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1.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The BREAST-Q real-time engagement and communication tool (REACT) was developed to aid with BREAST-Q score interpretation and guide patient-centered care. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the perspectives of patients and providers on the design, functionality, and clinical utility of REACT and refine the REACT based on their recommendations. METHODS: We conducted three patient focus groups with women who were at least 6 postoperative months from their postmastectomy breast reconstruction, and two provider focus groups with plastic surgeons, breast surgeons, and advanced practice providers. Focus groups were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed thematically. RESULTS: A total of 18 breast reconstruction patients and 14 providers participated in the focus groups. Themes identified by thematic analysis were organized into two categories: (1) design and functionality, and (2) clinical utility. On the design and functionality of REACT, four major themes were identified: visual appeal and usefulness; contextualizing results; ability to normalize patients' experiences, noting participants' concerns; and suggested modifications. On the clinical utility of REACT, three major themes were identified: potential to empower patients to communicate with their providers; increase patient and provider motivation to engage with the BREAST-Q; and effective integration into clinical workflow. CONCLUSION: Patients and providers in this qualitative study indicated that with some modifications, REACT has a great potential to elevate the clinical utility of the BREAST-Q by enhancing patient-provider communication that can lead to patient-centered, clinically relevant action recommendations based on longitudinal BREAST-Q scores.

2.
Sci Adv ; 10(13): eadl4007, 2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38552024

RESUMO

Considerable interest exists in understanding how climate change affects wildfire activity. Here, we use the Community Earth System Model version 2 to show that future anthropogenic aerosol mitigation yields larger increases in fire activity in the Northern Hemisphere boreal forests, relative to a base simulation that lacks climate policy and has large increases in greenhouse gases. The enhanced fire response is related to a deeper layer of summertime soil drying, consistent with increased downwelling surface shortwave radiation and enhanced surface evapotranspiration. In contrast, soil column drying is muted under increasing greenhouse gases due to plant physiological responses to increased carbon dioxide and by enhanced melting of soil ice at a depth that increases soil liquid water. Although considerable uncertainty remains in the representation of fire processes in models, our results suggest that boreal forest fires may be more sensitive to future aerosol mitigation than to greenhouse gas-driven warming.

