, we hypothesized that Luteolin (Lut) exhibits protective effect against the MTX-induced hepato-renal toxicity. In order to investigate our hypothesis, the experiment was designed to examine the effect of exposure of male rats to MTX (20 mg/kg, i.p., at day 9) alone or together with Lut (50 mg/kg, oral for 14 days) compared to the control rats (received saline). The findings demonstrated that MTX treatment induced significant increases in the liver and kidney functions markers in serum samples including Aspartate transaminase (AST), Alanine transaminase (ALT), creatinine, urea and uric acid. MTX also mediated an oxidative stress expressed by elevated malondialdehyde (MDA) level and decreased level of reduced glutathione (GSH), antioxidant enzyme activities, and downregulation of the Nrf2 gene expression as an antioxidant trigger. Moreover, the inflammatory markers (NF-κB, TNF-α, and IL-1ß) were significantly elevated upon MTX treatment. In addition, MTX showed an apoptotic response mediated by elevating the pro-apoptotic (Bax) and lowering the anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2) proteins. All of these changes were confirmed by the observed alterations in the histopathological examination of the hepatic and renal tissues. Lut exposure significantly reversed all the MTX-induced changes in the measured parameters suggesting its potential protective role against the MTX-induced toxicity. Finally, our findings concluded the antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects of Lut as a mechanism of its protective role against the MTX-induced hepato-renal toxicity in rats.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias/induzido quimicamente , Nefropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Luteolina/farmacologia , Luteolina/uso terapêutico , Metotrexato/toxicidade , Animais , Elementos de Resposta Antioxidante/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/fisiopatologia , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Ratos
9.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 19(6): 886-895, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28727249

RESUMO

Amino acids represent an important component in the diet of the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula), and supply plants with much needed nitrogen resources upon capture of insect prey. Little is known about the significance of prey-derived carbon backbones of amino acids for the success of Dionaea's carnivorous life-style. The present study aimed at characterizing the metabolic fate of 15 N and 13 C in amino acids acquired from double-labeled insect powder. We tracked changes in plant amino acid pools and their δ13 C- and δ15 N-signatures over a period of five weeks after feeding, as affected by contrasting feeding intensity and tissue type (i.e., fed and non-fed traps and attached petioles of Dionaea). Isotope signatures (i.e., δ13 C and δ15 N) of plant amino acid pools were strongly correlated, explaining 60% of observed variation. Residual variation was related to contrasting effects of tissue type, feeding intensity and elapsed time since feeding. Synthesis of nitrogen-rich transport compounds (i.e., amides) during peak time of prey digestion increased 15 N- relative to 13 C- abundances in amino acid pools. After completion of prey digestion, 13 C in amino acid pools was progressively exchanged for newly fixed 12 C. The latter process was most evident for non-fed traps and attached petioles of plants that had received ample insect powder. We argue that prey-derived amino acids contribute to respiratory energy gain and loss of 13 CO2 during conversion into transport compounds (i.e., 2 days after feeding), and that amino-nitrogen helps boost photosynthetic carbon gain later on (i.e., 5 weeks after feeding).


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Droseraceae/metabolismo , Radioisótopos de Carbono/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Radioisótopos de Nitrogênio/metabolismo
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