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1.
J Therm Biol ; 121: 103838, 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38554568

RESUMO

The present study focused on Sahiwal cows, a prominent milch breed in tropical India, to correlate udder temperature with physiological markers of stress and inflammation during subclinical mastitis (SCM). The primary goal was to assess the potential of udder infrared thermography for the early detection of SCM under the semi-intensive production. Cows were categorized based on milk somatic cell counts (SCC), with healthy (H) cows having SCC <2 × 105 cells/mL and no history of mastitis, and cows with subclinical mastitis (SCM) and initial stages of clinical mastitis (CM) having quarter milk SCC of 2-5 × 105 and >5 × 105 cells/mL, respectively. Firstly, udder thermograms were analysed for udder skin surface temperature (USST), teat skin surface temperature (TSST), and teat apex temperature (TAT) using Fluke software to determine the optimal site for temperature measurement during intramammary infection. Secondly, milk samples were collected for automatic estimation of compositional changes, electrical conductivity, and pH. Thirdly, milk whey was separated for quantifying stress and inflammatory indicators, including cortisol, prolactin, and acute-phase proteins (APPs): milk amyloid A and milk haptoglobin using bovine-specific ELISA kits. Significant increases (p < 0.01) in USST, TSST, TAT, cortisol, and APPs were observed in SCM and CM compared to healthy cows, while prolactin levels decreased (p < 0.01). The correlation matrix revealed strong positive correlations of SCC with USST (r = 0.84, p < 0.01). In ROC analysis, USST demonstrated cut-off values of 37.74 and 39.58 °C, with accuracy (p < 0.05) of 98% for SCM and 95% for CM, surpassing both TAT and TSST. Therefore, the combination of these non-invasive methods increases the reliability and accuracy of infrared thermography for early detection of SCM, providing valuable insights for the development of a protocol for routine screening and udder health monitoring in indigenous dairy cows.

3.
Front Vet Sci ; 10: 1151241, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37771947

RESUMO

The need for food products of animal origin is increasing worldwide. Satisfying these needs in a way that has minimal impact on the environment requires cutting-edge technologies and techniques to enhance the genetic quality of cattle. Heat stress (HS), in particular, is affecting dairy cattle with increasing frequency and severity. As future climatic challenges become more evident, identifying dairy cows that are more tolerant to HS will be important for breeding dairy herds that are better adapted to future environmental conditions and for supporting the sustainability of dairy farming. While research into the genetics of HS in the context of the effect of global warming on dairy cattle is gaining momentum, the specific genomic regions involved in heat tolerance are still not well documented. Advances in omics information, QTL mapping, transcriptome profiling and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified genomic regions and variants associated with tolerance to HS. Such studies could provide deeper insights into the genetic basis for response to HS and make an important contribution to future breeding for heat tolerance, which will help to offset the adverse effects of HS in dairy cattle. Overall, there is a great interest in identifying candidate genes and the proportion of genetic variation associated with heat tolerance in dairy cattle, and this area of research is currently very active worldwide. This review provides comprehensive information pertaining to some of the notable recent studies on the genetic architecture of HS in dairy cattle, with particular emphasis on the identified candidate genes associated with heat tolerance in dairy cattle. Since effective breeding programs require optimal knowledge of the impaired immunity and associated health complications caused by HS, the underlying mechanisms by which HS modulates the immune response and renders animals susceptible to various health disorders are explained. In addition, future breeding strategies to relieve HS in dairy cattle and improve their welfare while maintaining milk production are discussed.

