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1.
Span J Psychiatry Ment Health ; 17(2): 95-102, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic status (SES) and gender play a key role in mental health. The objective of this study was to assess socioeconomic and gender mental health inequalities in adolescents and young adults using a population-based registry. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a lifetime follow-up study of all residents in the Basque Country between 1 and 30 years old (n=609,381) as of 31 December 2018. Primary care, specialized outpatient, and hospital care records were searched for diagnoses. SES was assessed based on household income. We estimated disaggregated lifetime prevalence of substance use, behaviour, anxiety, depression, psychosis, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The local Institute of Statistics validated the mortality data. The likelihood of risks was estimated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Overall, 96,671 individuals (15.9%) had a diagnosed mental disorder, with clear gradients by gender and SES. Females of medium-to-high SES had the lowest prevalence of all mental disorders, except anxiety and depression. This group was followed by males of the same SES and females of low SES, while the highest prevalence of mental disorders was observed in low-SES males. The lower income categories had higher risks of psychiatric admission (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 3.64 for females; 6.66 for males) and death (AOR: 5.42). People with a mental health diagnosis had higher mortality (AOR: 2.38). CONCLUSIONS: Our work evidenced important SES and gender inequalities in the mental health and premature mortality of adolescents and young adults, findings that should drive the development and implementation of early preventive interventions.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Classe Social , Humanos , Adolescente , Masculino , Feminino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Fatores Sexuais , Criança , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Espanha/epidemiologia , Lactente , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Seguimentos , Prevalência , Sistema de Registros
2.
J Affect Disord ; 356: 424-435, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38631424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies conducted in various nationally representative samples of the general population show that positive mental health is related to social prosperity. However, specific studies in university populations are scarce. In this study, we set out to explore factors associated with mental well-being (MWB) in a representative sample of first-year university students in Spain. METHODS: MWB was assessed with the short version of the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale. Multinomial logistic regressions were performed to explore the association between different blocks of factors, including relational, adversity, stress, lifestyle, spiritual, health, and self-perceived health variables with high and low MWB, controlling for sociodemographic and university-related variables. RESULTS: Data from 2082 students (18.6 ± 1.2 years; 56.6 % females) were analysed. Being male, being born in a foreign country, "high" self-perceived support, and "high" self-perceived mental health increased the odds of high MWB. Growing up in the suburbs, stressful experiences, and anxiety disorders reduced the odds of high MWB. Mood and anxiety disorders increased the odds of low MWB. "Middle" self-perceived support, sleeping ≥8 h per day, and "high" self-perceived mental health reduced the odds of low MWB. LIMITATIONS: The cross-sectional design precludes establishing causal relationships. Data were collected in the 2014-15 academic year using self-reported online surveys. CONCLUSION: The factors associated with high and low MWB do not always mirror each other, so specific plans are needed to successfully address each of the two poles. Interventions and policies targeting these factors for health promotion and disease prevention would improve the MWB of university students.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Estudantes , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Universidades , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Apoio Social , Estilo de Vida , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia
3.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 83: 32-42, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38579661

RESUMO

Neurosciences clinical trials continue to have notoriously high failure rates. Appropriate outcomes selection in early clinical trials is key to maximizing the likelihood of identifying new treatments in psychiatry and neurology. The field lacks good standards for designing outcome strategies, therefore The Outcomes Research Group was formed to develop and promote good practices in outcome selection. This article describes the first published guidance on the standardization of the process for clinical outcomes in neuroscience. A minimal step process is defined starting as early as possible, covering key activities for evidence generation in support of content validity, patient-centricity, validity requirements and considerations for regulatory acceptance. Feedback from expert members is provided, regarding the risks of shortening the process and examples supporting the recommended process are summarized. This methodology is now available to researchers in industry, academia or clinics aiming to implement consensus-based standard practices for clinical outcome selection, contributing to maximizing the efficiency of clinical research.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Neurociências , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/normas , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Neurociências/normas , Neurociências/métodos , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/normas , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/normas , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8149, 2024 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589491