4.
Ann Plast Surg ; 92(2): 161-168, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38198626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: When abdomen-based free flap reconstruction is contraindicated, the muscle-sparing thoracodorsal artery perforator (TDAP) flap may be considered for total autologous breast reconstruction. The TDAP flap is often limited by volume and is prone to distal flap necrosis. We aim to demonstrate our experience combining the delay phenomenon with TDAP flaps for total autologous breast reconstruction. METHODS: Patients presenting for autologous breast reconstruction between April 2021 and August 2023 were recruited for surgically delayed TDAP flap reconstruction when abdominally based free flap reconstruction was contraindicated because of previous abdominal surgery or poor perforator anatomy. We dissected the TDAP flap except for a distal skin bridge and then reconstructed the breast 1 to 7 days later. Data included flap dimensions (in centimeters × centimeters), delay time (in days), predelay and postdelay perforator caliber (in millimeters) and flow (in centimeters per second), operative time (in minutes), hospital length of stay (in days), complications/revisions, and follow-up time (in days). RESULTS: Fourteen patients and 16 flaps were included in this study. Mean age and body mass index of patients were 55.9 ± 9.6 years and 30.1 ± 4.3 kg/m2, respectively. Average flap skin island length and width were 32.1 ± 3.3 cm (n = 8 flaps) and 8.8 ± 0.7 cm (n = 5 flaps), respectively. Beveled flap width reached 16.0 ± 2.2 cm (n = 3 flaps). Average time between surgical delay and reconstruction was 2.9 days, ranging from 1 to 7 days (n = 18 flaps). Mean predelay and postdelay TDAP vessel caliber and flow measured by Doppler ultrasound increased from 1.4 ± 0.3 to 1.8 ± 0.3 mm (P = 0.03) and 13.3 ± 5.2 to 43.4 ± 18.8 cm/s (P = 0.03), respectively (n = 4 flaps). Complications included 1 donor site seroma and 1 mastectomy skin flap necrosis. Follow-up ranged from 4 to 476 days (n = 17 operations). CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate surgically delayed TDAP flaps as a viable option for total autologous breast reconstruction. Our series of flaps demonstrated increased perforator caliber and flow and enlarged volume capabilities and had no incidences of flap necrosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Mamoplastia , Retalho Perfurante , Humanos , Feminino , Mastectomia , Artérias , Necrose
5.
J Reconstr Microsurg ; 2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38267009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A comprehensive understanding of changes in health-related quality of life after head and neck cancer surgery is necessary for effective preoperative counseling. The goal of this study was to perform a longitudinal analysis of postoperative quality of life outcomes after fibula free flap (FFF) mandible reconstruction. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed for all patients who underwent oncologic mandible reconstruction with an FFF between 2000 and 2021. Completion of at least one postoperative FACE-Q questionnaire was necessary for inclusion. FACE-Q scores were divided into five time periods for analysis. Functional outcomes measured with speech language pathology (SLP) assessments and tracheostomy and gastrostomy tube status were analyzed at three time points. RESULTS: One hundred and nine patients were included. Of these, 68 patients also had at least one SLP assessment. All outcomes as measured by the various FACE-Q scales did not improve significantly from the immediate postoperative time point to the last evaluated time point (p > 0.05). SLP functional outcomes showed some deterioration over time, but these were not significant (p > 0.05). The percentage of patients who required a tracheostomy (18 to 2%, p = 0.002) or gastrostomy tube (25 to 11%, p = 0.035) decreased significantly from the immediate postoperative time point to the last evaluated time point. CONCLUSION: Subjective quality of life outcomes do not change significantly with time after oncologic FFF mandible reconstruction. Reconstructive surgeons can use these results to help patients establish appropriate and achievable quality of life goals after surgery. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the impact of specific relevant clinical variables on postoperative quality of life.

6.
J Reconstr Microsurg ; 40(2): 87-95, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37030287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fibula free flaps (FFF) are the gold standard tissue for the reconstruction of segmental mandibular defects. A comparison of miniplate (MP) and reconstruction bar (RB)-based fixation of FFFs has been previously described in a systematic review; however, long-term, single-center studies comparing the two plating methods are lacking. The authors aim to examine the complication profile between MPs and RBs at a single tertiary cancer center. We hypothesized that increased components and a lack of rigid fixation inherent to MPs would lead to higher rates of hardware exposure/failure. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed from a prospectively maintained database at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. All patients who underwent FFF-based reconstruction of mandibular defects between 2015 and 2021 were included. Data on patient demographics, medical risk factors, operative indications, and chemoradiation were collected. The primary outcomes of interest were perioperative flap-related complications, long-term union rates, osteoradionecrosis (ORN), return to the operating room (OR), and hardware exposure/failure. Recipient site complications were further stratified into two groups: early (<90 days) and late (>90 days). RESULTS: In total, 96 patients met the inclusion criteria (RB = 63, MP = 33). Patients in both groups were similar with respect to age, presence of comorbidities, smoking history, and operative characteristics. The mean follow-up period was 17.24 months. In total, 60.6 and 54.0% of patients in the MP and RB cohorts received adjuvant radiation, respectively. There were no differences in rates of hardware failure overall; however, in patients with an initial complication after 90 days, MPs had significantly higher rates of hardware exposure (3 vs. 0, p = 0.046). CONCLUSION: MPs were found to have a higher risk of exposed hardware in patients with a late initial recipient site complication. It is possible that improved fixation with highly adaptive RBs designed by computer-aided design/manufacturing technology explains these results. Future studies are needed to assess the effects of rigid mandibular fixation on patient-reported outcome measures in this unique population.