4.
J Reprod Immunol ; 158: 103979, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37348446

RESUMO

This study investigated if in vitro supplementation of vitexin could mitigate the adverse effects of hyperthermia on buffalo mammary epithelial cells (BuMECs). Immortalized BuMECs were divided into seven groups (n = 3): (1) a negative control group at 37 °C; (2) BuMECs exposed to heat stress as a positive control at 42 °C for 1 h; (3-7) heat stressed BuMECs pre-treated or co-treated with different concentrations of vitexin (5 µM, 10 µM, 20 µM, 50 µM, and 100 µM), respectively. Hyperthermia was induced by exposing the cells to 42 ºC for 1 h. For the pre-treatment experiment, BuMECs were treated with vitexin for 2 h before hyperthermia exposure. For co-treatment, vitexin was added simultaneously with hyperthermia for 1 h. Subsequently, the cells were allowed to recover for 12 h at 37 °C. Results showed that pre-treatment with vitexin was more effective than co-treatment in protecting BuMECs from hyperthermia in a dose-dependent manner, with higher concentrations (50 µM and 100 µM) being the most effective. Pre-treatment with vitexin maintained cellular viability and prevented inflammation by inducing the expression of the anti-apoptotic gene (BCL-2) and reducing the expression of the pro-apoptotic gene (Bax) and pro-inflammatory mediators (IL-1ß, IL-6) in heat-stressed BuMECs. Pre-treatment with vitexin reduced oxidative stress and induced thermotolerance by increasing the expression of antioxidants mediators such as SOD, GPx and CAT at mRNA and protein levels, and modulating the expression of heat shock proteins. The findings suggest that vitexin has the potential as a therapeutic agent to protect the mammary gland from the negative impact of hyperthermia in dairy cows.


Assuntos
Búfalos , Hipertermia Induzida , Feminino , Animais , Bovinos , Estresse Oxidativo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo
6.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1059956, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36845154

RESUMO

Periparturient dairy cows undergo major physiological and metabolic changes as well as immunosuppression, associated with decrease in plasma concentrations of various minerals and vitamins. The present study was conducted to investigate effects of repeated injections of vitamins and minerals on oxidative stress, innate and adaptive immune response in periparturient dairy cows and their offspring. Experiment was carried out on 24 peripartum Karan-Fries cows, randomly divided into four groups (n=6): control, Multi-mineral (MM), Multi-vitamin (MV) and Multi-minerals and Multi-vitamin (MMMV). Five ml of MM (Zinc 40 mg/ml, Manganese 10 mg/ml, Copper 15 mg/ml, Selenium 5 mg/ml) and five ml of MV (Vitamin E 5 mg/ml, Vitamin A 1000 IU/ml, B-Complex 5 mg/ml, and Vitamin D3 500 IU/ml) were injected intramuscularly (IM) to the MM and MV groups. MMMV group cows were injected with both. In all treatment groups, injections and blood sampling were carried out on 30th, 15th, 7th days before and after expected date of parturition and at calving. In calves, blood was collected at calving and on 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 15, 30 and 45 days post-calving. Colostrum/milk were collected at calving and at days 2, 4, and 8 post-calving. A lower percentage of total neutrophils and immature neutrophils, higher percentage of lymphocytes together with increased phagocytic activity of neutrophils and proliferative capacity of lymphocytes found in blood of MMMV cows/calves. Lower relative mRNA expression of TLRs and CXCRs and higher mRNA expression of GR-α, CD62L, CD11b, CD25 and CD44 found in blood neutrophils of MMMV groups. Total antioxidant capacity was higher, activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT), TBARS levels were lower in the blood plasma of treated cows/calves. In both cows/calves, plasma pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17A, IFN-γ and TNF-α) increased, whereas anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) decreased in MMMV groups. Total immunoglobulins increased in colostrum/milk of MMMV injected cows and plasma of their calves. Results indicate that repeated injections of multivitamins and multiminerals to peripartum dairy cows could be a major strategy to improve immune response and decrease in inflammation and oxidative stress in transition dairy cows and their calves.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Selênio , Gravidez , Feminino , Animais , Bovinos , Vitaminas , Citocinas , Vitamina A , Inflamação/veterinária , Selênio/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Imunidade , RNA Mensageiro
7.
Front Vet Sci ; 10: 1327148, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38322426

