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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246568, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278537

RESUMO

Abstract Fishmeal; being a limited and costly feed ingredient is continuously been substituted with locally available plant proteins. However, the occurrence of anti-nutritional factors in plant meal suppresses its potential to be fully replaced. Therefore, in this study we aimed to study the synergistic effects of dietary additives like citric acid and phytase enzyme supplementation on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings. Canola meal (CM) was used as a test ingredient to replace fishmeal (FM) as; 0%, 25%, 50% and 75%. These four diets were further supplemented by varying levels of phytase (0 and 750 FTU kg-1) and citric acid (0% and 2.5%) to formulate total sixteen test diets as T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, T12, T13, T14, T15 and T16. Each treatment contained three replicates; applied to fish groups having 15 fingerlings each; following 3×3 factorial arrangement. 1% of chromic oxide was added as an inert marker. Maximum weight gain% (288%) and the lowest value of FCR (1.07) were recorded when fish was fed on diet T12 as compared to fish fed control diet (T1). Similarly, optimum nutrient digestibility values such as crude protein (77%), crude fat (84%) and gross energy (70%) were noted on same level. It was concluded that 50% canola meal can optimally replace fishmeal when supplemented with phytase and citric acid at the levels of 750 FTU kg-1 and 2.5%, respectively.


Resumo A farinha de peixe, por ser um ingrediente alimentar limitado e caro, é continuamente substituída por proteínas vegetais disponíveis localmente. No entanto, a ocorrência de fatores antinutricionais na farinha de plantas suprime seu potencial de ser totalmente substituída. Portanto, neste estudo objetivamos estudar os efeitos sinérgicos de aditivos dietéticos como ácido cítrico e suplementação com enzima fitase sobre o desempenho de crescimento e digestibilidade de nutrientes de alevinos de Cirrhinus mrigala. A farinha de canola (CM) foi usada como ingrediente de teste para substituir a farinha de peixe (FM) como: 0%, 25%, 50% e 75%. Essas quatro dietas foram suplementadas por níveis variados de fitase (0 e 750 FTU kg-1) e ácido cítrico (0% e 2,5%) para formular um total de 16 dietas de teste como T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, T12, T13, T14, T15 e T16. Cada tratamento continha três repetições; aplicado a grupos de peixes com 15 alevinos cada; seguindo o arranjo fatorial 3 × 3. 1% de óxido crômico foi adicionado como um marcador inerte. % de ganho de peso máximo (288%) e o valor mais baixo de FCR (1,07) foram registrados quando os peixes foram alimentados com dieta T12 em comparação com peixes alimentados com dieta controle (T1). Da mesma forma, valores ótimos de digestibilidade de nutrientes, como proteína bruta (77%), gordura bruta (84%) e energia bruta (70%) foram anotados no mesmo nível. Concluiu-se que 50% da farinha de canola pode substituir de forma ideal a farinha de peixe quando suplementada com fitase e ácido cítrico nos níveis de 750 FTU kg-1 e 2,5%, respectivamente.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245807, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285613

RESUMO

Abstract Linum usitatissimum L is a widely used traditionally for multiple ailments. The present research was carried out to explore the antimicrobial, and anti-biofilm activity of crude extract of Linum usitatissimum L (Lu. Cr). Phytochemical and proximate analyses were performed. The bandages of diabetic foot patients were collected from the various hospitals. The bandages were cultured to isolate the bacterial strains present on it. The disc diffusion method was used to identify the antimicrobial potential whereas the minimum inhibitory concentration of the Lu.Cr were also determined. Proximate analysis confirms moisture content 8.33%, ash content 4.33%, crude protein 21.20%, crude fat 49.2% and crude fiber 5.63%. It was revealed that Gram-positive bacteria are most prevalent among all study groups. Lu.Cr possess significant bactericidal potential against S. aureus among all other microbes. Owing to this potential, linseed coated bandages can be used alternatively for the treatment of diabetic foot.


Resumo Linum usitatissimum L é amplamente utilizado tradicionalmente para doenças múltiplas. O presente trabalho foi realizado para explorar a atividade antimicrobiana e antibiofilme do extrato bruto de Linum usitatissimum L (Lu.Cr). Foram realizadas análises fitoquímicas e aproximadas. As ataduras de pacientes diabéticos com pé foram recolhidas nos vários hospitais. As bandagens foram cultivadas para isolar as cepas bacterianas presentes nas mesmas. O método de difusão em disco foi utilizado para identificar o potencial antimicrobiano e a concentração inibitória mínima do Lu.Cr também foi determinada. A análise aproximada confirma o teor de umidade 8,33%, teor de cinzas 4,33%, proteína bruta 21,20%, gordura bruta 49,2% e fibra bruta 5,63%. Foi revelado que as bactérias Gram-positivas são mais prevalentes entre todos os grupos de estudo. Lu.Cr possui potencial bactericida significativo contra S. aureus entre todos os outros micróbios. Devido a esse potencial, as ligaduras revestidas com linhaça podem ser utilizadas alternativamente para o tratamento do pé diabético.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244435, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285619