Assuntos
Retalhos de Tecido Biológico , Reconstrução Mandibular , Humanos , Reconstrução Mandibular/métodos , Fíbula , Resultado do Tratamento , Transplante Ósseo/métodos , Mandíbula/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
J Surg Oncol ; 129(3): 617-628, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37985365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The choice of tissue type for free flap reconstruction of posterolateral mandible resections is dependent on patient and defect characteristics. We compared clinical and patient-reported outcomes following reconstruction of these defects with a soft tissue or bony free flap. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on patients who underwent posterolateral segmental mandibulectomy with immediate free flap reconstruction at MSKCC from 2006 to 2021. Outcomes of interest were patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) assessed by FACE-Q surveys and complications at the flap recipient site. RESULTS: Ninety patients received a bony flap and 24 patients received a soft tissue flap. Patients reconstructed with soft tissue flaps had greater rates of composite soft tissue defects (p < 0.0001), condyle resection (p = 0.001), and peripheral vascular disease (p = 0.035). Complication rates were similar between the cohorts (p > 0.05). Bony flaps scored higher on multiple FACE-Q scales: Facial Appearance (p = 0.023) Eating/Drinking (p = 0.029), Smiling (p = 0.012), Speaking (p < 0.001), Swallowing (p = 0.012), Smiling Distress (p = 0.037), and Speaking Distress (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Reconstruction of posterolateral mandibular defects has a similar complication profile when utilizing a bony or soft tissue free flap. Bony flaps may perform better with respect to PROMs. Reconstructive surgeons should consider using bony flap reconstruction to achieve higher patient satisfaction and quality of life.


Assuntos
Retalhos de Tecido Biológico , Procedimentos de Cirurgia Plástica , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Mandíbula/cirurgia , Retalhos de Tecido Biológico/cirurgia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
J Surg Oncol ; 129(4): 681-690, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38073188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of literature of health-related quality of life endpoints for radial forearm (RF) versus anterolateral thigh (ALT) free flap reconstruction for glossectomy defects. Our goal was to perform a comprehensive evaluation of clinical, functional, and quality of life outcomes after glossectomy reconstruction using a RF or ALT flap. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on patients who underwent glossectomy and immediate reconstruction with RF or ALT flaps between 2016 and 2021. Outcomes of interest included readmission and reoperation rates, functional assessments, tracheostomy and gastrostomy tube status, and FACE-Q Head and Neck Cancer scores. RESULTS: Seventy-eight patients consisting of 54 RF and 24 ALT free flaps were included. ALT patients had a larger median flap size (72 vs. 48 cm2 , p = 0.021) and underwent mandibulotomy (50% vs. 7.4%, p < 0.0001) and base of tongue resection (58.3% vs. 24.1%, p = 0.005) at higher rates. No significant differences were found with respect to other outcomes. CONCLUSION: The RF and ALT flaps are suitable for glossectomy reconstruction, with minimal differences seen in postoperative outcomes. Our study suggests that ALT can be used in patients with base of tongue and larger defect sizes, while providing similar functional and clinical outcomes to RF reconstruction.


Assuntos
Retalhos de Tecido Biológico , Neoplasias da Língua , Humanos , Glossectomia/métodos , Coxa da Perna/cirurgia , Antebraço/cirurgia , Qualidade de Vida , Neoplasias da Língua/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente
9.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg ; 64(6)2023 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37846030