RESUMO

Heat stress negatively affects health, welfare, and livestock productivity by impairing immune function, increasing disease incidence. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in understanding the immune system of water buffalo due to the growing economic impact of this species for the high quality and nutritional value of buffalo milk. While there are common responses across bovine and buffalo species, there are also some species-specific variations in the physiological responses to heat stress, mainly attributed to differences in metabolism and heat dissipation efficiency. At cellular level, the exposure to thermal stress induces several anomalies in cell functions. However, there is limited knowledge about the differential response of bovine and buffalo leucocytes to early and late exposure to different degrees of thermal exposure. The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro effect of hyperthermia on apoptosis and phagocytosis in leukocytes from bovine and buffalo species. For this, whole blood samples of six bovines and nine buffaloes were incubated at 39°C (mimicking normothermia condition) or 41°C (mimicking heat stress condition) for 1, 2, and 4 h. Two flow cytometric assays were then performed to evaluate apoptosis and determine functional capacity of phagocytic cells (neutrophils and monocytes). The results showed that the viability of bovine and buffalo leukocytes was differently affected by temperature and time of in vitro exposure. A higher percentage of apoptotic leukocytes was observed in bovines than in buffaloes at 39°C (3.19 vs. 1.51, p < 0.05) and 41°C (4.01 vs. 1.69, p < 0.05) and for all incubation time points (p < 0.05). In contrast, no difference was observed in the fraction of necrotic leukocytes between the two species. In both species, lymphocytes showed the highest sensitivity to hyperthermia, showing an increased apoptosis rates along with increased incubation time. In bovine, apoptotic lymphocytes increased from 5.79 to 12.7% at 39°C (p < 0.05), in buffalo, this population increased from 1.50 to 3.57% at 39°C and from 2.90 to 4.99% at 41°C (p < 0.05). Although no significant differences were found between the two species regarding the percentage of phagocytic neutrophils, lower phagocytosis capacity values (MFI, mean fluorescence intensity) were found in bovines compared with buffaloes at 41°C (27960.72 vs. 53676.45, p > 0.05). However, for monocytes, the differences between species were significant for both phagocytosis activity and capacity with lower percentages of bovine phagocytic monocytes after 2 h at 39°C and after 1 h at 41°C. The bovine monocytes showed lower MFI values for all temperature and time variations than buffaloes (37538.91 vs. 90445.47 at 39°C and 33752.91 vs. 70278.79 at 41°C, p < 0.05). In conclusion, the current study represents the first report on the comparative analysis of the effect of in vitro heat stress on bovine and buffalo leukocyte populations, highlighting that the leukocytes of buffalo exhibit relatively higher thermal adaptation than bovine cells.

8.
Theriogenology ; 191: 200-206, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35998403

RESUMO

Pregnancy is a complicated physiological process that involves synchronized coordination between immune and endocrine systems. Neutrophils have been suggested as a critical immune cell for embryo implantation and pregnancy maintenance. The present study was conducted to evaluate the dynamic changes in the mRNA expressions of the cluster of designation (CD11b, CD31, CD44 and CD62L) molecules and interferon-stimulated genes (ISG15, MX1 and OAS1) in blood neutrophils throughout pregnancy in dairy cows and correlate them with the outcome of pregnancy. Blood samples were taken from negative control (NC) group, and non-pregnant (NP) group at the time of artificial insemination (AI, day zero) and on days 10, 14, 16, 18, and 21 post-AI. In pregnant (P) cows, samples were taken as described above and after every 30 days until the time of parturition. In aborted cows, samples were collected until the time of the abortion. Comparison between pregnant, non-pregnant and aborted cows revealed that the expression of CD molecules increased (p < 0.05) on days 14, 16, 18 and 21 post-AI only in NP cows as compared to other groups. Although the expression of CD molecules remained constant throughout the study period in pregnant and aborted cows, the expression of CD11b, CD31 and CD62L increased (p < 0.05) on the day of abortion and parturition. Unlike CD molecules, the expression of CD44 decreased significantly (p < 0.05) at the time of abortion. There was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the expression of interferon-stimulated genes including MX1, OAS1 and ISG15 during the peri-implantation period in pregnant cows, and at the time of abortion in aborted cows. However, the expression of ISGs was lower (p < 0.05) in non-pregnant cows as compared to the other groups. The results revealed the critical role played by neutrophils during pregnancy and form the basis to unravel the underlying mechanism for neutrophil associated immunological infertility in bovines.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Neutrófilos , Aborto Animal/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/metabolismo , Feminino , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Interferons/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/veterinária , Progesterona
9.
J Reprod Immunol ; 153: 103684, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35973294