RESUMO

Healthcare workers (HCWs) were at high risk of experiencing psychological distress during COVID-19 pandemic. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact on HCWs' mental health in a Spanish hospital. Cross-sectional study of HCW, active between May and June 2020. A web-based survey assessed probable current mental disorders (major depressive disorder [PHQ-8 ≥ 10], generalized anxiety disorder [GAD-7 ≥ 10], panic attacks, post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD; PLC-5 ≥ 7], or substance use disorder [CAGE-AID ≥ 2]). The Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) was used to assess severe impairment and items taken from the modified self-report version of the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS) assessed suicidal thoughts and behaviors. A total of 870 HCWs completed the survey. Most frequent probable mental disorders were major depressive disorder (33.6%), generalized anxiety disorder (25.5%), panic attacks (26.9%), PTSD (27.2%), and substance use disorder (5.0%). Being female, having aged 18-29 years, being an auxiliary nurse, direct exposure to COVID-19-infected patients, and pre-pandemic lifetime mental disorders were positively associated with mental issues. Hospital HCWs presented a high prevalence of symptoms of mental disorders, especially depression, PTSD, panic attacks, and anxiety. Younger individuals and those with lifetime mental disorders have been more vulnerable to experiencing them.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Recursos Humanos em Hospital , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão
5.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 13: e51298, 2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38551647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental health conditions have become a substantial cause of disability worldwide, resulting in economic burden and strain on the public health system. Incorporating cognitive and physiological biomarkers using noninvasive sensors combined with self-reported questionnaires can provide a more accurate characterization of the individual's well-being. Biomarkers such as heart rate variability or those extracted from the electrodermal activity signal are commonly considered as indices of autonomic nervous system functioning, providing objective indicators of stress response. A model combining a set of these biomarkers can constitute a comprehensive tool to remotely assess mental well-being and distress. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to design and validate a remote multiparametric tool, including physiological and cognitive variables, to objectively assess mental well-being and distress. METHODS: This ongoing observational study pursues to enroll 60 young participants (aged 18-34 years) in 3 groups, including participants with high mental well-being, participants with mild to moderate psychological distress, and participants diagnosed with depression or anxiety disorder. The inclusion and exclusion criteria are being evaluated through a web-based questionnaire, and for those with a mental health condition, the criteria are identified by psychologists. The assessment consists of collecting mental health self-reported measures and physiological data during a baseline state, the Stroop Color and Word Test as a stress-inducing stage, and a final recovery period. Several variables related to heart rate variability, pulse arrival time, breathing, electrodermal activity, and peripheral temperature are collected using medical and wearable devices. A second assessment is carried out after 1 month. The assessment tool will be developed using self-reported questionnaires assessing well-being (short version of Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale), anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7), and depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9) as the reference. We will perform correlation and principal component analysis to reduce the number of variables, followed by the calculation of multiple regression models. Test-retest reliability, known-group validity, and predictive validity will be assessed. RESULTS: Participant recruitment is being carried out on a university campus and in mental health services. Recruitment commenced in October 2022 and is expected to be completed by June 2024. As of July 2023, we have recruited 41 participants. Most participants correspond to the group with mild to moderate psychological distress (n=20, 49%), followed by the high mental well-being group (n=13, 32%) and those diagnosed with a mental health condition (n=8, 20%). Data preprocessing is currently ongoing, and publication of the first results is expected by September 2024. CONCLUSIONS: This study will establish an initial framework for a comprehensive mental health assessment tool, taking measurements from sophisticated devices, with the goal of progressing toward a remotely accessible and objectively measured approach that maintains an acceptable level of accuracy in clinical practice and epidemiological studies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: OSF Registries N3GCH; https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/N3GCH. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/51298.