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare postoperative outcomes between biologic and synthetic reconstructions after chest wall resection in a matched cohort. METHODS: All patients who underwent reconstruction after full-thickness chest wall resection from 2000 to 2022 were reviewed and stratified by prosthesis type (biologic or synthetic). Biologic prostheses were of biologic origin or were fully absorbable and incorporable. Integer matching was performed to reduce confounding. The study end point was surgical site complications requiring reoperation. Multivariable analysis was performed to identify associated risk factors. RESULTS: In total, 438 patients underwent prosthetic chest wall reconstruction (unmatched: biologic, n = 49; synthetic, n = 389; matched: biologic, n = 46; synthetic, n = 46). After matching, the median (interquartile range) defect size was 83 cm2 (50-142) for the biologic group and 90 cm2 (48-146) for the synthetic group (P = 0.97). Myocutaneous flaps were used in 33% of biologic reconstructions (n = 15) and 33% of synthetic reconstructions (n = 15) in the matched cohort (P = 0.99). The incidence of surgical site complications requiring reoperation was not significantly different between biologic and synthetic reconstructions in the unmatched (3 [6%] vs 29 [7%]; P = 0.99) and matched (2 [4%] vs 4 [9%]; P = 0.68) cohorts. On the multivariable analysis, operative time [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.01, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.00-1.01; P = 0.006] and operative blood loss (aOR = 1.00, 95% CI, 1.00-1.00]; P = 0.012) were associated with higher rates of surgical site complications requiring reoperation; microvascular free flaps (aOR = 0.03, 95% CI, 0.00-0.42; P = 0.024) were associated with lower rates. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of surgical site complications requiring reoperation was not significantly different between biologic and synthetic prostheses in chest wall reconstructions.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Parede Torácica , Humanos , Parede Torácica/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Próteses e Implantes/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Surg Oncol Clin N Am ; 32(4): 761-776, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37714642

RESUMO

Aspects of a patient's lifestyle, their state of health, breast size, and mastectomy skin flap quality are factors that influence the suggested plane of dissection in implant-based breast reconstruction. This article aims to review developments in prosthetic breast reconstruction and provide recommendations to help providers choose whether prepectoral or subpectoral reconstruction in the best approach for each of their patients.


Assuntos
Implante Mamário , Neoplasias da Mama , Mamoplastia , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Mastectomia , Dissecação
11.
Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open ; 11(8): e5188, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37621915

RESUMO

Background: Since its introduction for autologous breast reconstruction in 2010, the profunda artery perforator (PAP) flap has emerged as a preferred choice when an abdominal flap is suboptimal. The traditional transverse design (tPAP) was popularized, given the inconspicuous donor scar. A diagonal design (dPAP) has since evolved to address some of the shortcomings of the tPAP. The authors aimed to compare outcomes of tPAP/dPAP flaps harvested for breast reconstruction by a single surgeon. Methods: A retrospective review was conducted from 2017 to 2022 of patients undergoing tPAP versus dPAP-based breast reconstruction by a single surgeon at a tertiary cancer center. Patient variables and operative variables were assessed. Need for additional symmetrizing breast procedures were compared. Complications and BREAST-Q patient-reported outcome measures were analyzed. Results: Thirty-nine flaps were used to reconstruct 35 breasts in 24 patients. Average follow-up for the group was 1.8 years. The groups were similar with respect to demographics. The majority of dPAP flaps had two perforators, whereas most tPAP flaps had one perforator. The dPAP flaps had greater average weights, width, and overall surface area. There were no cases of partial/total flap loss. Complications and PROM results were similar between the two groups. Conclusions: The dPAP design allows for a larger skin paddle and greater tissue harvest and capture of cutaneous perforators, without increasing the risk of complications or compromising satisfaction. It should be considered as a viable option in patients unable to undergo abdominal-based reconstruction. Additional patients and multi-institutional efforts are necessary to better compare advantages of either design.

12.
Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open ; 11(8): e5204, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37593698

RESUMO

Autologous reconstruction accounts for nearly one-quarter of all breast reconstruction cases in the United States, with the abdomen functioning as the most popular donor site. This case describes a 62-year-old woman who presented to our clinic with a remote history of estrogen receptor+/progesterone+ breast cancer and bilateral implant-based reconstruction. After grade IV capsular contracture of her left breast, she presented for autologous reconstruction. Due to her body habitus and prior belt lipectomy, deep inferior epigastric perforator flap reconstruction was contra-indicated. The thoracodorsal artery perforator (TDAP) flap is well described in the literature, and was chosen as an alternative salvage procedure to avoid latissimus harvest and the need for implants. The TDAP flap is often limited in volume and prone to distal tip necrosis, limiting its use in breast reconstruction. We have previously demonstrated the utility of the surgical delay phenomenon in improving the reliability of superficial inferior epigastric artery free flap breast reconstruction. In this case, we demonstrate the surgically delayed TDAP flap as a viable alternative to the latissimus flap with implants for bilateral total autologous breast reconstruction.