RESUMO

The epithelial cell is the main basic unit of the udder in which milk synthesis takes place. Curcumin is well known for its antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, and anti- inflammatory properties. The present study was performed to test whether in vitro curcumin supplementation can alleviate the unfavorable impact of hyperthermia on buffalo mammary epithelial cells (BuMECs). The spontaneously immortalized BuMECs were divided into 7 groups (n = 9); 1) unstressed BuMECs (negative control, 37 °C); 2) BuMECs exposed to hyperthermia without curcumin treatment (positive control); 3-7) BuMECs cultured with different concentrations of curcumin (5, 10, 20, 40 and 60 µM), respectively, followed by hyperthermic exposure (42ºC) for 1 h and then returned to 37ºC. Changes in viability (MTT assay), proliferation (BrdU colorimetric immunoassay) and concentrations of antioxidant enzymes, CAT, and SOD (ELISA) of BuMECs were recorded. The gene expression study was performed using qRT-PCR. Lower concentrations of curcumin (5, 10 µM) maintained viability, enhanced proliferation, and content of antioxidant enzymes of heat stressed BuMECs. Curcumin induced thermotolerance and antioxidant status by upregulating the expression of antioxidants genes, anti-apoptotic genes and heat shock proteins in heat stressed BuMECs compared to the positive control group. Besides, curcumin reduced apoptosis and inflammation in BuMECs exposed to hyperthermia by downregulating the expression of genes and transcriptional factors associated with apoptosis and inflammatory immune response. The results reveal the potential roles of curcumin in eliminating the negative impact of hyperthermia on BuMECs by regulating the pathways of apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Curcumina , Termotolerância , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose , Bromodesoxiuridina/metabolismo , Búfalos/metabolismo , Curcumina/metabolismo , Curcumina/farmacologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
10.
J Reprod Immunol ; 153: 103660, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35843133

RESUMO

Periparturient dairy cows and their newborn calves are highly prone to health complications. Enhancing the innate immune system of these animals is essential to mitigate the transition period stress and promote their health. Macrophage activating factor (MAF) possess immunomodulatory properties and is believed to enhance immune response. In the present study, the impact of different concentrations (10, 50, 100 ng) of MAF on the phagocytic activity (PA) of murine and bovine phagocytoses was explored. MAF synthesized from IgA of cow colostrum was studied for its effect on the phagocytic index (PI) of cow colostrum macrophages (Mφ) and blood neutrophils (sick and healthy calves) under in vitro conditions. Besides, the impact of MAF on the PI of peritoneal Mφ of healthy and immunocompromised mice was studied. PI of healthy Mφ (mice peritoneal and cow colostrum) and healthy neutrophils (blood calf) increased significantly (P < 0.05) after MAF supplementation. MAF also significantly (P < 0.05) increased the PI of neutrophils and Mφ obtained from sick calf and immunocompromised mice, respectively. Results indicate that colostrum MAF can be used as a potential immune modulator to promote immunity and fight infections in dairy animals.


Assuntos
Colostro , Fagócitos , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Imunoglobulina A , Fatores Ativadores de Macrófagos , Macrófagos , Camundongos , Gravidez
11.
Front Vet Sci ; 8: 670811, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34235202

RESUMO

Milk somatic cell counts (SCCs) have been used as a gold standard to monitor mammary health as well as an indicator of raw milk quality. The present work was undertaken to compare the changes in the milk SCC, milk differential leukocyte counts (DLCs), phagocytic activity (PA) of milk neutrophils and macrophages (by nitroblue tetrazolium assay), extracellular trap formation (PicoGreen assay) and mRNA expression of various genes in milk neutrophils and macrophages (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction), and milk plasma cortisol concentration (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) in healthy, subclinical mastitis (SCM), and clinical mastitis (CM) cows. Milk was collected from healthy, SCM, and CM cows grouped based on their SCCs and California mastitis test with eight cows in each group. Milk SCC was estimated by SCC counter, and DLC was done after staining the milk slide under a microscope at 100×. Total SCCs in healthy, SCM, and CM cows were on an average of 128.30, 300.3, and 694.40 × 103 cells/mL, respectively. Milk DLCs indicated a lower percentage of macrophage and lymphocytes and a higher (p < 0.05) percentage of neutrophils in SCM and CM compared to healthy milk. The percentage of mature segmented neutrophils was lower, whereas immature band neutrophils were higher (p < 0.05) in the SCM and CM groups as compared to healthy cows. The viability, in vitro PA, and extracellular trap formation of neutrophils were lower (p < 0.05) in SCM and CM milk samples as compared to healthy samples. However, the PA of macrophage remained unchanged in all the studied groups. The relative mRNA expression of Toll-like receptors (TLR2, TLR4), myeloperoxidase, and interleukin 2α (IL-2α) receptor (CD25) were minimum in healthy samples and increased (p < 0.05) with the progress of mammary inflammation. However, CD44 decreased (p < 0.05), and CD62L remained unchanged in mastitis as compared to healthy cows. Plasma cortisol concentrations were higher (p < 0.05) in mastitis as compared to healthy cows and were negatively correlated with the number of milk macrophages and the functions of milk phagocytes. Estimation of total SCC, milk DLC, and activity of milk phagocytes is essential for effective control and prevention of incidence of mastitis in dairy cows.

