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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 926: 172049, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38552974

RESUMO

Forests are undergoing increasing risks of drought-induced tree mortality. Species replacement patterns following mortality may have a significant impact on the global carbon cycle. Among major hardwoods, deciduous oaks (Quercus spp.) are increasingly reported as replacing dying conifers across the Northern Hemisphere. Yet, our knowledge on the growth responses of these oaks to drought is incomplete, especially regarding post-drought legacy effects. The objectives of this study were to determine the occurrence, duration, and magnitude of legacy effects of extreme droughts and how that vary across species, sites, and drought characteristics. The legacy effects were quantified by the deviation of observed from expected radial growth indices in the period 1940-2016. We used stand-level chronologies from 458 sites and 21 oak species primarily from Europe, north-eastern America, and eastern Asia. We found that legacy effects of droughts could last from 1 to 5 years after the drought and were more prolonged in dry sites. Negative legacy effects (i.e., lower growth than expected) were more prevalent after repetitive droughts in dry sites. The effect of repetitive drought was stronger in Mediterranean oaks especially in Quercus faginea. Species-specific analyses revealed that Q. petraea and Q. macrocarpa from dry sites were more negatively affected by the droughts while growth of several oak species from mesic sites increased during post-drought years. Sites showing positive correlations to winter temperature showed little to no growth depression after drought, whereas sites with a positive correlation to previous summer water balance showed decreased growth. This may indicate that although winter warming favors tree growth during droughts, previous-year summer precipitation may predispose oak trees to current-year extreme droughts. Our results revealed a massive role of repetitive droughts in determining legacy effects and highlighted how growth sensitivity to climate, drought seasonality and species-specific traits drive the legacy effects in deciduous oak species.


Assuntos
Quercus , Árvores , Quercus/fisiologia , Secas , Clima , Estações do Ano , Florestas , Mudança Climática
2.
Ann Bot ; 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38525918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Understanding anatomical variations across plant phylogenies and environmental gradients is vital for comprehending plant evolution and adaptation. Prior studies on tropical woody plants have paid limited attention to quantitative differences in major xylem tissues, which serve specific roles in mechanical support (fibers), carbohydrate storage and radial conduction (radial parenchyma, rays), wood capacitance (axial parenchyma), and water transport (vessels). To address this gap, we investigate xylem fractions in 173 tropical tree species spanning 134 genera and 53 families along a 2200 m elevational gradient on Mount Cameroon, West Africa. METHODS: We determined how elevation, stem height, and wood density affect interspecific differences in vessel, fiber, and specific axial (AP) and radial (RP) parenchyma fractions. We focus on quantifying distinct subcategories of homogenous or heterogeneous rays and apotracheal, paratracheal, and banded axial parenchyma. KEY RESULTS: Elevation-related cooling correlated with reduced AP fractions and vessel diameters, while fiber fractions increased. Lower elevations exhibited elevated AP fractions due to abundant paratracheal and wide-banded parenchyma in tall trees from coastal and lowland forests. Vasicentric and aliform AP were predominantly associated with greater tree height and wider vessels, which might help cope with high evaporative demands via elastic wood capacitance. In contrast, montane trees featured a higher fiber proportion, scarce axial parenchyma, smaller vessel diameters, and higher vessel densities. The lack of AP in montane trees was often compensated by extended uniseriate ray sections with upright or squared ray cells or the presence of living fibers. CONCLUSIONS: Elevation gradient influenced specific xylem fractions, with lower elevations showing elevated AP due to abundant paratracheal and wide-banded parenchyma, securing greater vessel-to-parenchyma connectivity and lower embolism risk. Montane trees featured a higher fiber proportion and smaller vessel diameters, which may aid survival under greater environmental seasonality and fire risk.

