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1.
Phytother Res ; 2024 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38776136

RESUMO

Recently, malignant neoplasms have growingly caused human morbidity and mortality. Head and neck cancer (HNC) constitutes a substantial group of malignancies occurring in various anatomical regions of the head and neck, including lips, mouth, throat, larynx, nose, sinuses, oropharynx, hypopharynx, nasopharynx, and salivary glands. The present study addresses the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway as a possible therapeutic target in cancer therapy. Finding new multitargeting agents capable of modulating PI3K/Akt/mTOR and cross-linked mediators could be viewed as an effective strategy in combating HNC. Recent studies have introduced phytochemicals as multitargeting agents and rich sources for finding and developing new therapeutic agents. Phytochemicals have exhibited immense anticancer effects, including targeting different stages of HNC through the modulation of several signaling pathways. Moreover, phenolic/polyphenolic compounds, alkaloids, terpenes/terpenoids, and other secondary metabolites have demonstrated promising anticancer activities because of their diverse pharmacological and biological properties like antiproliferative, antineoplastic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. The current review is mainly focused on new therapeutic strategies for HNC passing through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway as new strategies in combating HNC.

2.
Leuk Res ; 138: 107464, 2024 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38422882

RESUMO

Lymphoma is a cancer affecting the lymphatic system that fights infections and diseases. In addition to surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, novel approaches have recently been investigated, such as phytostilbenes in treating lymphoma. Phytostilbenes are natural compounds present in various plants and have been shown to have different therapeutic effects, including anticancer properties. Resveratrol is a main phytostilbene with various derivates followed by pterostilbene and piceatannol. Studies have revealed that phytostilbenes can suppress the growth and proliferation of lymphoma cells by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting specific enzyme activity in cancer cell survival. The compounds also have antiinflammatory effects contributing to reducing lymphoma-associated inflammation. Additionally, phytostilbenes have been shown to increase the immune system's ability to fight cancer cells by activating immune cells (T-cells and natural killer cells). This review investigates the potential therapeutic effects of phytostilbenes, including resveratrol, pterostilbene, piceatannol, and pinosylvin, against lymphoma.


Assuntos
Linfoma , Fitoalexinas , Estilbenos , Humanos , Resveratrol/uso terapêutico , Estilbenos/farmacologia , Estilbenos/uso terapêutico , Linfoma/tratamento farmacológico
3.
Cancer Metastasis Rev ; 43(1): 261-292, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38169011

RESUMO

Plasticity of phenotypic traits refers to an organism's ability to change in response to environmental stimuli. As a result, the response may alter an organism's physiological state, morphology, behavior, and phenotype. Phenotypic plasticity in cancer cells describes the considerable ability of cancer cells to transform phenotypes through non-genetic molecular signaling activities that promote therapy evasion and tumor metastasis via amplifying cancer heterogeneity. As a result of metastable phenotypic state transitions, cancer cells can tolerate chemotherapy or develop transient adaptive resistance. Therefore, new findings have paved the road in identifying factors and agents that inhibit or suppress phenotypic plasticity. It has also investigated novel multitargeted agents that may promise new effective strategies in cancer treatment. Despite the efficiency of conventional chemotherapeutic agents, drug toxicity, development of resistance, and high-cost limit their use in cancer therapy. Recent research has shown that small molecules derived from natural sources are capable of suppressing cancer by focusing on the plasticity of phenotypic responses. This systematic, comprehensive, and critical review analyzes the current state of knowledge regarding the ability of phytocompounds to target phenotypic plasticity at both preclinical and clinical levels. Current challenges/pitfalls, limitations, and future perspectives are also discussed.


Assuntos
Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Neoplasias , Humanos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/fisiologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Adaptação Fisiológica , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico
4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 323: 117708, 2024 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38181932

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Fraxinus excelsior L. (FE), commonly known as the ash, belongs to the Oleaceae family and has shown several pharmacological and biological properties, such as antioxidant, immunomodulatory, neuroprotective, and anti-inflammatory effects. It has also attracted the most attention toward neuroinflammation. Moreover, FE bark and leaves have been used to treat neurological disorders, aging, neuropathic pain, urinary complaints, and articular pain in traditional and ethnomedicine. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder resulting from the involvement of amyloid-beta, metal-induced oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation. AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of the current study was to assess the neuroprotective effects of hydromethanolic extract from FE bark in an AlCl3-induced rat model of AD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The maceration process was utilized to prepare the hydromethanolic extract of FE bark, and characterized by LC-MS/MS. To assess the anti-AD effects of the FE extract, rats were categorized into five different groups, AlCl3; normal control; FE-treated groups at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg. Passive avoidance learning test, Y-maze, open field, and elevated plus maze behavioral tests were evaluated on days 7 and 14 to analyze the cognitive impairments. Zymography analysis, biochemical tests, and histopathological changes were also followed in different groups. RESULTS: LC-MS/MS analysis indicated the presence of coumarins, including isofraxidin7-O-diglucoside in the methanolic extract of FE as a new isofraxidin derivative in this genus. FE significantly improved memory and cognitive function, maintained weight, prevented neuronal damages, and preserved the hippocampus's histological features, as demonstrated by behavioral tests and histopathological analysis. FE increased anti-inflammatory MMP-2 activity, whereas it decreased that of inflammatory MMP-9. Moreover, FE increased plasma antioxidant capacity by enhancing CAT and GSH while decreasing nitrite levels in the serum of treated groups. In comparison between the treated groups, the rats that received high doses of the FE extract (200 mg/kg) showed the highest therapeutic effect. CONCLUSION: FE rich in coumarins could be an effective anti-AD adjunct agent, passing through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory pathways. These results encourage further studies for the development of this extract as a promising agent in preventing, managing, or treating AD and related diseases.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Fraxinus , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Ratos , Animais , Cloreto de Alumínio/farmacologia , Cloreto de Alumínio/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/induzido quimicamente , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Fraxinus/metabolismo , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias , Casca de Planta/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Ratos Wistar , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Estresse Oxidativo , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico
5.
Cell Death Dis ; 15(1): 17, 2024 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38191571