12.
J Reprod Immunol ; 145: 103321, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33862433

RESUMO

Interferon tau (IFNτ) is the main maternal signal for pregnancy in ruminants and modulates the functions of various immune cells, including neutrophils. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are one of the main defence mechanisms of neutrophils. In this study, we observed higher (p < 0.01) ex-vivo NETs extrusion by blood neutrophils from day 16-18 post artificial insemination (AI) in non-inseminated and inseminated non-pregnant cows compared to pregnant cows. In vitro study also showed that IFNτ hampers NETs formation in dose and time dependent manner. The lowest (p < 0.01) NETs formation and the highest (p < 0.01) mRNA expression (RT-PCR) of IFNτ stimulated genes (ISG15, OAS1, MX1) were observed when neutrophil incubated with 9 ng/mL IFNτ for 3.5 h. Signalling cascades mediating IFNτ impairment of NETs formation were identified using inhibitors of JAK2, JAK3, p38, PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Erk. IFNτ reduced (p < 0.01) the mRNA expression (RT-PCR) and concentration (ELISA) of genes and proteins that mediate NETs formation in blood neutrophils including histones (H1, H2), neutrophil elastase (NE) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). However, the effects of IFNτ on these genes and proteins were eliminated in the presence of JAK3 or PI3K inhibitors. Immunocytochemistry study also showed strong MPO signal in the presence of JAK3 or PI3K inhibitors as compared to positive control (PC, IFNτ alone). The results indicate that IFNτ impairs NETs formation using JAK3 and PI3K and thus essential for successful implantation and establishment of pregnancy in cows.