3.
Ann Bot ; 2024 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38407819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Understanding biomass allocation among plant organs is crucial for comprehending plant growth optimization, survival and responses to global change drivers. Yet, mechanisms governing mass allocation in vascular plants from extreme elevations exposed to cold and drought stresses remain poorly understood. METHODOLOGY: We analyzed organ mass weights and fractions in 258 Himalayan herbaceous species across diverse habitats (wetland, steppe, alpine), growth forms (annual, perennial taprooted, rhizomatous, cushiony), and climatic gradients (3500-6150 m elevation) to explore whether biomass distribution adhered to fixed allometric or optimal partitioning rules, and how variation in size, phylogeny, and ecological preferences influence their strategies for resource allocation. KEY FINDINGS: Following the optimal partitioning theory, Himalayan plants distribute more biomass to key organs vital for acquiring and preserving limited resources necessary for their growth and survival. Allocation strategies are mainly influenced by plant growth forms and habitat conditions, notably temperature, water availability, and evaporative demands. Alpine plants primarily invest in belowground stem bases for storage and regeneration, reducing aboveground stems while increasing leaf mass fraction to maximize carbon assimilation in their short growing season. Conversely, arid steppe plants prioritize deep roots over leaves to secure water and minimize transpiration. Wetland plants allocate resources to aboveground stems and belowground rhizomes, enabling them to resist competition and grazing in fertile environments. CONCLUSIONS: Himalayan plants from extreme elevations optimize their allocation strategies to acquire scarce resources under specific conditions, efficiently investing carbon from supportive to acquisitive and protective functions with increasing cold and drought. Intraspecific variation and shared ancestry did not significantly alter Himalayan plants' biomass allocation strategies. Despite diverse evolutionary histories, plants from similar habitats have developed comparable phenotypic structures to adapt to their specific environments. This study offers new insights into plant adaptations in diverse Himalayan environments and underscores the importance of efficient resource allocation for survival and growth in challenging conditions.

4.
Glob Chang Biol ; 30(1): e17146, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38273515

RESUMO

Temperate forests are undergoing significant transformations due to the influence of climate change, including varying responses of different tree species to increasing temperature and drought severity. To comprehensively understand the full range of growth responses, representative datasets spanning extensive site and climatic gradients are essential. This study utilizes tree-ring data from 550 sites from the temperate forests of Czechia to assess growth trends of six dominant Central European tree species (European beech, Norway spruce, Scots pine, silver fir, sessile and pedunculate oak) over 1990-2014. By modeling mean growth series for each species and site, and employing principal component analysis, we identified the predominant growth trends. Over the study period, linear growth trends were evident across most sites (56% increasing, 32% decreasing, and 10% neutral). The proportion of sites with stationary positive trends increased from low toward high elevations, whereas the opposite was true for the stationary negative trends. Notably, within the middle range of their distribution (between 500 and 700 m a.s.l.), Norway spruce and European beech exhibited a mix of positive and negative growth trends. While Scots pine growth trends showed no clear elevation-based pattern, silver fir and oaks displayed consistent positive growth trends regardless of site elevation, indicating resilience to the ongoing warming. We demonstrate divergent growth trajectories across space and among species. These findings are particularly important as recent warming has triggered a gradual shift in the elevation range of optimal growth conditions for most tree species and has also led to a decoupling of growth trends between lowlands and mountain areas. As a result, further future shifts in the elevation range and changes in species diversity of European temperate forests can be expected.


Assuntos
Fagus , Picea , Pinus sylvestris , Quercus , Árvores , Florestas , Picea/fisiologia , Noruega , Mudança Climática
5.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 549, 2024 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38263406

RESUMO

Temperature is a fundamental driver of species distribution and ecosystem functioning. Yet, our knowledge of the microclimatic conditions experienced by organisms inside tropical forests remains limited. This is because ecological studies often rely on coarse-gridded temperature estimates representing the conditions at 2 m height in an open-air environment (i.e., macroclimate). In this study, we present a high-resolution pantropical estimate of near-ground (15 cm above the surface) temperatures inside forests. We quantify diurnal and seasonal variability, thus revealing both spatial and temporal microclimate patterns. We find that on average, understory near-ground temperatures are 1.6 °C cooler than the open-air temperatures. The diurnal temperature range is on average 1.7 °C lower inside the forests, in comparison to open-air conditions. More importantly, we demonstrate a substantial spatial variability in the microclimate characteristics of tropical forests. This variability is regulated by a combination of large-scale climate conditions, vegetation structure and topography, and hence could not be captured by existing macroclimate grids. Our results thus contribute to quantifying the actual thermal ranges experienced by organisms inside tropical forests and provide new insights into how these limits may be affected by climate change and ecosystem disturbances.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Florestas , Temperatura , Mudança Climática , Sistemas Computacionais
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 916: 170252, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38253093