6.
Int J Ment Health Syst ; 18(1): 11, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38429785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental health service providers are increasingly interested in patient perspectives. We examined rates and predictors of patient-reported satisfaction and perceived helpfulness in a cross-national general population survey of adults with 12-month DSM-IV disorders who saw a provider for help with their mental health. METHODS: Data were obtained from epidemiological surveys in the World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Respondents were asked about satisfaction with treatments received from up to 11 different types of providers (very satisfied, satisfied, neither satisfied nor dissatisfied, somewhat dissatisfied, very dissatisfied) and helpfulness of the provider (a lot, some, a little, not at all). We modelled predictors of satisfaction and helpfulness using a dataset of patient-provider observations (n = 5,248). RESULTS: Most treatment was provided by general medical providers (37.4%), psychiatrists (18.4%) and psychologists (12.7%). Most patients were satisfied or very satisfied (65.9-87.5%, across provider) and helped a lot or some (64.4-90.3%). Spiritual advisors and healers were most often rated satisfactory and helpful. Social workers in human services settings were rated lowest on both dimensions. Patients also reported comparatively low satisfaction with general medical doctors and psychiatrists/psychologists and found general medical doctors less helpful than other providers. Men and students reported lower levels of satisfaction than women and nonstudents. Respondents with high education reported higher satisfaction and helpfulness than those with lower education. Type of mental disorder was unrelated to satisfaction but in some cases (depression, bipolar spectrum disorder, social phobia) was associated with low perceived helpfulness. Insurance was unrelated to either satisfaction or perceived helpfulness but in some cases was associated with elevated perceived helpfulness for a given level of satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: Satisfaction with and perceived helpfulness of treatment varied as a function of type of provider, service setting, mental status, and socio-demographic variables. Invariably, caution is needed in combining data from multiple countries where there are cultural and service delivery variations. Even so, our findings underscore the utility of patient perspectives in treatment evaluation and may also be relevant in efforts to match patients to treatments.

7.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 220, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38509500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-harm presents a significant public health challenge. Emergency departments (EDs) are crucial healthcare settings in managing self-harm, but clinician uncertainty in risk assessment may contribute to ineffective care. Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSSs) show promise in enhancing care processes, but their effective implementation in self-harm management remains unexplored. METHODS: PERMANENS comprises a combination of methodologies and study designs aimed at developing a CDSS prototype that assists clinicians in the personalized assessment and management of ED patients presenting with self-harm. Ensemble prediction models will be constructed by applying machine learning techniques on electronic registry data from four sites, i.e., Catalonia (Spain), Ireland, Norway, and Sweden. These models will predict key adverse outcomes including self-harm repetition, suicide, premature death, and lack of post-discharge care. Available registry data include routinely collected electronic health record data, mortality data, and administrative data, and will be harmonized using the OMOP Common Data Model, ensuring consistency in terminologies, vocabularies and coding schemes. A clinical knowledge base of effective suicide prevention interventions will be developed rooted in a systematic review of clinical practice guidelines, including quality assessment of guidelines using the AGREE II tool. The CDSS software prototype will include a backend that integrates the prediction models and the clinical knowledge base to enable accurate patient risk stratification and subsequent intervention allocation. The CDSS frontend will enable personalized risk assessment and will provide tailored treatment plans, following a tiered evidence-based approach. Implementation research will ensure the CDSS' practical functionality and feasibility, and will include periodic meetings with user-advisory groups, mixed-methods research to identify currently unmet needs in self-harm risk assessment, and small-scale usability testing of the CDSS prototype software. DISCUSSION: Through the development of the proposed CDSS software prototype, PERMANENS aims to standardize care, enhance clinician confidence, improve patient satisfaction, and increase treatment compliance. The routine integration of CDSS for self-harm risk assessment within healthcare systems holds significant potential in effectively reducing suicide mortality rates by facilitating personalized and timely delivery of effective interventions on a large scale for individuals at risk of suicide.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Humanos , Assistência ao Convalescente , Alta do Paciente , Software , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/diagnóstico , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/prevenção & controle , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
9.
Psychiatry Res ; 334: 115800, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38387166

RESUMO

Little is known about healthcare workers' (HCW) use of healthcare services for mental disorders. This study presents data from a 16-month prospective cohort study of Spanish HCW (n = 4,809), recruited shortly after the COVID-19 pandemic onset, and assessed at four timepoints using web-based surveys. Use of health services among HCW with mental health conditions (i.e., those having a positive screen for mental disorders and/or suicidal thoughts and behaviours [STB]) was initially low (i.e., 18.2 %) but increased to 29.6 % at 16-month follow-up. Service use was positively associated with pre-pandemic mental health treatment (OR=1.99), a positive screen for major depressive disorder (OR=1.50), panic attacks (OR=1.74), suicidal thoughts and behaviours (OR=1.22), and experiencing severe role impairment (OR=1.33), and negatively associated with being female (OR = 0.69) and a higher daily number of work hours (OR=0.95). Around 30 % of HCW with mental health conditions used anxiolytics (benzodiazepines), especially medical doctors. Four out of ten HCW (39.0 %) with mental health conditions indicated a need for (additional) help, with most important barriers for service use being too ashamed, long waiting lists, and professional treatment not being available. Our findings delineate a clear mental health treatment gap among Spanish HCW.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Internet
10.
Arch Suicide Res ; 28(1): 342-357, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36762658