Assuntos
Implantação do Embrião/imunologia , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Janus Quinase 3/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas da Gravidez/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Implantação do Embrião/efeitos dos fármacos , Armadilhas Extracelulares/imunologia , Armadilhas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Feminino , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Gravidez , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
13.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 65: 126718, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Periparturient period induces stress in cows which fluctuates hormonal and metabolic function and causes immune suppression. Apart from impairing the health, production, and reproduction of cows, it also influences the well-being of newborn calves by decreasing the colostrum quality. Micronutrients are known for optimal health and production and their effects on parturition stress, immune response in both cow and its calf need to be explored. AIM: The aim of this study was to see the effect of oral supplementation of micronutrients during the prepartum period on the health status of crossbred dairy cows and subsequently on their newborn calves. METHODS: A total of 42 healthy multiparous cows were selected and randomly divided into five groups with seven cows in each group, i.e. control (Basal Diet, BD), VA group (BD + vitamin A, 105 IU), Zn group (BD + zinc sulphate, 60 ppm), VE group (BD + vitamin E, 2500 IU), and combined supplementation (CS) group (BD + combination of VA, Zn, and VE). The supplements were offered in compounded concentrate DM (100 g) to individual cows once daily before the morning feeding and the remaining portion was incorporated in the TMR. Feeding was started one month before the expected days of calving till calving. Blood samples were collected from cows at days -15, -7, -3, 0, +3, +7, and +15 relative to the day of calving. Blood samples from newborn calves and milk samples of cows were collected at days 0, +3, +7, and +15. Milk somatic cell counts (SCC) were estimated using a cell counter. Cortisol was estimated by ELISA kit in blood and milk plasma of cows and in the blood plasma of their calves. Total immunoglobulins (Ig) were estimated in milk of cows and serum of calves using zinc sulphate turbidity method. Blood neutrophils from cows and calves were studied for phagocytic activity (PA) using nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) assay.Data were analysed by repeated-measures two-way ANOVA using the mixed procedure of SAS, and the pairwise comparison was performed using a multiple comparison test (Tukey). RESULTS: Combined supplementation of micronutrients decreased (P < 0.05) maternal blood plasma (control vs. CS group, 5.98 ±â€¯0.20 vs. 3.86 ±â€¯0.23 ng/mL) and milk plasma (3.96 ±â€¯0.13 vs. 2.71 ±â€¯0.10 ng/mL) cortisol, milk SCC (3.05 ±â€¯0.11 vs. 2.12 ±â€¯0.10 × 105 cells/mL) and increased (P < 0.05) total milk Ig concentration (18.80 ±â€¯0.11 vs. 23.04 ±â€¯0.57 mg/mL) and the PA of blood neutrophils (0.84 ±â€¯0.03 vs. 1.07 ±â€¯0.03). Similarly, lower blood cortisol concentration (9.69 ±â€¯0.35 vs. 6.02 ±â€¯0.18 ng/mL) and higher (P < 0.05) total Ig (23.26 ±â€¯0.11 vs. 30.34 ±â€¯0.70 mg/mL) and PA of blood neutrophils (0.37 ±â€¯0.02 vs. 0.52 ±â€¯0.02) were observed in the calves born to CS group of cows as compared to the control. Highest (P < 0.05) positive effects (lower stress levels and higher immune response) of treatment were noticed in CS group followed by VE group and then Zn group. However, VA group didn't differ from the control group. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that micronutrient interventions during the prepartum period can improve the health status of dairy calves and subsequently the well-being of their calves.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Micronutrientes/farmacologia , Zinco/imunologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Bovinos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Zinco/sangue
14.
Res Vet Sci ; 135: 456-468, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33229058

RESUMO

Metritis is a postpartum uterine pathology that causes a huge economic loss due to increased culling risk and impaired milk yield and reproduction in cows. The present study was carried out to study the changes in the activity and expression of blood neutrophils in crossbred dairy cows with and without metritis. Collection of blood samples was done at -3, -2 and - 1 weeks before calving, at calving and during the first day of metritis diagnosis in metritis group (n = 8) or at day 8-10 post calving in healthy group (n = 8). Neutrophils were studied for its percentage (microscopically), respiratory burst (nitro blue tetrazolium assay), myeloperoxidase (MPO) concentrations (sandwich ELISA) and expression of CXCR1, CXCR2, TLR2, TLR4, GRα, CD11b, CD14, CD25, CD44, CD47 and CD62L (RT-PCR). Immunocytochemistry was used to investigate MPO concentration and CD14 activity, and western blotting was used for estimating MPO. Although most of these parameters changed in the cows that developed metritis one week before calving, MPO and CD14 got altered much earlier. Myeloperoxidase concentrations and expression of CD14 were considerably lower starting from -2 weeks before calving in cows that developed metritis compared to healthy cows. Further studies are warranted to study the possible use of MPO and CD14 to identify transition cows more vulnerable to develop metritis several weeks before disease occurrence.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Endometrite/veterinária , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Animais , Bovinos , Endometrite/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Lactação , Período Periparto , Explosão Respiratória
15.
Vet World ; 13(9): 1837-1848, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33132594

RESUMO

Dairy cows are exposed to various stressors during their production cycle that makes them more susceptible to various diseases. Phagocytes (neutrophils and macrophages) are important soldiers of the innate immune system. Neutrophils are the first responders to an inflammatory response and stress and kill pathogens by generating reactive oxygen species and by the release of various antimicrobial peptides, enzymes, neutrophil extracellular trap formation, etc. Macrophages, the other phagocytes, are also the cleanup crew for the innate immune system that removes debris, pathogens, and dead neutrophils later on after an inflammatory response. The neuroendocrine system along with phagocytes exhibits an immunomodulatory potential during stressful conditions. Neuroendocrine system directly affects the activity of phagocytes by communicating bidirectionally through shared receptors and messenger molecules such as hormones, neurotransmitters, or cytokines. Different immune cells may show variable responses to each hormone. Short time exposure to stress can be beneficial, but repeated or extended exposure to stress may be detrimental to the overall health and well-being of an animal. Although some stresses associated with farming practices in dairy cows are unavoidable, better understanding of the interactions occurring between various stress hormones and phagocytic cells can help to reduce stress, improve productivity and animal welfare. This review highlights the role played by various stress hormones in modulating phagocytic cell performance of dairy cattle under inflammatory conditions.