RESUMO

Cancer is one of the most common diseases and causes of death worldwide. Since common treatment approaches do not yield acceptable results in many patients, developing innovative strategies for effective treatment is necessary. Immunotherapy is one of the promising approaches that has been highly regarded for preventing tumor recurrence and new metastases. Meanwhile, inhibiting immune checkpoints is one of the most attractive methods of cancer immunotherapy. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein-4 (CTLA-4) is an essential immune molecule that plays a vital role in cell cycle modulation, regulation of T cell proliferation, and cytokine production. This molecule is classically expressed by stimulated T cells. Inhibition of overexpression of immune checkpoints such as CTLA-4 receptors has been confirmed as an effective strategy. In cancer immunotherapy, immune checkpoint-blocking drugs can be enhanced with nanobodies that target immune checkpoint molecules. Nanobodies are derived from the variable domain of heavy antibody chains. These small protein fragments have evolved entirely without a light chain and can be used as a powerful tool in imaging and treating diseases with their unique structure. They have a low molecular weight, which makes them smaller than conventional antibodies while still being able to bind to specific antigens. In addition to low molecular weight, specific binding to targets, resistance to temperature, pH, and enzymes, high ability to penetrate tumor tissues, and low toxicity make nanobodies an ideal approach to overcome the disadvantages of monoclonal antibody-based immunotherapy. In this article, while reviewing the cellular and molecular functions of CTLA-4, the structure and mechanisms of nanobodies' activity, and their delivery methods, we will explain the advantages and challenges of using nanobodies, emphasizing immunotherapy treatments based on anti-CTLA-4 nanobodies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Anticorpos de Domínio Único , Humanos , Antígeno CTLA-4 , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia , Proteínas de Checkpoint Imunológico , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Neoplasias/terapia
6.
Eur J Med Chem ; 260: 115765, 2023 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37659194

RESUMO

Targeted Protein Modification (TPM) is an umbrella term encompassing numerous tools and approaches that use bifunctional agents to induce a desired modification over the POI. The most well-known TPM mechanism is PROTAC-directed protein ubiquitination. PROTAC-based targeted degradation offers several advantages over conventional small-molecule inhibitors, has shifted the drug discovery paradigm, and is acquiring increasing interest as over ten PROTACs have entered clinical trials in the past few years. Targeting the protein of interest for proteasomal degradation by PROTACS was the pioneer of various toolboxes for selective protein degradation. Nowadays, the ever-increasing number of tools and strategies for modulating and modifying the POI has expanded far beyond protein degradation, which phosphorylation and de-phosphorylation of the protein of interest, targeted acetylation, and selective modification of protein O-GlcNAcylation are among them. These novel strategies have opened new avenues for achieving more precise outcomes while remaining feasible and minimizing side effects. This field, however, is still in its infancy and has a long way to precede widespread use and translation into clinical practice. Herein, we investigate the pros and cons of these novel strategies by exploring the latest advancements in this field. Ultimately, we briefly discuss the emerging potential applications of these innovations in cancer therapy, neurodegeneration, viral infections, and autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Descoberta de Drogas , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Proteólise , Fosforilação , Ubiquitinação , Quimera de Direcionamento de Proteólise
7.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 11: 1115254, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37600314

RESUMO

Perfluorocarbon (PFC) are biocompatible compounds, chemically and biologically inert, and lacks toxicity as oxygen carriers. PFCs nanoemulsions and nanoparticles (NPs) are highly used in diagnostic imaging and enable novel imaging technology in clinical imaging modalities to notice and image pathological and physiological alterations. Therapeutics with PFCs such as the innovative approach to preventing thrombus formation, PFC nanodroplets utilized in ultrasonic medication delivery in arthritis, or PFC-based NPs such as Perfluortributylamine (PFTBA), Pentafluorophenyl (PFP), Perfluorohexan (PFH), Perfluorooctyl bromide (PFOB), and others, recently become renowned for oxygenating tumors and enhancing the effects of anticancer treatments as oxygen carriers for tumor hypoxia. In this review, we will discuss the recent advancements that have been made in PFC's applications in theranostic (therapeutics and diagnostics) as well as assess the benefits and drawbacks of these applications.

8.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 166: 115408, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37651798

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive disorder that belongs to a class of neurodegenerative disorders (NDs) called Synucleinopathies. It has characterized by the misfolding and aggregation of a-synuclein. Our understanding of PD continues to evolve, and so does our approach to treatment. including therapies aimed at delaying pathology, quitting neuronal loss, and shortening the course of the disease by selectively targeting essential proteins suspected to play a role in PD pathogenesis. One emerging approach that is generating significant interest is Targeted Protein Degradation (TPD). TPD is an innovative method that allows us to specifically break down certain proteins using specially designed molecules or peptides, like PROteolysis-TArgeting-Chimera (PROTACs). This approach holds great promise, particularly in the context of NDs. In this review, we will briefly explain PD and its pathogenesis, followed by discussing protein degradation systems and TPD strategy in PD by reviewing synthesized small molecules and peptides. Finally, future perspectives and challenges in the field are discussed.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson , Humanos , Proteólise , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Quimera de Direcionamento de Proteólise
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