RESUMO

Abstract Increasing trend in antimicrobial resistance and failure of chemically synthesized antibiotics lead to discover alternative methods for the treatment of bacterial infections. Various medicinal plants are in use traditionally and their active compounds can be further applied for treatment of bacterial diseases. This study was designed to determine the antibacterial activity of Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (pomegranate) peel extract against Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae)] and gram-positive bacterium [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. Methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel was prepared by Soxhlet apparatus method. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents from the extract were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The antibacterial activity of P. granatum L. peel extract was evaluated through agar well diffusion method. HPLC showed the range of phenolics (gallic acid, caffeic acid, benzoic acid, cinnamic acid) and flavonoid compounds. The chemical structures of flavonoid and phenolics found in the methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel have been reported for the first time. The methanolic peel extract (50 ul) of yellow P. granatum L. showed 26, 10, 10 and 9mm zones of inhibition (ZOI) against S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. The methanolic extract of red P. granatum L. (100 ul) showed 27, 8, 12 and 15 mm ZOI against Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. Highest ZOI was observed against Staph. aureus. Many of the bacteria studied in the present work may cause serious gastrointestinal infections, which can lead to hemorrhagic diarrhea in children. These infections can be life-threatening to young children and the elderly. There is an incentive to find alternative control measures, such as plant and herbal extracts, especially in lesser-developed countries where traditional antibiotics may not be readily available.


Resumo A tendência crescente na resistência antimicrobiana e na falha dos antibióticos sintetizados quimicamente leva à descoberta de métodos alternativos para o tratamento de infecções bacterianas. Várias plantas medicinais estão em uso tradicionalmente e seus compostos ativos podem ser posteriormente aplicados para o tratamento de doenças bacterianas. Este estudo foi desenhado para determinar a atividade antibacteriana do extrato de casca de Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (romã) contra Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) e Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae) ] e bactéria gram-positiva [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. O extrato metanólico da casca de P. granatum L. foi preparado pelo método do aparelho de Soxhlet. O conteúdo total de flavonoides e fenólicos do extrato foi determinado por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC). A atividade antibacteriana do extrato da casca de P. granatum L. foi avaliada através do método de difusão em ágar. HPLC mostrou a gama de compostos fenólicos (ácido gálico, ácido cafeico, ácido benzoico, ácido cinâmico) e flavonoides. As estruturas químicas de flavonoides e fenólicos encontradas no extrato metanólico da casca de P. granatum L. foram relatadas pela primeira vez. O extrato metanólico da casca (50 ul) de P. granatum L. amarelo apresentou zonas de inibição (ZOI) de 26, 10, 10 e 9mm contra S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae e E. coli, respectivamente. O extrato metanólico de P. granatum L. vermelho (100 ul) apresentou 27, 8, 12 e 15 mm IOI contra Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae e E. coli, respectivamente. O ZOI mais alto foi observado contra Staph. aureus. Muitas das bactérias estudadas no presente trabalho podem causar infecções gastrointestinais graves, que podem levar à diarreia hemorrágica em crianças. Essas infecções podem ser fatais para crianças pequenas e idosos. Há um incentivo para encontrar medidas de controle alternativas, como extratos de plantas e ervas, especialmente em países menos desenvolvidos, onde os antibióticos tradicionais podem não estar prontamente disponíveis.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242818, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285628

RESUMO

Abstract The study was aimed to assess impact of high fat diet (HFD) and synthetic human gut microbiota (GM) combined with HFD and chow diet (CD) in inducing type-2 diabetes (T2D) using mice model. To our knowledge, this is the first study using selected human GM transplantation via culture based method coupled dietary modulation in mice for in vivo establishment of inflammation leading to T2D and gut dysbiosis. Twenty bacteria (T2D1-T2D20) from stool samples of confirmed T2D subjects were found to be morphologically different and subjected to purification on different media both aerobically and anerobically, which revealed seven bacteria more common among 20 isolates on the basis of biochemical characterization. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, these seven isolates were identified as Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenes (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). The seven isolates were subsequently used as synthetic gut microbiome (GM) for their role in inducing T2D in mice. Inbred strains of albino mice were divided into four groups and were fed with CD, HFD, GM+HFD and GM+CD. Mice receiving HFD and GM+modified diet (CD/HFD) showed highly significant (P<0.05) increase in weight and blood glucose concentration as well as elevated level of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1) compared to mice receiving CD only. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 11 fecal bacteria obtained from three randomly selected animals from each group revealed gut dysbiosis in animals receiving GM. Bacterial strains including Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152631), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152632), Parabacteroides gordonii (MT152633), Prevotella copri (MT152634) and Lactobacillus gasseri (MT152635) were isolated from mice treated with GM+modified diet (HFD/CD) compared to strains Akkermansia muciniphila (MT152625), Bacteriodes sp. (MT152626), Bacteroides faecis (MT152627), Bacteroides vulgatus (MT152628), Lactobacillus plantarum (MT152629) which were isolated from mice receiving CD/HFD. In conclusion, these findings suggest that constitution of GM and diet plays significant role in inflammation leading to onset or/and possibly progression of T2D. .