16.
Theriogenology ; 157: 140-148, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810791

RESUMO

Since long embryonic mortality has remained an area of concern affecting the reproduction, production, and profitability of dairy cows. We investigated the possible interaction between interleukins, hormones, and neutrophil associated CD markers during the implantation window in Karan Fries (KF) cows naturally coming to heat. Blood collection was done on days 0 i.e. day of Artificial Insemination (AI), 10, 18, 21, 30 and on day 40 post-AI. Total leucocyte count (TLC) and neutrophil to lymphocyte (N:L) ratio were recorded. Blood neutrophils were isolated and their number, phagocytic activity (PA), myeloperoxidase (MPO) concentration and relative mRNA expression of cell adhesion molecules (CD-11b, CD-31, CD-44, CD-62L) as well as progesterone-inducing-blocking-factor (PIBF) and glucocorticoid receptor alpha (GRα) were examined. Plasma progesterone, cortisol, IL-2, IL-8, IL-6, and IL-10 were also measured. Pregnancy was confirmed by non-return to heat, ultrasonography and per rectal examination along with progesterone assay. Cows were further divided into pregnant (P), early embryonic mortality (EEM) and late embryonic mortality (LEM) groups. Embryonic losses cows showed lower plasma concentration of IL-10 (<100 pg/ml) and a higher concentration of IL-2 (>500 pg/ml). Also, a 4 fold increase in the relative mRNA expression of CD-11b and 2.5 fold changes in CD-44 expression were observed in embryonic mortality. We observed a 1.5 fold increase in the relative mRNA expression of PIBF and a 0.5 fold increase in GRα expression in pregnant cows compared to EEM (on day 21) and LEM (on days 30 and 40) cows. Our results depicted that the hyperimmune status of the dam which could be due to multifactorial events that led to the pregnancy failure. The above basic values may be used for checking the immune status and thus timely management strategies can be taken to prevent embryonic losses.


Assuntos
Inseminação Artificial , Progesterona , Animais , Bovinos , Implantação do Embrião , Feminino , Hidrocortisona , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Gravidez , Reprodução
17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 11161, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636460

RESUMO

Detection of subclinical mastitis (SCM) in its initial stage can save great economic losses, improve milk quality and animal welfare. We have developed a semiquantitative lateral flow assay for the detection of SCM in dairy cows targeting myeloperoxidase (MPO) enzyme of milk neutrophils. A competitive immunoassay format was used, and colloidal gold nanoparticles (GNP) were prepared and used as a labelling agent. Monoclonal anti-MPO antibodies were used and assessed for its quality by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and dot blot. Conjugation method for GNP and anti-MPO antibodies was standardised, and the conjugate was placed over the conjugate pad. MPO coupled with a carrier protein (OVA) and the species-specific secondary antibodies were placed on test and control lines, respectively. The developed assay was verified with 75 milk samples collected from healthy, SCM and clinical mastitis cows. It displayed a high sensitivity as it could detect MPO as low as 1.5 ng/ml, an accuracy greater than 97% and showed no crossreactivity when crosschecked with other milk proteins. The developed assay can be used as an alternative for SCM diagnostic tests where lab structure are available for obtaining the lysate of milk SCC.


Assuntos
Mastite Bovina/diagnóstico , Leite/química , Neutrófilos/química , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Infecções Assintomáticas , Bovinos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Ouro , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Leite/citologia , Leite/enzimologia , Neutrófilos/enzimologia , Peroxidase/imunologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
18.
J Reprod Immunol ; 140: 103148, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447181