RESUMO

Global climate change is having significant effects on plant growth patterns and mountain plants can be particularly vulnerable to accelerated warming. Rising temperatures are releasing plants from cold limitation, such as at high elevations and latitudes, but can also induce drought limitation, as documented for trees from lower elevations and latitudes. Here we test these predictions using a unique natural experiment with Himalayan alpine shrub Rhododendron anthopogon and its growth responses to changing climate over a large portion of its latitudinal and elevational ranges, including steep precipitation and temperature gradients. We determined growth dynamics during the last three decades, representing period of accelerated warming, using annual radial growth increments for nine populations growing on both wet and warm southern localities and drier and cold northern localities in the Himalayas along elevation gradients encompassing the lower and upper species range limits. A significant growth increase over past decades was observed after controlling for confounding effect of shrub age and microsites. However, the magnitude of increase varied among populations. Particularly, populations situated in the lower elevation of the northernmost (cold and dry) locality exhibited most substantial growth enhancement. The relationship between growth variability and climate varied among populations, with the populations from the coldest location displaying the strongest responsiveness to increasing minimum temperatures during July. Minimum temperatures of April and August were the most important factor limiting the growth across most populations. Potential warming-induced drought limitation had no significant impact on growth variation in any part of the species geographic range. Overall, our findings indicate that plant growth is continuously increasing in recent decades and growth-climate relationships are not consistent across populations, with populations from the coldest and wettest localities showing stronger responses. The observed patterns suggest that dwarf-shrubs benefit from ongoing warming, leading to increased shrubification of high elevation alpine ecosystems.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Aquecimento Global , Mudança Climática , Árvores , Temperatura , Plantas
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 915: 170117, 2024 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38237786

RESUMO

Forests are continuously altered by disturbances. Yet, knowledge of global pattern of forest disturbance agents, its drivers, and shifts under changing climate remain scarce. Here we present a meta-analysis of current and projected (+2° and + 4 °C) distribution of forest disturbance agents causing immediate tree mortality (i.e., fire, pest outbreak, hydro-geomorphic, and wind) at country, continental, biome, and global scales. The model including combination of climatic (precipitation of driest quarter, actual evapotranspiration, and minimum temperature), geographical (distance to coast and topography complexity), and forest characteristics (tree density) performs better than any other model in explaining the distribution of disturbance agents (R2 = 0.74). We provide global maps (0.5° × 0.5°) of current and potential future distribution of forest disturbance agents. Globally, the most frequent disturbance agent was fire (46.09 %), followed by pest outbreak (23.27 %), hydro-geomorphic disturbances (18.97 %), and wind (11.67 %). Our projections indicate spatially contrasting shifts in disturbance agents, with fire and wind risk increase between ~50°S and ~ 40°N under warming climate. In particular, the substantial increase in fire risk, exceeding 31 % in the most affected areas, is projected over Mediterranean, the western and southeast USA, African, Oceanian, and South American forests. On the other hand, pest outbreak and hydro-geomorphic disturbances are projected to increase in more southern (> ~ 50°S) and northern (> ~ 40°N) latitudes. Our findings are critical for understanding ongoing changes and developing mitigation strategies to maintain the ecological integrity and ecosystem services under shifts in forest disturbances. We suggest that projected shifts in the global distribution of forest disturbance agents needs to be considered to future models of vegetation or carbon sink dynamics under projected climate change.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Incêndios , Mudança Climática , Florestas , Árvores
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 905: 167153, 2023 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37730045

RESUMO

Boreal forests represent an important carbon sink and, therefore, significantly contribute to climate change mitigation. Tree-ring width series of boreal species reflect climate variation at the moment of tree-ring formation but also lagged climatic effects from dormancy preceding tree-ring formation and antecedent growing seasons. However, little is known about how the growth sensitivity to climate in specific intra-annual periods varies across the landscape. Here, we assessed growth responses to climate variation during the 45 months preceding the tree-ring formation for nine boreal stands of Picea glauca and Picea mariana distributed along the gradients of elevation and slope aspect. We combined process-based modeling of wood formation and remote sensing data to determine growth phenology at each site. Next, we classified intra-annual seasons with significant climate-growth correlations based on the timing of dormancy and growth periods. Both the phenology and the climate-growth relationships systematically shifted with elevation and, to a lower extent, also with slope orientation at the treeline. The mean duration of the growing season varied between 100 days at treelines above 900 m and 160 days at lowlands below 500 m. The growth at treelines was stimulated by temperature in the summer of the tree-ring formation year and two years before tree-ring formation. The period of significant climate-growth correlations during the current summer did not exceed three months in agreement with the local duration of the growing season. The growth of trees in lower elevations was instead stimulated by high temperature during the dormancy periods but restricted by high temperature in antecedent summer seasons. In conclusion, our study highlights the linkage between the timing of climate-growth sensitivity and growth phenology, primarily determined by proximity to the treeline. Consequently, accounting for landscape gradients in growth phenology is crucial for upscaling the climatic limits of boreal stands' growth as climate change progresses.