Resumo O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o impacto da dieta rica em gordura (HFD) e da microbiota intestinal humana sintética (GM) combinada com HFD e dieta alimentar (CD) na indução de diabetes tipo 2 (T2D) usando modelo de camundongos. Para nosso conhecimento, este é o primeiro estudo usando transplante de GM humano selecionado através do método baseado em cultura acoplada à modulação dietética em camundongos para o estabelecimento in vivo de inflamação que leva a T2D e disbiose intestinal. Vinte bactérias (T2D1-T2D20) de amostras de fezes de indivíduos T2D confirmados verificaram ser morfologicamente diferentes e foram submetidas à purificação em meios diferentes aerobicamente e anaerobicamente, o que revelou sete bactérias mais comuns entre 20 isolados com base na caracterização bioquímica. Com base no sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA, esses sete isolados foram identificados como Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenides (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). Esses sete isolados foram, posteriormente, usados ​​como microbioma intestinal sintético (GM) por seu papel na indução de T2D em camundongos. Linhagens consanguíneas de camundongos albinos foram divididas em quatro grupos e foram alimentadas com CD, HFD, GM + HFD e GM + CD. Camundongos que receberam a dieta modificada com HFD e GM + (CD / HFD) mostraram um aumento altamente significativo (P < 0,05) no peso e na concentração de glicose no sangue, bem como um nível elevado de citocinas inflamatórias (TNF-α, IL-6 e MCP-1) em comparação com os ratos que receberam apenas CD. O sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA de 11 bactérias fecais obtidas de três animais selecionados aleatoriamente de cada grupo revelou disbiose intestinal em animais que receberam GM. Cepas bacterianas, incluindo Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152631), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152632), Parabacteroides gordonii (MT152633), Prevotella copri (MT152634) e Lactobacillus Gasseri (MT152635D), foram tratadas com dieta modificada / CD) em comparação com as linhagens Akkermansia muciniphila (MT152625), Bacteriodes sp. (MT152626), Bacteroides faecis (MT152627), Bacteroides vulgatus (MT152628), Lactobacillus plantarum (MT152629), que foram isoladas de camundongos recebendo CD / HFD. Em conclusão, esses resultados sugerem que a constituição de GM e dieta desempenham papel significativo na inflamação levando ao início ou/e possivelmente à progressão de T2D.

5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246887, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285630

RESUMO

Abstract The current study was carried out to estimate the prevalence and diversity of ectoparasites in rock pigeons in different regions of Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 120 birds were captured from March 2017 to February 2019. The ectoparasites were collected by standard procedures and preserved in 70% ethanol containing one drop of glycerin. Data related to age, health status, sex, type of area, sampling location and season were collected using a standardized form. Ectoparasites were identified based on morphological characteristics by using identification keys. Ninety-six (80%) birds were infested with ectoparasites. A total of seven families and thirteen species of different ectoparasites were observed. Mainly, seven species of lice, two species of flies, one species of tick and three species of mites were recovered from infested birds. The female pigeons were more often infested (89.02%) than male pigeons (60.52%). The prevalence was found higher during summer (100%) as compared to other seasons. The infestation rate was higher in Industrial area (97.50%) as compared to other regions. The highest prevalence of ectoparasites (100%) was recorded from Sargodha district. There was significant (P < 0.05) variation among number of ectoparasites on wing, chest, tail and neck within age groups, seasons and ecological zones. The occurrence of parasites in relation to area, age, health status, sex and season were significant. The infestation rate of parasites in rock pigeon is high in different districts of Punjab. It is recommended that these wild birds infested with multiple species of ectoparasites could be the potential source of infestations in domesticated birds if they come in contact with them. The contact of domesticated birds should be prevented from wild birds to minimize the chance of cross species transmission of ectoparasites.