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the mental health of populations around the world, but few longitudinal studies of its impact on suicidal thoughts and behaviors have been published especially from low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study of 1,385 first-year students from 5 Universities in Mexico followed-up for 1 year. We report 1-year cumulative incidence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors before (September 19, 2019-March 29, 2020) and during the COVID-19 period (March 30, 2020-June 30, 2020), focusing on those in the COVID-19 period with risk conditions and positive coping strategies during the pandemic. RESULTS: There was an increase in the incidence of suicidal ideation during the COVID-19 period compared to the pre-COVID-19 period (RR 1.65, 95%CI 1.08-2.50). This increase was mostly found among students with heightened sense of vulnerability (RR 1.95), any poor coping behavior (RR 2.40) and a prior mental disorder (RR 2.41). While we found no evidence of an increased risk of suicidal planning or attempts, there was evidence that those without lifetime mental health disorders were at greater risk of suicidal plans than those with these disorders especially if they had poor coping strategies (RR 3.14). CONCLUSION: In the short term, how students deal with the pandemic, being at high risk and having poor coping behavior, increased the new occurrence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Studies with longer follow-up and interventions to reduce or enhance these behaviors are needed.HIGHLIGHTSSuicidal ideation increased during the COVID-19 periodThose with heightened sense of vulnerability and poor coping were more affectedStudies with longer follow-up are needed.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Ideação Suicida , Humanos , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Pandemias , Universidades , Estudos Prospectivos , México/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudantes/psicologia
11.
Psychol Med ; 54(1): 67-78, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37706298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite their documented efficacy, substantial proportions of patients discontinue antidepressant medication (ADM) without a doctor's recommendation. The current report integrates data on patient-reported reasons into an investigation of patterns and predictors of ADM discontinuation. METHODS: Face-to-face interviews with community samples from 13 countries (n = 30 697) in the World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys included n = 1890 respondents who used ADMs within the past 12 months. RESULTS: 10.9% of 12-month ADM users reported discontinuation-based on recommendation of the prescriber while 15.7% discontinued in the absence of prescriber recommendation. The main patient-reported reason for discontinuation was feeling better (46.6%), which was reported by a higher proportion of patients who discontinued within the first 2 weeks of treatment than later. Perceived ineffectiveness (18.5%), predisposing factors (e.g. fear of dependence) (20.0%), and enabling factors (e.g. inability to afford treatment cost) (5.0%) were much less commonly reported reasons. Discontinuation in the absence of prescriber recommendation was associated with low country income level, being employed, and having above average personal income. Age, prior history of psychotropic medication use, and being prescribed treatment from a psychiatrist rather than from a general medical practitioner, in comparison, were associated with a lower probability of this type of discontinuation. However, these predictors varied substantially depending on patient-reported reasons for discontinuation. CONCLUSION: Dropping out early is not necessarily negative with almost half of individuals noting they felt better. The study underscores the diverse reasons given for dropping out and the need to evaluate how and whether dropping out influences short- or long-term functioning.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Humanos , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
12.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 37(1): 43-55, 2024 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37972975