Assuntos
Picea , Taiga , Árvores , Madeira , Mudança Climática , Estações do Ano , Temperatura , Florestas
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 884: 163852, 2023 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37142026

RESUMO

Increasing tropical cyclone (TC) pressure on temperate forests is inevitable under the recent global increase of the intensity and poleward migration of TCs. However, the long-term effects of TCs on large-scale structure and diversity of temperate forests remain unclear. Here, we aim to ascertain the legacy of TCs on forest structure and tree species richness by using structural equation models that consider several environmental gradients and use an extensive dataset containing >140,000 plots with >3 million trees from natural temperate forests across eastern United States impacted by TCs. We found that high TC activity (a combination of TC frequency and intensity) leads to a decrease in maximum tree sizes (height and diameter), an increase in tree density and basal area, and a decline in the number of tree species and recruits. We identified TC activity as the strongest predictor of forest structure and species richness in xeric (dry) forests, while it had a weaker impact on hydric (wet) forests. We highlight the sensitivity of forest structure and tree species richness to impacts of likely further increase of TC activity in interaction with climate extremes, especially drought. Our results show that increased TC activity leads to the homogenization of forest structure and reduced tree species richness in U.S. temperate forests. These findings suggest that further declines in tree species richness may be expected because of the projected increase of future levels of TC activity.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Árvores , Estados Unidos , Biodiversidade , Florestas , Clima
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 890: 164376, 2023 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37236456

RESUMO

With global warming, tropical cyclones (TCs) are moving to northern latitudes with devastating effects on boreal forests and significant ecological and socioeconomic consequences in the northern hemisphere. Recently, TCs disturbances have been documented in the northern temperate and even the southern boreal forest zone. Here we report and quantify the impact of TC Lingling (2019), which damaged the boreal forests >50° latitude in a remote area of Sakhalin Island, Northeast Asia. A multi-step algorithm was used to identify disturbed forested areas together with Sentinel-2 imagery to recognize windthrow patches caused by TCs and evaluate tree species composition. We found extensive damage to boreal forests caused by TC Lingling, with forested area losses of >80 km2. The affected areas mainly belonged to zonal dark coniferous forests, which account for 54 km2 of windthrows. In contrast, a lower impact was recorded in deciduous broadleaf and larch forests. TC Lingling caused a high proportion (>50 %) of large gaps (>10 ha), however, gaps of such extent have not been previously recorded in these dark coniferous forests. Hence, our study highlights the potential of TCs as the new disturbance agent responsible for extensive disturbances of boreal forests at more northern latitudes than previously thought. This implies the significant role of TCs in disturbance regimes and boreal forest dynamics. We suggest that continued poleward migration of TCs may lead to an unprecedentedly large area of disturbed boreal forests resulting in complex changes in diversity and ecosystem functioning. Our findings are crucial for identifying potential shifts in boreal forest structure and dynamics under ongoing global climate change and altered forest disturbance regimes.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Taiga , Ecossistema , Florestas , Árvores , Mudança Climática
11.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 6(10): 1423-1437, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35941205

RESUMO

The latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG) is one of the most recognized global patterns of species richness exhibited across a wide range of taxa. Numerous hypotheses have been proposed in the past two centuries to explain LDG, but rigorous tests of the drivers of LDGs have been limited by a lack of high-quality global species richness data. Here we produce a high-resolution (0.025° × 0.025°) map of local tree species richness using a global forest inventory database with individual tree information and local biophysical characteristics from ~1.3 million sample plots. We then quantify drivers of local tree species richness patterns across latitudes. Generally, annual mean temperature was a dominant predictor of tree species richness, which is most consistent with the metabolic theory of biodiversity (MTB). However, MTB underestimated LDG in the tropics, where high species richness was also moderated by topographic, soil and anthropogenic factors operating at local scales. Given that local landscape variables operate synergistically with bioclimatic factors in shaping the global LDG pattern, we suggest that MTB be extended to account for co-limitation by subordinate drivers.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Florestas , Solo , Árvores
12.
Glob Ecol Biogeogr ; 31(7): 1399-1421, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35915625