Resumo O presente estudo foi realizado para estimar a prevalência e diversidade de ectoparasitas em pombos-das-rochas em diferentes regiões de Punjab, Paquistão. Um total de 120 aves foram capturadas de março de 2017 a fevereiro de 2019. Os ectoparasitas foram coletados por procedimentos padrão e preservados em etanol 70% contendo uma gota de glicerina. Os dados relativos à idade, estado de saúde, sexo, tipo de área, local de amostragem e época do ano foram coletados em formulário padronizado. Os ectoparasitas foram identificados com base nas características morfológicas por meio de chaves de identificação. Noventa e seis (80%) aves estavam infestadas com ectoparasitas. Um total de sete famílias e treze espécies de diferentes ectoparasitas foram observados. Principalmente, sete espécies de piolhos, duas espécies de moscas, uma espécie de carrapato e três espécies de ácaros foram recuperadas de aves infestadas. Os pombos fêmeas foram infestados mais frequentemente (89,02%) do que os pombos machos (60,52%). A prevalência encontrada foi maior no verão (100%) em comparação com as outras estações. A taxa de infestação foi maior na área Industrial (97,50%) em relação às demais regiões. A maior prevalência de ectoparasitas (100%) foi registrada no distrito de Sargodha. Houve variação significativa (P <0,05) entre o número de ectoparasitas na asa, tórax, cauda e pescoço dentro das faixas etárias, estações do ano e zonas ecológicas. A ocorrência de parasitas em relação à área, idade, estado de saúde, sexo e estação do ano foi significativa. A taxa de infestação de parasitas em pombo-correio é alta em diferentes distritos de Punjab. Recomenda-se que essas aves selvagens infestadas com várias espécies de ectoparasitas possam ser a fonte potencial de infestações em aves domesticadas se entrarem em contato com elas. O contato de aves domesticadas deve ser evitado com aves selvagens para minimizar a chance de transmissão cruzada de ectoparasitas.

6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247791, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285637

RESUMO

Abstract The growth of aquaculture sector is strongly dependent upon the continuous supply of inexpensive fish feed with balanced nutritional profile. However, fish meal (FM) is unable to satisfy this demand due to its scarce supply and high cost. In order to test the potential of cottonseed meal (CSM) as a fish meal replacer, a feeding trial of 12 weeks was conducted to check growth performance and proximate composition of Labeo rohita fingerlings. The protein ration of the test feed was satisfied by replacing FM with CSM at 0, 25, 50 and 75%. Sixteen test diets viz., TD1 (control), TD2, TD3, TD4, TD5, TD6, TD7, TD8, TD9, TD10, TD11, TD12, TD13, TD14, TD15 and TD16 were supplemented with citric acid (CA; 0 and 2.5%) and phytase (PHY; 0 and 750 FTU/kg) in a completely randomized design with 3×3 factorial arrangement. The highest weight gain (11.03g), weight gain% (249.21%), specific growth rate (1.39) and best feed conversion ratio (1.20) were recorded by fish fed with TD12. Furthermore, the same level increased the crude protein (59.26%) and fat (16.04%) being significantly different (p<0.05) than that of control. Conclusively, the addition of acidified phytase (CA; 2.5%, PHY; 750 FTU/kg) in TD12 (CSM=50%) led to the improved growth and proximate composition of L. rohita fingerlings.


Resumo O crescimento do setor de aquicultura é fortemente dependente do fornecimento contínuo de rações baratas para peixes com perfil nutricional equilibrado. Porém, a farinha de peixe (FM) não consegue atender a essa demanda devido à sua escassa oferta e alto custo. Com o objetivo de testar o potencial da farinha de semente de canola (MSC) como substituto da farinha de peixe, um ensaio alimentar de 12 semanas foi conduzido para verificar o desempenho de crescimento e a composição centesimal de alevinos de Labeo rohita. A ração de proteína da ração teste foi satisfeita substituindo FM por CSM em 0, 25, 50 e 75%. Dezesseis dietas de teste, viz., TD1 (controle), TD2, TD3, TD4, TD5, TD6, TD7, TD8, TD9, TD10, TD11, TD12, TD13, TD14, TD15 e TD16 foram suplementadas com ácido cítrico (CA; 0 e 2,5%) e fitase (PHY; 0 e 750 FTU / kg) em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com arranjo fatorial 3 × 3. O maior ganho de peso (11,03g), % de ganho de peso (249,21%), taxa de crescimento específico (1,39) e melhor taxa de conversão alimentar (1,20) foram registrados por peixes alimentados com TD12. Além disso, o mesmo nível aumentou a proteína bruta (59,26%) e a gordura (16,04%), sendo significativamente diferente (p <0,05) do controle. Conclusivamente, a adição de fitase acidificada (CA; 2,5%, PHY; 750 FTU / kg) em TD12 (CSM = 50%) levou a um melhor crescimento e composição próxima de alevinos de L. rohita.