RESUMO

An early and precise diagnosis of pregnancy in cows is critical to short the calving interval and to improve their reproductive efficiency. Neutrophils are the first blood cells to sensitize the embryo in the uterus and participate in maternal recognition of pregnancy after getting induced by interferon tau (IFNτ). To study the protein abundance ratio, blood samples were collected on 0th, 10th, 18th and 36th day post-artificial insemination (AI) from crossbred Karan Fries cows. Neutrophils were isolated through density gradient centrifugation and studied for protein abundance by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Protein abundance ratios for Myxovirus resistance (MX1 and MX2) were found to be higher (P < 0.05) on day 10 and day 18 post-AI, whereas Oligoadenylate synthetase-1 (OAS1) and Interferon stimulated gene-15 ubiquitin-like modifier (ISG15) proteins were more abundant on day 18 post-AI. The relative mRNA expressions of these molecules were also studied by qPCR. The gene expression of ISG15, MX1, MX2 and OAS1 was found to be higher (P < 0.05) on day 10th, 18th and 36th post-AI compared to day 0. The study indicates that ISGs on blood neutrophils are essential for the establishment of pregnancy and may be targeted as potential biomarkers for pregnancy diagnosis in cows.


Assuntos
Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Proteínas da Gravidez/metabolismo , Gravidez , Animais , Biomarcadores , Bovinos , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Proteínas de Resistência a Myxovirus/genética , Proteínas da Gravidez/genética , Progesterona/metabolismo , Proteômica , Ubiquitinas/genética
19.
Theriogenology ; 142: 433-440, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711708

RESUMO

Heat stress hampers nutrient utilisation and production of animals, and dietary betaine supplementation can mitigate the adverse effects of heat stress on animals and improve their productivity. The present study was conducted to explore the effects of betaine supplementation on the growth performance of eighteen growing Karan Fries (KF) heifers having similar age and body conditions. The experiment was carried out on three groups (n = 6) of KF heifers viz. control, treatment I (betaine supplemented at 25  g/d/animal), and treatment II (betaine supplemented at 50  g/d/animal). The experiment lasted for eight months covering the three major seasons of Indian tropical conditions viz. hot-dry (temperature humidity index, THI = 83), hot-humid (THI = 85) and thermoneutral season (THI = 73). Blood samples were collected at fortnightly intervals and analysed for plasma growth hormone (GH; competitive ELISA) and total insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1; Sandwich ELISA), as well as expression of IGF-I in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Betaine supplementation resulted in significant (p < 0.05) increase in dry matter intake, feed conversion efficiency, body weight gain, plasma GH and IGF-1 levels during all seasons. The concentrations of plasma IGF-1 and the mRNA expression of IGF-1 were higher (p < 0.01) in treatment I as compared to other groups during all seasons. Betaine supplementation at 25  g/d/animal was more cost-effective in improving growth performance of heat-stressed heifers as compared to 50  g/d/animal. The study suggests that the betaine protects intestinal integrity, enhances nutrient utilisation during heat stress and improves growth performance of growing heifers.


Assuntos
Betaína/administração & dosagem , Bovinos , Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/dietoterapia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Aumento de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Betaína/farmacologia , Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento/genética , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/sangue , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Umidade , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Estações do Ano
20.
Immunol Res ; 67(1): 21-38, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30644032

RESUMO

Neutrophils represent the first line of innate immunity and are the most prominent line of cellular defence against invading microorganisms. On stimulation, they can quickly move through the walls of veins and into the tissues of the body to immediately attack or monitor the foreign antigens. Neutrophils are highly versatile and sophisticated cells which are endowed with highly sensitive receptor-based perception systems. They were traditionally classified as short-lived phagocytes actively involved during infection and inflammation, but recently, it has been seen that neutrophils are capable of detecting the presence of sperms during insemination as well as an implanting embryo in the female reproductive tract. These specialised phagocytes play a major role in tissue remodelling and wound healing, and maintain homeostasis during parturition, expulsion of placenta, folliculogenesis, corpus luteum formation and luteolysis. Here, we review the role played by neutrophils in maintaining homeostasis during normal and inflammatory conditions of dairy cattle. We have summarised the alteration in the expression of some cell adhesion molecules and cytokines on bovine neutrophils during different physiological and physiopathological conditions. Some emerging issues in the field of neutrophil biology and the possible strategies to strengthen their activity during the period of immunosuppression have also been discussed.


Assuntos
Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/fisiologia , Fagocitose , Animais , Bovinos , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Indústria de Laticínios , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Homeostase , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica
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