RESUMO

Aim: Understanding the variation in community composition and species abundances (i.e., ß-diversity) is at the heart of community ecology. A common approach to examine ß-diversity is to evaluate directional variation in community composition by measuring the decay in the similarity among pairs of communities along spatial or environmental distance. We provide the first global synthesis of taxonomic and functional distance decay along spatial and environmental distance by analysing 148 datasets comprising different types of organisms and environments. Location: Global. Time period: 1990 to present. Major taxa studied: From diatoms to mammals. Method: We measured the strength of the decay using ranked Mantel tests (Mantel r) and the rate of distance decay as the slope of an exponential fit using generalized linear models. We used null models to test whether functional similarity decays faster or slower than expected given the taxonomic decay along the spatial and environmental distance. We also unveiled the factors driving the rate of decay across the datasets, including latitude, spatial extent, realm and organismal features. Results: Taxonomic distance decay was stronger than functional distance decay along both spatial and environmental distance. Functional distance decay was random given the taxonomic distance decay. The rate of taxonomic and functional spatial distance decay was fastest in the datasets from mid-latitudes. Overall, datasets covering larger spatial extents showed a lower rate of decay along spatial distance but a higher rate of decay along environmental distance. Marine ecosystems had the slowest rate of decay along environmental distances. Main conclusions: In general, taxonomic distance decay is a useful tool for biogeographical research because it reflects dispersal-related factors in addition to species responses to climatic and environmental variables. Moreover, functional distance decay might be a cost-effective option for investigating community changes in heterogeneous environments.

13.
Sci Total Environ ; 844: 156931, 2022 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35772527

RESUMO

Tropical cyclones (TCs) are common disturbance agents in tropical and subtropical latitudes. With global warming, TCs began to move to northern latitudes, with devastating effects on boreal forests. However, it remains unclear where and when these extraordinary events occur and how they affect forest structure and ecosystem functioning. Hence knowing which geomorphological features, landforms, and forest types are most susceptible to severe wind disturbance is vital to better predict the future impacts of intensifying tropical cyclones on boreal forests. In October 2015, catastrophic TC Dujuan hit the island of Sakhalin in the Russian Far East. With a wind speed of 63 m·s-1, it became the strongest wind recorded in Sakhalin, damaging >42,000 ha of native forests with different levels of severity. We used high-resolution RGB satellite images, DEM-derived geomorphological patterns, and the U-Net-like convolutional neural network to quantify the damaged area in specific landform, forest type, and windthrow patch size categories. We found that large gaps (>1 ha) represent >40 % of the damaged area while small gaps (<0.1 ha) only 20 %. The recorded canopy gaps are very large for the southern boreal forest. We found that the aspect (slope exposure) is the most important in explaining the damaged area, followed by canopy closure and landform type. Closed-canopy coniferous forests on steep, west-facing slopes (typical of convex reliefs such as ridges, spurs, and peaks) are at a much higher risk of being disturbed by TCs than open-canopy mountain birch forests or coniferous forests and broadleaved riparian forests in concave reliefs such as valley bottoms. We suggest that the projected ongoing poleward migration of TCs will lead to an unprecedentedly large area of disturbed forest, which results in complex changes in forest dynamics and ecosystem functioning. Our findings are crucial for the development of mitigation and adaptation strategies under future changes in TC activity.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Taiga , Ecossistema , Florestas , Árvores
14.
Ann Bot ; 129(5): 567-582, 2022 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35136925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Petioles are important plant organs connecting stems with leaf blades and affecting light-harvesting ability of the leaf as well as transport of water, nutrients and biochemical signals. Despite the high diversity in petiole size, shape and anatomy, little information is available regarding their structural adaptations across evolutionary lineages and environmental conditions. To fill this knowledge gap, we investigated the variation of petiole morphology and anatomy of mainly European woody species to better understand the drivers of internal and external constraints in an evolutionary context. METHODS: We studied how petiole anatomical features differed according to whole-plant size, leaf traits, thermal and hydrological conditions, and taxonomic origin in 95 shrubs and trees using phylogenetic distance-based generalized least squares models. KEY RESULTS: Two major axes of variation were related to leaf area and plant size. Larger and softer leaves are found in taller trees of more productive habitats. Their petioles are longer, with a circular outline and are anatomically characterized by the predominance of sclerenchyma, larger vessels, interfascicular areas with fibres and indistinct phloem rays. In contrast, smaller and tougher leaves are found in shorter trees and shrubs of colder or drier habitats. Their petioles have a terete outline, phloem composed of small cells and radially arranged vessels, fibreless xylem and lamellar collenchyma. Individual anatomical traits were linked to different internal and external drivers. Petiole length and vessel diameter increase with increasing leaf blade area. Collenchyma becomes absent with increasing temperature, and petiole outline becomes polygonal with increasing precipitation. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that species' temperature and precipitation optima, plant height, and leaf area and thickness exerted a significant control on petiole anatomical and morphological structures not confounded by phylogenetic inertia. Species with different evolutionary histories but similar thermal and hydrological requirements have converged to similar petiole anatomical structures.