7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246389, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285638

RESUMO

Abstract Poultry industry is expanding rapidly and producing million tons of feather waste annually. Massive production of keratinaceous byproducts in the form of industrial wastes throughout the world necessitates its justified utilization. Chemical treatment of keratin waste is proclaimed as an eco-destructive approach by various researchers since it generates secondary pollutants. Keratinase released by a variety of microbes (bacteria and fungi) can be used for the effective treatment of keratin waste. Microbial degradation of keratin waste is an emerging and eco-friendly approach and offers dual benefits, i.e., treatment of recalcitrant pollutant (keratin) and procurement of a commercially important enzyme (keratinase). This study involves the isolation, characterization, and potential utility of fungal species for the degradation of chicken-feather waste through submerged and solid-state fermentation. The isolated fungus was identified and characterized as Aspergillus (A.) flavus. In a trial of 30 days, it was appeared that 74 and 8% feather weight was reduced through sub-merged and solid-state fermentation, respectively by A. flavus. The pH of the growth media in submerged fermentation was changed from 4.8 to 8.35. The exploited application of keratinolytic microbes is, therefore, recommended for the treatment of keratinaceous wastes to achieve dual benefits of remediation.


Resumo A indústria avícola está se expandindo rapidamente e produzindo milhões de toneladas de resíduos de penas anualmente. A produção massiva de subprodutos queratinosos na forma de resíduos agrícolas e industriais em todo o mundo exige sua utilização justificada. O tratamento químico de resíduos de queratina é proclamado como uma abordagem ecodestrutiva por vários pesquisadores, uma vez que gera poluentes secundários. A queratinase liberada por uma variedade de micróbios (bactérias e fungos) pode ser usada para o tratamento eficaz de resíduos de queratina. A degradação microbiana de resíduos de queratina é uma abordagem emergente e ecológica e oferece benefícios duplos, ou seja, tratamento de poluente recalcitrante (queratina) e obtenção de uma enzima comercialmente importante (queratinase). Este estudo envolve o isolamento, caracterização e utilidade potencial de espécies de fungos para a degradação de resíduos de penas de frango por meio da fermentação submersa e em estado sólido. O fungo isolado foi identificado e caracterizado como Aspergillus (A.) flavus. Em um ensaio de 30 dias, constatou-se que 74% e 8% do peso das penas foram reduzidos por A. flavus, respectivamente, por meio da fermentação submersa e em estado sólido. O pH do meio de crescimento em fermentação submersa foi alterado de 4,8 para 8,35. A aplicação explorada de micróbios queratinolíticos é, portanto, recomendada para o tratamento de resíduos ceratinosos para obter benefícios duplos de remediação.

8.
Health Educ Behav ; : 10901981211045933, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628973

RESUMO

Sexual minority youth have a higher risk of suicidal behaviors than their straight peers. Despite this alarming trend, there is limited information on how health-risk factors are systematically associated with suicidal outcomes in relation to the intersection of sex and sexual orientation identity. Data from the 2017 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (Grades 9-12, N = 14,108) were analyzed to examine three distinct suicidal outcomes (i.e., suicidal ideation, suicide planning, and suicide attempt). Separate hierarchical logistic regression models were performed to gradually adjust for influencing factors in examining the association between suicidal outcomes and sexual orientation identity (i.e., heterosexual, gay/lesbian, bisexual, and unsure), stratified by self-reported sex. There exist significant differences in youth suicidal behaviors based on sexual orientation identity and sex: lesbians (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.7, 95% CI [1.5, 5.0]), bisexual girls (AOR = 1.9, 95% CI [1.3, 2.6]) and bisexual boys (AOR = 2.6, 95% CI [1.3, 5.2]) had higher odds of suicide attempts than their straight peers. Unsure boys and girls also reported higher risks of suicidal ideation and suicide plan as compared with their straight peers. Having a very short sleep duration, reporting ever use of illicit drugs, being bullied, and feeling sad/hopeless were associated with elevated risks of suicidality across males and females. This study identified potential disparities in suicidal outcomes by sexual orientation identity as well as factors that attenuate or strengthen this relationship in a representative sample of adolescents across the United States. An improved understanding of the differences in suicidal outcomes will serve as an opportunity to ameliorate any potential inequalities and improve sexual minority youth' health outcomes.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34632506