13.
Aesthet Surg J ; 43(12): 1491-1498, 2023 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37551639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acellular dermal matrix (ADM) is frequently utilized in prepectoral breast reconstruction, but few studies have examined the role of ADM type in complication risk. OBJECTIVES: This study was performed to determine the impact of ADM type on early complication rates in 2-stage alloplastic prepectoral breast reconstruction. METHODS: We performed a cohort examination of all patients who underwent mastectomy with immediate 2-stage alloplastic prepectoral breast reconstruction with ADM support at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center from 2018 to 2021. ADM types utilized included AlloDerm (LifeCell Corporation, Branchburg, NJ), FlexHD (MTF Biologics, Edison, NJ), and SurgiMend (Integra LifeSciences Corporation, Princeton, NJ). Complication rates based on the number of tissue expanders (TEs) were determined for each ADM type. Performance of multivariate logistic regression determined the impact of ADM type on complication risk after accounting for confounders. RESULTS: Overall, 726 patients (1054 TEs: 194 AlloDerm, 93 FlexHD, 767 SurgiMend) were included. The 3 cohorts differed in terms of mastectomy type (nipple-sparing: 23.5% of AlloDerm, 33.3% of FlexHD, 19.1% of SurgiMend, P = .038); ADM perforation (perforated: 94.8% of AlloDerm, 98.2% of FlexHD, 100% of SurgiMend, P < .001); and ADM size (AlloDerm: 153.2 cm2 [37.6], SurgiMend: 198.7 cm2 [10.4], FlexHD: 223.7 cm2 [37.9], P < .001). On univariate examination, no differences existed between ADM types for seroma, infection, exposure, malposition, or TE loss. Additionally, after adjustment for confounders with multivariate regression, no ADM type had higher odds of TE loss. CONCLUSIONS: In this large cohort of prepectoral reconstruction patients, ADM type did not significantly affect the risk of complications. Additional prospective studies are warranted to better evaluate ADM choice for prepectoral breast reconstruction.


Assuntos
Derme Acelular , Implante Mamário , Implantes de Mama , Neoplasias da Mama , Colágeno , Mamoplastia , Humanos , Feminino , Mastectomia/efeitos adversos , Implante Mamário/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Mamoplastia/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Implantes de Mama/efeitos adversos
14.
J Surg Oncol ; 128(5): 726-742, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37403585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects of COVID-19 on breast reconstruction included shifts toward alloplastic reconstruction methods to preserve hospital resources and minimize COVID exposures. We examined the effects of COVID-19 on breast reconstruction hospital length of stay (LOS) and subsequent early postoperative complication rates. METHODS: Using the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program, we examined female patients who underwent mastectomy with immediate breast reconstruction from 2019 to 2020. We compared postoperative complications across 2019-2020 for alloplastic and autologous reconstruction patients. We further performed subanalysis of 2020 patients based on LOS. RESULTS: Both alloplastic and autologous reconstruction patients had shorter inpatient stays. Regarding the alloplastic 2019 versus 2020 cohorts, complication rates did not differ (p > 0.05 in all cases). Alloplastic patients in 2020 with longer LOS had more unplanned reoperations (p < 0.001). Regarding autologous patients in 2019 versus 2020, the only complication increasing from 2019 to 2020 was deep surgical site infection (SSI) (2.0% vs. 3.6%, p = 0.024). Autologous patients in 2020 with longer LOS had more unplanned reoperations (p = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: In 2020, hospital LOS decreased for all breast reconstruction patients with no complication differences in alloplastic patients and a slight increase in SSIs in autologous patients. Shorter LOS may lead to improved satisfaction and lower healthcare costs with low complication risk, and future research should examine the potential relationship between LOS and these outcomes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , COVID-19 , Mamoplastia , Humanos , Feminino , Mastectomia/efeitos adversos , Tempo de Internação , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , COVID-19/complicações , Mamoplastia/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 2023 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37335555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The delay procedure in DIEP flap breast reconstruction, in which the reduced-caliber choke vessels play a major role, can provide more well-perfused tissue than a standard DIEP flap. The aim of this study was to review our experience with this technique, to evaluate the indications, and to analyze the surgical outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted of all consecutive DIEP delay procedures performed between March 2019 and June 2021. Patient demographics, operative details, and complications were registered. Patients had preoperative imaging by MRA to select dominant perforators. The surgical technique involves a two-stage operation. During the first operation the flaps were pedicled on a dominant perforator and a lateral skin bridge extending towards the lateral flank and lumbar fat, and in a second stage the flap is harvested and transferred. RESULTS: A total of 82 extended DIEP delay procedures were performed to reconstruct 154 breasts. The majority were bilateral breast reconstructions (87.8%). The delay procedure was used for 38 primary reconstructions (46.3%) and 32 tertiary reconstructions (39.0%). The primary indication was the need for additional volume (79.3%), followed by extensive abdominal scarring and liposuction. After the first operation seroma was the most frequently observed complication (7.3%). After the second operation three total flap losses (1.9%) were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The delay procedure in DIEP flap breast reconstruction results in the harvest of a good amount of abdominal tissue by adding a preliminary procedure. This technique can convert patients previously considered unsuitable into suitable candidates for abdominal-based breast reconstruction.