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The main purpose of the study was to assess university students' mental health and identify factors associated with the risk of suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and distance learning. RECENT FINDINGS: The study was conducted in spring 2021 and comprised 10 760 Polish students. The survey employed modified versions of the C-SSRS, CIDI, WHO-5, GAD-7, the PTSD checklist for DSM-5 and CAGE-AID Questionnaire and included questions about panic attacks, COVID-19-related information and sociodemographic characteristics. The correlates of suicidality were examined using a series of logistic regression analyses. Almost 40% students experienced any suicidal thoughts and/or behaviours in the previous month: passive ideations only (15.8%), active ideations only (7.1%), plans without attempts (15%), and attempts (1.4%). Following variables were related to the increased risk for suicide attempts: severe anxiety [odds ratio (OR) = 11.39; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.44-90.26], panic attacks (OR = 3.21; 95% CI: 1.75-5.91), and COVID-19 hospitalisation (OR = 11.04; 95% CI: 1.17-104.59). Major depression was associated with passive and active ideations, suicide plans, but not with attempts (OR = 1.37; 95% CI: 0.45-4.13). SUMMARY: University students present a high level of adverse mental health and increased risk of STBs during COVID-19 pandemic. A suicide prevention program tailored to this population is needed during and after the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Suicídio , Humanos , Ideação Suicida , Pandemias , Universidades , Polônia/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Fatores de Risco
13.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 9: e48138, 2023 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37995112

RESUMO

Monitoring of the mental health status of the population and assessment of its determinants are 2 of the most relevant pillars of public mental health, and data from population health surveys could be instrumental to support them. Although these surveys could be an important and suitable resource for these purposes, due to different limitations and challenges, they are often relegated to the background behind other data sources, such as electronic health records. These limitations and challenges include those related to measurement properties and cross-cultural validity of the tools used for the assessment of mental disorders, their degree of representativeness, and possible difficulties in the linkage with other data sources. Successfully addressing these limitations could significantly increase the potential of health surveys in the monitoring of mental disorders and ultimately maximize the impact of the relevant policies to reduce their burden at the population level. The widespread use of data from population health surveys, ideally linked to electronic health records data, would enhance the quality of the information available for research, public mental health decision-making, and ultimately addressing the growing burden of mental disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Saúde da População , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde
14.
Lancet Public Health ; 8(11): e889-e898, 2023 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37898521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Assessing the prevalence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms and their possible variation by country and over time could be a valuable resource to inform the development of public health policies and preventive resources to reduce mental health burden. We aimed to assess cross-national differences in the point prevalence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms in Europe in 2018-20, and to evaluate point prevalence differences between countries and over time between 2013-15 and 2018-20. METHODS: In this population-based study, data from participants in the second and third waves of the European Health Interview Survey (EHIS-2 from 2013 to 2015 and EHIS-3 from 2018 to 2020) from 30 European countries were used (n=542 580). From the total sample, 283 692 participants belonging to EHIS-3 were included in the study (52·4% women and 47·5% men). The non-response in EHIS-3 ranged by country, from 12% to 78%. Point prevalence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms was evaluated using a cutoff score of 10 or more for the 8-item version of the Patient Health Questionnaire. Crude prevalence ratios and adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) were obtained to assess differences in the prevalence between countries and over time within countries. FINDINGS: The point prevalence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms in Europe in 2018-20 was 6·54% (95% CI 6·34-6·73), ranging across countries from 1·85% (1·53-2·17) in Greece to 10·72% (10·04-11·40) in Sweden. Compared with the other European countries, those with the lowest aPRs were Greece, Serbia, and Cyprus and those with the highest aPRs were Belgium, Slovenia, and Croatia. A small but significant increase in the prevalence between EHIS-2 and EHIS-3 was observed (aPR 1·11 [1·07-1·14]). A wide variability over time in the point prevalence within countries was observed, ranging from an aPR of 0·63 (0·54-0·74) in Hungary to 1·88 (1·53-2·31) in Slovenia. INTERPRETATION: This study, based on large and representative datasets and a valid and reliable screening tool for the assessment of depression, indicates that the point prevalence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms in Europe from 2013 to 2020 remains relatively stable, with wide variability between countries. These findings could be considered a baseline for monitoring the prevalence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms in Europe, and could inform policy for the development of preventive strategies for depression both at a country and European level. FUNDING: Center for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology and Public Health Network and AGAUR.