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is caused by mutations in the genes for thyroid hormone synthesis. In our previous investigation of CH patients, ~53% of patients had mutations in either coding exons or canonical splice-sites of causative genes. Non-canonical splice-sites variants in the intron were detected but their pathogenic significance was not known. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate non-canonical splice-site variants on pre-mRNA splicing of CH-causing genes. METHODS: Next-generation sequencing data of 55 CH cases in 47 families were analyzed to identify rare intron variants. The effects of variants on pre-mRNA splicing were investigated by minigene RNA-splicing assays. RESULTS: Four intron variants were found in 3 patients: SLC26A4 c.1544 + 9C>T and c.1707 + 94C>T in one patient, and SLC5A5 c.970-48G>C and c.1652-97A>C in two other patients. The c.1707 + 94C>T and c.970-48G>C caused exons 15 and 16 skipping, and exon 8 skipping, respectively. The remaining variants had no effect on RNA splicing. Furthermore, we analyzed 28 previously reported non-canonical splice-site variants (4 in TG and 24 in SLC26A4). Among them, 15 variants (~54%) resulted in aberrant splicing and 13 variants had no effect on RNA splicing. These data were compared with three variant-prediction programs (FATHMM-XF, FATHMM-MKL, and CADD). Among 32 variants, FATHMM-XF, FATHMM-MKL, and CADD correctly predicted 20 (63%), 17 (53%), and 26 (81%) variants, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Two novel deep intron mutations have been identified in SLC26A4 and SLC5A5, bringing the total number of solved families with disease-causing mutations to ~45% in our cohort. Approximately 46% (13/28) reported non-canonical splice-site mutations do not disrupt pre-mRNA splicing. CADD provides highest prediction accuracy of non-canonical splice-site variants.

10.
Am J Sports Med ; : 3635465211040440, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, superior capsular reconstruction (SCR) has emerged as a promising treatment for massive rotator cuff tears and has been performed with an array of graft options, most commonly dermal allograft and tensor fascia lata (TFL) autograft. PURPOSE: To compare the clinical outcomes, functional outcomes, and complication rates after SCR performed with dermal allograft, TFL autograft, long head of the biceps tendon (LHBT) autograft, and porcine xenograft. STUDY DESIGN: Meta-analysis; Level of evidence, 4. METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase were systematically reviewed for studies that enrolled ≥10 patients who underwent SCR and presented clinical outcome data at a minimum follow-up of 12 months. When available, pre- and postoperative patient-reported outcome scores and clinical examination data were extracted. Outcome data were then compared by graft type. A meta-analysis was also conducted of graft tear and reoperation rates after SCR with dermal allograft and TFL autograft. RESULTS: Human dermal allograft and TFL autograft were each utilized in 7 studies, LHBT autograft in 2 studies, and porcine xenograft in 1 study. Dermal allograft, TFL autograft, and LHBT autograft demonstrated comparable median (range) postoperative American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores of 85.3 (77.5-89), 88.6 (73.7-94.3), and 82.7 (80-85.4), respectively. The median postoperative pain scores per visual analog scale for dermal allograft, TFL autograft, and LHBT autograft were 0.8, 2.5, and 1.4. Median postoperative forward elevation was 159.0°, 147.0°, 163.8°, and 151.4° for dermal allograft, TFL autograft, LHBT autograft, and porcine xenograft. Meta-analysis demonstrated a comparable pooled graft tear rate between TFL autograft (9%; 95% CI, 4%-16%) and dermal allograft (7%; 95% CI, 2%-13%). Similarly, the pooled reoperation rate was similar for TFL autograft (3%; 95% CI, 0%-7%) and dermal allograft (6%; 95% CI, 2%-12%). Among the 3 studies with pre- and postoperative information on pseudoparalysis, 73 of 76 (96%) patients with an intact/repairable subscapularis had a reversal of their pseudoparalysis after SCR. CONCLUSION: Dermal allograft, TFL autograft, and LHBT autograft are all suitable options for SCR and demonstrate significant improvements in American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, pain score per visual analog scale, and forward elevation. Moreover, dermal allograft and TFL autograft have comparable rates of graft tear and reoperation.

11.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(13): 135701, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623849

RESUMO

The ubiquitous nature and unusual properties of water have motivated many studies on its metastability under temperature- or pressure-induced phase transformations. Here, nanosecond compression by a high-power laser is used to create the nonequilibrium conditions where liquid water persists well into the stable region of ice VII. Through our experiments, as well as a complementary theoretical-computational analysis based on classical nucleation theory, we report that the metastability limit of liquid water under nearly isentropic compression from ambient conditions is at least 8 GPa, higher than the 7 GPa previously reported for lower loading rates.

12.
Med Mycol ; 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625808

RESUMO

Patients with COVID-19-associated candidemia (CAC) in an intensive care unit (ICU) were matched 1:2 with those without candidemia, based on ICU admission date and length of stay in ICU being at least equal to that before candidemia in the corresponding case. The incidence rate of CAC was 2.34 per 1,000 ICU days. Eighty cases could be matched to appropriate controls. In the multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis, age (P 0.001), and sequential organ failure assessment score (P 0.046) were the only risk factors independently associated with CAC. Tocilizumab and corticosteroids therapy were not independently associated with candidemia. LAY SUMMARY: In COVID-19 patients who need medical care in an intensive care unit, the risk of developing bloodstream Candida infection is higher in older patients and in those who have a more severe critical illness. Treatment with steroids or tocilizumab does not seem to affect the risk of candida bloodstream infection in these patients.