Assuntos
Folhas de Planta , Xilema , Anatomia Comparada , Floema , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Plantas , Xilema/anatomia & histologia
15.
Glob Chang Biol ; 28(9): 3110-3144, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34967074

RESUMO

Research in global change ecology relies heavily on global climatic grids derived from estimates of air temperature in open areas at around 2 m above the ground. These climatic grids do not reflect conditions below vegetation canopies and near the ground surface, where critical ecosystem functions occur and most terrestrial species reside. Here, we provide global maps of soil temperature and bioclimatic variables at a 1-km2 resolution for 0-5 and 5-15 cm soil depth. These maps were created by calculating the difference (i.e. offset) between in situ soil temperature measurements, based on time series from over 1200 1-km2 pixels (summarized from 8519 unique temperature sensors) across all the world's major terrestrial biomes, and coarse-grained air temperature estimates from ERA5-Land (an atmospheric reanalysis by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts). We show that mean annual soil temperature differs markedly from the corresponding gridded air temperature, by up to 10°C (mean = 3.0 ± 2.1°C), with substantial variation across biomes and seasons. Over the year, soils in cold and/or dry biomes are substantially warmer (+3.6 ± 2.3°C) than gridded air temperature, whereas soils in warm and humid environments are on average slightly cooler (-0.7 ± 2.3°C). The observed substantial and biome-specific offsets emphasize that the projected impacts of climate and climate change on near-surface biodiversity and ecosystem functioning are inaccurately assessed when air rather than soil temperature is used, especially in cold environments. The global soil-related bioclimatic variables provided here are an important step forward for any application in ecology and related disciplines. Nevertheless, we highlight the need to fill remaining geographic gaps by collecting more in situ measurements of microclimate conditions to further enhance the spatiotemporal resolution of global soil temperature products for ecological applications.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Solo , Mudança Climática , Microclima , Temperatura
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18712, 2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548522

RESUMO

Species coexistence is a result of biotic interactions, environmental and historical conditions. The Janzen-Connell hypothesis assumes that conspecific negative density dependence (CNDD) is one of the local processes maintaining high species diversity by decreasing population growth rates at high densities. However, the contribution of CNDD to species richness variation across environmental gradients remains unclear. In 32 large forest plots all over the Japanese archipelago covering > 40,000 individual trees of > 300 species and based on size distributions, we analysed the strength of CNDD of individual species and its contribution to species number and diversity across altitude, mean annual temperature, mean annual precipitation and maximum snow depth gradients. The strength of CNDD was increasing towards low altitudes and high tree species number and diversity. The effect of CNDD on species number was changing across altitude, temperature and snow depth gradients and their combined effects contributed 11-18% of the overall explained variance. Our results suggest that CNDD can work as a mechanism structuring forest communities in the Japanese archipelago. Strong CNDD was observed to be connected with high species diversity under low environmental limitations where local biotic interactions are expected to be stronger than in niche-based community assemblies under high environmental filtering.