16.
Br J Surg ; 110(7): 831-838, 2023 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37178195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nipple-sparing mastectomy is associated with a higher risk of mastectomy skin-flap necrosis than conventional skin-sparing mastectomy. There are limited prospective data examining modifiable intraoperative factors that contribute to skin-flap necrosis after nipple-sparing mastectomy. METHODS: Data on consecutive patients undergoing nipple-sparing mastectomy between April 2018 and December 2020 were recorded prospectively. Relevant intraoperative variables were documented by both breast and plastic surgeons at the time of surgery. The presence and extent of nipple and/or skin-flap necrosis was documented at the first postoperative visit. Necrosis treatment and outcome was documented at 8-10 weeks after surgery. The association of clinical and intraoperative variables with nipple and skin-flap necrosis was analysed, and significant variables were included in a multivariable logistic regression analysis with backward selection. RESULTS: Some 299 patients underwent 515 nipple-sparing mastectomies (54.8 per cent (282 of 515) prophylactic, 45.2 per cent therapeutic). Overall, 23.3 per cent of breasts (120 of 515) developed nipple or skin-flap necrosis; 45.8 per cent of these (55 of 120) had nipple necrosis only. Among 120 breasts with necrosis, 22.5 per cent had superficial, 60.8 per cent had partial, and 16.7 per cent had full-thickness necrosis. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, significant modifiable intraoperative predictors of necrosis included sacrificing the second intercostal perforator (P = 0.006), greater tissue expander fill volume (P < 0.001), and non-lateral inframammary fold incision placement (P = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Modifiable intraoperative factors that may decrease the likelihood of necrosis after nipple-sparing mastectomy include incision placement in the lateral inframammary fold, preserving the second intercostal perforating vessel, and minimizing tissue expander fill volume.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Mamoplastia , Mastectomia Subcutânea , Humanos , Feminino , Mastectomia , Mamilos/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Necrose/etiologia , Necrose/prevenção & controle , Necrose/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 2023 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37220401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prepectoral tissue expander (TE) placement for two-stage postmastectomy reconstruction is usually performed in conjunction with insertion of acellular dermal matrix (ADM). However, the effects of ADM use on TE loss or other early complications remain unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare early postoperative complications in patients who underwent prepectoral breast implant reconstruction with or without ADM use. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of all patients at our institution who underwent prepectoral breast reconstruction from January 2018 to June 2021. The primary outcome was TE loss within 90 days of surgery; secondary outcomes included other complications including infection, TE exposure, mastectomy skin flap necrosis requiring revision, and seroma. RESULTS: Data on 714 patients with 1,225 TEs (1,060 with ADM, 165 without) were analyzed. Baseline demographics did not differ by ADM use, though mastectomy breast tissue weight was higher in patients without ADM (750.3 g vs. 540.8 g, p < 0.001). Rates of TE loss were similar in reconstructions with (3.8 percent) ADM and without (6.7 percent; p = 0.09). We also did not find differences in the rates of secondary outcomes between cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: ADM use had no statistically significant effect on early complication rates among patients undergoing breast reconstruction with prepectoral TEs. Still, we were underpowered and data trended toward statistical significance, so larger studies are required in the future. Additional research and randomized studies should focus on larger cohorts and examine long-term complications such as capsular contracture and implant malposition.