13.
Neurosurgery ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have assessed the impact of overlapping surgery during different timepoints of neurosurgical procedures. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of overlap before the critical portion of surgery on short-term patient outcomes following lumbar fusion. METHODS: In total, 3799 consecutive patients who underwent single-level, posterior-only lumbar fusion over 6 yr (2013-2019) at an academic hospital system were retrospectively studied. Outcomes included 30-d emergency department (ED) visit, readmission, reoperation, mortality, overall morbidity, and overall morbidity/surgical complications. Duration of overlap that occurred before the critical portion of surgery was calculated as a percentage of total beginning operative time. Univariate logistic regression was used to assess the impact of incremental 1% increases in the duration of overlap within the whole population and patients with beginning overlap. Subsequently, univariate analysis was used to compare exact matched patients with the least (bottom 40%) and most amounts of overlap (100% beginning overlap). Coarsened exact matching was used to match patients on key demographic factors, as well as attending surgeon. Significance was set at a P-value < .05. RESULTS: Increased duration of beginning overlap was associated with a decrease in 30-d ED visit (P = .03) within all patients with beginning overlap, but not within the whole population undergoing lumbar fusion. Duration of beginning overlap was not associated with any other short-term morbidity or mortality outcome in either the whole population or patients with beginning overlap. CONCLUSION: Increased duration of overlap before the critical step of surgery does not predict adverse short-term outcomes after single-level, posterior-only lumbar fusion.

14.
Trop Biomed ; 38(3): 413-419, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608115

RESUMO

Human brucellosis is a neglected zoonotic problem worldwide with a high degree of morbidity in humans and is mostly overlooked due to other febrile conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sero-prevalence and risk factors of human brucellosis among subjects living in Punjab, Pakistan. In this cross-sectional study, human blood samples were collected from seven districts of Punjab, Pakistan. Information regarding personal data, demographic data and potential risk factors was collected through a structured questionnaire. Detection of anti-Brucella antibodies was done through Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Descriptive analysis, Chi square test and Odds ratio was applied using STATA software version 12. The sero-prevalence of human brucellosis was 13.13% with significantly higher percentage in males 17.23% and age group 25-40 years 16.50% (P=< 0.001). The demographic factors positively associated with human brucellosis were lack of education (P = 0.003; OR = 1.85) and farming as an occupation (P =<0.001; OR = 2.50) Similarly, among the risk factors studied, keeping animals at home (P =<0.001; OR = 2.03), slaughtering of animals (P =<0.001; OR = 15.87) and consuming raw milk (P =<0.001; OR = 5.42) were the factors strongly connected with human brucellosis. A massive awareness should be given to livestock farmers and individuals directly linked to animals regarding risk factors and transmission of brucellosis. Consumption of unpasteurized milk and its products should be condemned to curtail this neglected disease.

16.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(4): 1139-1145, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605488

RESUMO

COVID-19 is the devastating pandemic of the century predominantly fatal due to its respiratory failure nature. Severe and critical patients need oxygen supplementation in different forms. This cross-sectional study was conducted in four tertiary hospitals of Sylhet, Bangladesh from November 2020 to March 2021. All the patients admitted in the COVID-19 isolation units and fulfill the selection criterion were enrolled in this study. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate different types of respiratory supports and its relationship with initial oxygen saturation (SpO2). Total 481 patients were enrolled. There was a male predominance (65.00%) in the participants. Highest number of participants was from 61-70 years age group. Number of ventilated patients were significantly high (p<0.001) in the COVID-19 patient group. The initial SpO2 and hospital staying period of COVID-19 positive and negative group did not show any significant difference but these two parameters showed significant difference among died and survived group (p<0.001). Nearly one fourth patients (24.94%) of total patients were treated in ICU with high flow nasal cannula (HFNC), non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and mechanical ventilation. Among the ICU admitted patients nearly one-fourth (24.16%) patients were treated with mechanical ventilation. Mortality rate was 62.00% for ventilated patients, 70.60% for NIV patients and 15.80% for the HFNC patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Insuficiência Respiratória , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Oxigênio , Oxigenoterapia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , SARS-CoV-2
17.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610117

RESUMO

Legume root nodules harbor rhizobia and other non-nodulating endophytes known as nodule-associated bacteria (NAB) whose role in the legume symbiosis is still unknown. We analyzed the genetic diversity of thirty-four NAB isolates obtained from the root nodules of faba bean grown under various soil conditions in Egypt using 16S rRNA and concatenated sequences of three housekeeping genes. All isolates were identified as members of the family Enterobacteriaceae belonging to the genera Klebsiella, Enterobacter, and Raoultella. We identified nine enterobacterial genospecies, most of which have not been previously reported as NAB. All isolated strains harbored nifH gene sequences and most of them possessed plant growth-promoting (PGP) traits. Upon co-inoculation with an N2 fixing rhizobium (Rlv NGB-FR128), two strains (E. sichanensis NGB-FR97 and K. variicola NGB-FR116) significantly increased nodulation, growth, and N-uptake of faba bean plants over the single treatments or the uninoculated control. The presence of these enterobacteria in nodules was significantly affected by the host plant genotype, symbiotic rhizobium genotype, and endophyte genotype, indicating that the nodule colonization process is regulated by plant-microbe-microbe interactions. This study emphasizes the importance of nodule-associated enterobacteria and suggests their potential role in improving the effectiveness of rhizobial inoculants.