18.
Nature ; 596(7873): 536-542, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433947

RESUMO

Tropical forests store 40-50 per cent of terrestrial vegetation carbon1. However, spatial variations in aboveground live tree biomass carbon (AGC) stocks remain poorly understood, in particular in tropical montane forests2. Owing to climatic and soil changes with increasing elevation3, AGC stocks are lower in tropical montane forests compared with lowland forests2. Here we assemble and analyse a dataset of structurally intact old-growth forests (AfriMont) spanning 44 montane sites in 12 African countries. We find that montane sites in the AfriMont plot network have a mean AGC stock of 149.4 megagrams of carbon per hectare (95% confidence interval 137.1-164.2), which is comparable to lowland forests in the African Tropical Rainforest Observation Network4 and about 70 per cent and 32 per cent higher than averages from plot networks in montane2,5,6 and lowland7 forests in the Neotropics, respectively. Notably, our results are two-thirds higher than the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change default values for these forests in Africa8. We find that the low stem density and high abundance of large trees of African lowland forests4 is mirrored in the montane forests sampled. This carbon store is endangered: we estimate that 0.8 million hectares of old-growth African montane forest have been lost since 2000. We provide country-specific montane forest AGC stock estimates modelled from our plot network to help to guide forest conservation and reforestation interventions. Our findings highlight the need for conserving these biodiverse9,10 and carbon-rich ecosystems.


Assuntos
Atitude , Sequestro de Carbono , Carbono/análise , Floresta Úmida , Árvores/metabolismo , Clima Tropical , África , Biomassa , Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Mapeamento Geográfico
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 792: 148413, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153748

RESUMO

Macrophytes have often been considered as a prospective tool for the elimination of cyanobacterial bloom, because they may produce chemical compounds that outcompete bloom-forming cyanobacteria. However, a comprehensive, unbiased overview of evidence to support this is missing. Moreover, studies into the effects of individual macrophyte species have often used different methodologies and, thus, cannot be compared. Herein, we firstly carried out a systematic review of studies into the effects of macrophytes on the growth of bloom-forming cyanobacteria. Secondly, we carried out an experiment into the effects of aqueous and ethanol extracts from 19 macrophyte species on the growth of two of the most common cyanobacteria, Aphanizomenon gracile and Microcystis aeruginosa, using a uniform methodological approach. The systematic review revealed that most of the 69 macrophyte species previously studied have shown a combination of inhibitory, stimulatory, and neutral effects. In our own experiment, an inhibitory effect was exhibited only 15 times out of 532 experimental variants, specifically by Chara globularis, Ceratophyllum submersum, Elodea nuttallii, Hydrilla verticillata, Myriophyllum heterophyllum, M. spicatum, and Vallisneria americana. Put together, these results indicate that the practical application of chemical compounds produced by macrophytes to eliminate cyanobacterial bloom may have lower prospects than previously anticipated.


Assuntos
Aphanizomenon , Cianobactérias , Hydrocharitaceae , Microcystis
20.
Tree Physiol ; 41(9): 1611-1626, 2021 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33824979

RESUMO

The Canary Islands, an archipelago east of Morocco's Atlantic coast, present steep altitudinal gradients covering various climatic zones from hot deserts to subalpine Mediterranean, passing through fog-influenced cloud forests. Unlike the majority of the Canarian flora, Pinus canariensis C. Sm. ex DC. in Buch grow along most of these gradients, allowing the study of plant functioning in contrasting ecosystems. Here we assess the water sources (precipitation, fog) of P. canariensis and its physiological behavior in its different natural environments. We analyzed carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of water and organics from atmosphere, soil and different plant organs and tissues (including 10-year annual time series of tree-ring cellulose) of six sites from 480 to 1990 m above sea level on the Canary Island La Palma. We found a decreasing δ18O trend in source water that was overridden by an increasing δ18O trend in needle water, leaf assimilates and tree-ring cellulose with increasing altitude, suggesting site-specific tree physiological responses to relative humidity. Fog-influenced and fog-free sites showed similar δ13C values, suggesting photosynthetic activity to be limited by stomatal closure and irradiance at certain periods. In addition, we observed an 18O-depletion (fog-free and timberline sites) and 13C-depletion (fog-influenced and fog-free sites) in latewood compared with earlywood caused by seasonal differences in: (i) water uptake (i.e., deeper ground water during summer drought, fog water frequency and interception) and (ii) meteorological conditions (stem radial growth and latewood δ18O correlated with winter precipitation). In addition, we found evidence for foliar water uptake and strong isotopic gradients along the pine needle axis in water and assimilates. These gradients are likely the reason for an unexpected underestimation of pine needle water δ18O when applying standard leaf water δ18O models. Our results indicate that soil water availability and air humidity conditions are the main drivers of the physiological behavior of pine along the Canary Island's altitudinal gradients.


Assuntos
Pinus , Água , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Ecossistema , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise , Espanha , Árvores
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