Assuntos
Depressão , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Prevalência , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Grécia/epidemiologia
15.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 18(1): 316, 2023 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37817256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Familial chylomicronemia syndrome (FCS) is a rare, hereditary, metabolic disorder. FCS causes high levels of triglycerides in the blood, which can lead to abdominal pain, xanthomas, and acute pancreatitis (AP). Volanesorsen, along with adherence to a very low-fat diet is used to reduce triglyceride levels in individuals with FCS. We aimed to understand the symptoms of FCS and their impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). METHODS: Interviews were conducted with individuals with genetically confirmed FCS in the UK and Spain, some of whom had been treated with volanesorsen. Interview guides were developed with input from a patient advocacy group to explore the symptoms, impacts and management of FCS. Interviews were conducted by telephone and were recorded and transcribed. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis and saturation was recorded. RESULTS: Seventeen interviews were conducted with individuals with FCS (aged 27-68 years), thirteen of whom were currently/previously treated with volanesorsen. Episodes of AP were the most impactful reported symptom, resulting in severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, bloating and appetite loss. Other symptoms and functional issues included abdominal pain, gastrointestinal symptoms, impaired cognitive function and fatigue. These had an impact on work, social activities, relationships and psychological wellbeing. These symptoms and impacts were illustrated in a conceptual model, including management strategies. The challenges of managing a low-fat diet and experience with volanesorsen were discussed. CONCLUSION: Individuals with FCS experience a range of interrelated symptoms and functional limitations which impact their broader HRQoL. Treatments which alleviate symptoms and reduce the incidence of AP episodes have the potential to improve the HRQoL of these individuals.


Assuntos
Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo I , Pancreatite , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Doença Aguda , Pancreatite/etiologia , Dor Abdominal/complicações , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente
17.
J Infect Public Health ; 16(11): 1784-1792, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37741013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2021, the Spanish Ministry of Health launched the CIBERPOSTCOVID project to establish what post COVID was. The present study reports the level of agreement among stakeholders on post COVID and its clinical and diagnostic characteristics in the Spanish health system. METHODS: The agreement on post COVID among clinicians, public health managers, researchers and patients' representatives was explored in a real-time, asynchronous online Delphi. In a two-wave consensus, respondents rated from 1 (total disagreement) to 6 (total agreement) 67 statements related to terminology, duration, etiology, symptoms, impact on quality of life, severity, elements to facilitate diagnosis, applicability in the pediatric population, and risk factors. Consensus was reached when 70 % of ratings for a statement were 5 or 6, with an interquartile range equal or less than 1. FINDINGS: A total of 333 professionals and patients participated in this eDelphi study. There was agreement that post COVID was "a set of multi-organic symptoms that persist or fluctuate after acute COVID-19 infection and are not attributable to other causes" with a minimum duration of 3 months. The highest levels of agreement were found in the most frequent symptoms and its impacts on everyday activities. Aspects related to the diagnostic process and the measurement of its severity reached a lower level of consensus. There was agreement on the need to rule out previous health problems and assess severity using validated functional scales. However, no agreement was reached on the risk factors or specific features in the pediatric population. INTERPRETATION: This policy-based consensus study has allowed the characterization of post COVID generating collective intelligence and has contributed to an operational definition applicable in clinical practice, health services management and useful for research purposes in Spain and abroad. Agreements are consistent with existing evidence and reference institutions at European and international level.