18.
Int J Surg Case Rep ; : 106439, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602365

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION & IMPORTANCE: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common neuropathy in the world and is caused by compression of the median nerve. It has many known risk factors, including hemodialysis and a persistent median artery (PMA), which can be an incidental finding during carpal tunnel release (CTR). CASE PRESENTATION: A 65-year-old woman with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on dialysis for seven months presented with typical signs and symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. Nerve conduction studies (NCS) displayed severe neuropathy. Upon carpal tunnel release (CTR) a rare superficial non-calcified persistent median artery critical to the circulation of the hand was found. The patient's symptoms resolved completely within four weeks of the operation. CLINICAL DISCUSSION: The PMA is a relatively common anomaly and could cause carpal tunnel syndrome by: directly pressing the median nerve, thrombosing, or in the setting of an aneurysm. Although usually found deep to the flexor retinaculum, the PMA could also be found superficially. It can be critical to the blood supply of the hand and should therefore be dealt with carefully. CONCLUSION: Surgeons should be aware of the possibility of finding a PMA when performing CTR. The PMA could be deep or superficial to the transverse carpal ligament. Where possible, the PMA should be preserved. Especially if its contributions to the blood supply of the hand are undetermined.

19.
J Neurosurg Spine ; : 1-10, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598156

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study assesses how degree of overlap, either before or after the critical operative portion, affects lumbar fusion outcomes. METHODS: The authors retrospectively studied 3799 consecutive patients undergoing single-level, posterior-only lumbar fusion over 6 years (2013-2019) at a university health system. Outcomes recorded within 30-90 and 0-90 postoperative days included emergency department (ED) visit, readmission, reoperation, overall morbidity, and mortality. Furthermore, morbidity and mortality were recorded for the duration of follow-up. The amount of overlap that occurred before or after the critical portion of surgery was calculated as a percentage of total beginning or end operative time. Subsequent to initial whole-population analysis, coarsened exact-matched cohorts of patients were created with the least and most amounts of either beginning or end overlap. Univariate analysis was performed on both beginning and end overlap exact-matched cohorts, with significance set at p < 0.05. RESULTS: Equivalent outcomes were observed when comparing exact-matched patients. Among the whole population, the degree of beginning overlap was correlated with reduced ED visits within 30-90 and 0-90 days (p = 0.007, p = 0.009; respectively), and less 0-90 day morbidity (p = 0.037). Degree of end overlap was correlated with fewer 30-90 day ED visits (p = 0.015). When comparing only patients with overlap, degree of beginning overlap was correlated with fewer 0-90 day reoperations (p = 0.022), and no outcomes were correlated with degree of end overlap. CONCLUSIONS: The degree of overlap before or after the critical step of surgery does not lead to worse outcomes after lumbar fusion.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599712

RESUMO

This study evaluated the protective effect of kaempferol, a natural flavonoid, against cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-induced liver damage and examined the possible anti-inflammatory and antioxidant mechanisms of protection. Adult male rats were divided into 4 groups (each of 8 rats) as control, kaempferol (50 mg/kg/day orally), CdCl2 (15 ppm/day), and CdCl2 (15 ppm/day) + kaempferol (50 mg/kg/day). All treatments were given for 30 days. With no effect on attenuating the reduced food intake, kaempferol significantly increased body weight and lowered serum levels of liver injury markers including bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and gamma-glutamyltransferase 1 (γ-GTT1) in the CdCl2-treated rats. It also restored normal liver architectures, prevented hepatocyte, loss, and swelling and reduced inflammatory cell infiltration. These effects were associated with a reduction in mitochondrial permeability transition pore, as well as in the expression of cytochrome-c and cleaved caspase-3, markers of mitochondrial damage, and intrinsic cell death. In both the control positive and CdCl2-treated rats, kaempferol significantly lowered the hepatic levels of reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Interleukine-6 (IL-6), and the nuclear activity and localization of NF-κB p65. Besides, kaempferol significantly increased the hepatic total and nuclear levels of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1, as well as levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH) but reduced the cytoplasmic protein levels of keap1. In conclusion, the protective effect of kaempferol against CdCl2-induced hepatic damage is mediated by antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects driven by upregulating Nrf2/HO-1 axis and suppressing the NF-κB p65 and keap1.

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