18.
Gland Surg ; 12(4): 516-526, 2023 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37200935

RESUMO

Breast cancer is currently the most common cancer in female patients in the United States and around the world, with over 2 million new cases of breast cancer diagnosed in 2020. Subsequently, breast reconstruction after mastectomy is also becoming increasingly common. While not every patient elects to undergo reconstruction after mastectomy, many patients desire reconstruction with either implant-based or autologous tissue. In certain patients, autologous reconstruction can offer a multitude of advantages over implant-based reconstruction. While abdominally-based free flaps such as the deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap have become the flap of choice for breast reconstruction, the profunda artery perforator (PAP) flap is a strong alternative for patients in which abdominally-based flaps are contraindicated or insufficient. This clinical practice review aims to summarizes the history of the PAP flap, describe relevant anatomy and characteristics of the PAP flap that make it a well-suited option in breast reconstruction. It will also provide clinical pearls related to pre-operative preparation, markings, and surgical technique involved in ensuring successful perforator dissection, flap harvest, inset, and survival. Finally, this review will discuss current literature published on PAP flaps to determine post-operative clinical outcomes, complications, and patient reported outcomes associated with PAP flap breast reconstruction.

19.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 166(4): 1262-1272.e2, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37236598

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pedicled flaps (PFs) have historically served as the preferred option for reconstruction of large chest wall defects. More recently, the indications for microvascular-free flaps (MVFFs) have increased, particularly for defects in which PFs are inadequate or unavailable. We sought to compare oncologic and surgical outcomes between MVFFs and PFs in reconstructions of full-thickness chest wall defects. METHODS: We retrospectively identified all patients who underwent chest wall resection at our institution from 2000 to 2022. Patients were stratified by flap reconstruction. End points were defect size, rate of complete resection, rate of local recurrence, and postoperative outcomes. Multivariable analysis was performed to identify factors associated with complications at 30 days. RESULTS: In total, 536 patients underwent chest wall resection, of whom 133 had flap reconstruction (MVFF, n = 28; PF, n = 105). The median (interquartile range) covered defect size was 172 cm2 (100-216 cm2) for patients receiving MVFF versus 109 cm2 (75-148 cm2) for patients receiving PF (P = .004). The rate of R0 resection was high in both groups (MVFF, 93% [n = 26]; PF, 86% [n = 90]; P = .5). The rate of local recurrence was 4% in MVFF patients (n = 1) versus 12% in PF patients (n = 13, P = .3). Postoperative complications were not statistically different between groups (odds ratio for PF, 1.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.39-5.14]; P = .6). Operative time >400 minutes was associated with 30-day complications (odds ratio, 3.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-9.93; P = .033). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with MVFFs had larger defects, a high rate of complete resection, and a low rate of local recurrence. MVFFs are a valid option for chest wall reconstructions.


Assuntos
Retalhos de Tecido Biológico , Procedimentos de Cirurgia Plástica , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Torácicos , Parede Torácica , Humanos , Retalhos de Tecido Biológico/efeitos adversos , Retalhos de Tecido Biológico/cirurgia , Parede Torácica/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Procedimentos de Cirurgia Plástica/efeitos adversos
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