18.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 10(9): 668-681, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37531964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Information on the frequency and timing of mental disorder onsets across the lifespan is of fundamental importance for public health planning. Broad, cross-national estimates of this information from coordinated general population surveys were last updated in 2007. We aimed to provide updated and improved estimates of age-of-onset distributions, lifetime prevalence, and morbid risk. METHODS: In this cross-national analysis, we analysed data from respondents aged 18 years or older to the World Mental Health surveys, a coordinated series of cross-sectional, face-to-face community epidemiological surveys administered between 2001 and 2022. In the surveys, the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview, a fully structured psychiatric diagnostic interview, was used to assess age of onset, lifetime prevalence, and morbid risk of 13 DSM-IV mental disorders until age 75 years across surveys by sex. We did not assess ethnicity. The surveys were geographically clustered and weighted to adjust for selection probability, and standard errors of incidence rates and cumulative incidence curves were calculated using the jackknife repeated replications simulation method, taking weighting and geographical clustering of data into account. FINDINGS: We included 156 331 respondents from 32 surveys in 29 countries, including 12 low-income and middle-income countries and 17 high-income countries, and including 85 308 (54·5%) female respondents and 71 023 (45·4%) male respondents. The lifetime prevalence of any mental disorder was 28·6% (95% CI 27·9-29·2) for male respondents and 29·8% (29·2-30·3) for female respondents. Morbid risk of any mental disorder by age 75 years was 46·4% (44·9-47·8) for male respondents and 53·1% (51·9-54·3) for female respondents. Conditional probabilities of first onset peaked at approximately age 15 years, with a median age of onset of 19 years (IQR 14-32) for male respondents and 20 years (12-36) for female respondents. The two most prevalent disorders were alcohol use disorder and major depressive disorder for male respondents and major depressive disorder and specific phobia for female respondents. INTERPRETATION: By age 75 years, approximately half the population can expect to develop one or more of the 13 mental disorders considered in this Article. These disorders typically first emerge in childhood, adolescence, or young adulthood. Services should have the capacity to detect and treat common mental disorders promptly and to optimise care that suits people at these crucial parts of the life course. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos Fóbicos , Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Idade de Início , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Prevalência , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Comorbidade
19.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 32: e50, 2023 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37555258

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the occurrence of traumatic stress symptoms (TSS) among healthcare workers active during the COVID-19 pandemic and to obtain insight as to which pandemic-related stressful experiences are associated with onset and persistence of traumatic stress. METHODS: This is a multicenter prospective cohort study. Spanish healthcare workers (N = 4,809) participated at an initial assessment (i.e., just after the first wave of the Spain COVID-19 pandemic) and at a 4-month follow-up assessment using web-based surveys. Logistic regression investigated associations of 19 pandemic-related stressful experiences across four domains (infection-related, work-related, health-related and financial) with TSS prevalence, incidence and persistence, including simulations of population attributable risk proportions (PARP). RESULTS: Thirty-day TSS prevalence at T1 was 22.1%. Four-month incidence and persistence were 11.6% and 54.2%, respectively. Auxiliary nurses had highest rates of TSS prevalence (35.1%) and incidence (16.1%). All 19 pandemic-related stressful experiences under study were associated with TSS prevalence or incidence, especially experiences from the domains of health-related (PARP range 88.4-95.6%) and work-related stressful experiences (PARP range 76.8-86.5%). Nine stressful experiences were also associated with TSS persistence, of which having patient(s) in care who died from COVID-19 had the strongest association. This association remained significant after adjusting for co-occurring depression and anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: TSSs among Spanish healthcare workers active during the COVID-19 pandemic are common and associated with various pandemic-related stressful experiences. Future research should investigate if these stressful experiences represent truly traumatic experiences and carry risk for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases , Pessoal de Saúde , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Depressão
20.
Psychol Med ; 53(7): 2963-2973, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37449483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study investigates associations of several dimensions of childhood adversities (CAs) with lifetime mental disorders, 12-month disorder persistence, and impairment among incoming college students. METHODS: Data come from the World Mental Health International College Student Initiative (WMH-ICS). Web-based surveys conducted in nine countries (n = 20 427) assessed lifetime and 12-month mental disorders, 12-month role impairment, and seven types of CAs occurring before the age of 18: parental psychopathology, emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, neglect, bullying victimization, and dating violence. Poisson regressions estimated associations using three dimensions of CA exposure: type, number, and frequency. RESULTS: Overall, 75.8% of students reported exposure to at least one CA. In multivariate regression models, lifetime onset and 12-month mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders were all associated with either the type, number, or frequency of CAs. In contrast, none of these associations was significant when predicting disorder persistence. Of the three CA dimensions examined, only frequency was associated with severe role impairment among students with 12-month disorders. Population-attributable risk simulations suggest that 18.7-57.5% of 12-month disorders and 16.3% of severe role impairment among those with disorders were associated with these CAs. CONCLUSION: CAs are associated with an elevated risk of onset and impairment among 12-month cases of diverse mental disorders but are not involved in disorder persistence. Future research on the associations of CAs with psychopathology should include fine-grained assessments of CA exposure and attempt to trace out modifiable intervention targets linked to mechanisms of associations with lifetime psychopathology and burden of 12-month mental disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia
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