Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 89
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38629139

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To characterize and elucidate the spread of amikacin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates from environmental samples on a pig farm in the UK, following the previous identification of index Salmonella isolates harbouring the rmtB gene, a 16S rRNA methylase. METHODS: Environmental samples were collected during two visits to a pig farm in the UK. Isolates were recovered using selective media (amikacin 128 mg/L) followed by real-time PCR and WGS to analyse rmtB-carrying Salmonella and Escherichia coli isolates. RESULTS: Salmonella and E. coli isolates harbouring the rmtB gene were detected at both farm visits. All Salmonella isolates were found to be monophasic S. enterica serovar Typhimurium variant Copenhagen of ST34. rmtB-harbouring E. coli isolates were found to be one of three STs: ST4089, ST1684 and ST34. Long-read sequencing identified the rmtB gene to be chromosomally located in Salmonella isolates and on IncFII-type plasmids in E. coli isolates. The results showed the rmtB gene to be flanked by IS26 elements and several resistance genes. CONCLUSIONS: We report on the occurrence of rmtB-harbouring Enterobacteriaceae on a pig farm in the UK. rmtB confers resistance to multiple aminoglycosides and this work highlights the need for surveillance to assess dissemination and risk.

2.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0289190, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38603727

RESUMO

The emergence and spread of ß-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae poses a significant threat to public health, necessitating the rapid detection and investigation of the molecular epidemiology of these pathogens. We modified a multiplex real-time (RT)-PCR to concurrently detect ß-lactamase genes (blaCTX-M, blaTEM, and blaSHV) and Enterobacteriaceae 16S ribosomal RNA. qPCR probes and primers were validated using control isolates, and the sensitivity and specificity assessed. The optimised multiplex qPCR was used to screen 220 non-clinical Enterobacteriaceae from food animals and in-contact humans in Southeast Nigeria selected on cefotaxime-supplemented agar plates. Binary logistic regression was used to explore factors associated with the presence of the blaTEM and blaSHV genes in these isolates, and a subset of isolates from matched sampling sites and host species were whole genome sequenced, and their antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and plasmid profiles determined. The sensitivity and specificity of the qPCR assay was 100%. All isolates (220/220) were positive for Enterobacteriaceae ribosomal 16S rRNA and blaCTX-M, while 66.4% (146/220) and 9% (20/220) were positive for blaTEM and blaSHV, respectively. The prevalence of blaTEM and blaSHV varied across different sampling sites (farm, animal market and abattoirs). Isolates from Abia state were more likely to harbour blaTEM (OR = 2.3, p = 0.04) and blaSHV (OR = 5.12,p = 0.01) than isolates from Ebonyi state; blaTEM was more likely to be detected in isolates from food animals than humans (OR = 2.34, p = 0.03), whereas the reverse was seen for blaSHV (OR = 7.23, p = 0.02). Furthermore, Klebsiella and Enterobacter isolates harboured more AMR genes than Escherichia coli, even though they were isolated from the same sample. We also identified pan resistant Klebsiella harbouring resistance to ten classes of antimicrobials and disinfectant. Therefore, we recommend ESKAPE pathogens are included in AMR surveillance in future and suggest qPCRs be utilised for rapid screening of Enterobacteriaceae from human and animal sources.


Assuntos
Enterobacteriaceae , beta-Lactamases , Animais , Humanos , beta-Lactamases/genética , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Epidemiologia Molecular , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38442335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) transmission/cross-contamination can occur at abattoir through colonized pigs, increasing occupational hazards and health concerns for workers. To assess this risk we used genomics to identify LA-MRSA lineages present in batches of pigs sent to slaughter and distribution of clones. METHODS: WGS was performed on 85 LA-MRSA previously isolated from six abattoirs from 105 batches of pigs sent from 100 UK farms. spa typing and MLST were performed on all isolates. A mashtree tree was constructed to compare genomes of the LA-MRSA with 1281 global isolates from livestock and humans. A phylogenetic tree and pairwise SNP distance matrices were built from whole genomes of 109 isolates closest to those from abattoirs to compare evolutionary relationships and identify clones. RESULTS: All abattoir isolates belonged to CC398 and were mainly of spa type t011, although other spa types were present. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the abattoir isolates were most closely related to each other and to pig LA-MRSA from across Europe, indicating a common evolutionary origin with related lineages colonizing UK pigs.Comparison of genomes using SNPs suggested between one and four clones were transferring between pigs from different batches. Transmission likely occurred on farm premises, during transportation, and/or within abattoirs through contact with contaminated surfaces in lairage or post-stunning. CONCLUSIONS: Genomics forensically identified related isolates/clones circulating in pigs at slaughter, showing contamination occurs often. Results suggest that further genomic tracking will identify hotspots, and improvements in measures such as biosecurity and disinfection will help reduce risk for workers.

4.
Vet Microbiol ; 290: 109992, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306769

RESUMO

Brachyspira species are Gram negative, anaerobic bacteria that colonise the gut of many animals, including poultry. In poultry, Brachyspira species can be commensal (B. innocens, B. murdochii, 'B. pulli') or pathogenic (B. pilosicoli, B. intermedia, B. alvinipulli or rarely B. hyodysenteriae), the latter causing avian intestinal spirochaetosis (AIS). Antimicrobial therapy options for treatment is limited, frequently involving administration of the pleuromutilin, tiamulin, in water. In this study 38 Brachyspira isolates from chickens in the UK, representing both commensal and pathogenic species, were whole genome sequenced to identify antimicrobial resistance (AMR) mechanisms and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to a number of antimicrobials was also determined. We identified several new variants of blaOXA in B. pilosicoli and B. pulli isolates, and variations in tva which led to two new tva variants in B.murdochii and B.pulli. A number of isolates also harboured mutations known to encode AMR in the 16S and 23S rRNA genes. The percentage of isolates that were genotypically multi-drug resistance (MDR) was 16%, with the most common resistance profile being: tetracycline, pleuromutilin and beta-lactam, which were found in three 'B. pulli' and one B. pilosicoli. There was good correlation with the genotype and the corresponding antibiotic MIC phenotypes: pleuromutilins (tiamulin and valnemulin), macrolides (tylosin and tylvalosin), lincomycin and doxycycline. The occurrence of resistance determinants identified in this study in pathogenic Brachyspira, especially those which were MDR, is likely to impact treatment of AIS and clearance of infections on farm.


Assuntos
Brachyspira , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , 60595 , Galinhas/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Resistência beta-Lactâmica , Reino Unido , Diterpenos
5.
Microb Genom ; 9(12)2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38100178

RESUMO

Several bioinformatics genotyping algorithms are now commonly used to characterize antimicrobial resistance (AMR) gene profiles in whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data, with a view to understanding AMR epidemiology and developing resistance prediction workflows using WGS in clinical settings. Accurately evaluating AMR in Enterobacterales, particularly Escherichia coli, is of major importance, because this is a common pathogen. However, robust comparisons of different genotyping approaches on relevant simulated and large real-life WGS datasets are lacking. Here, we used both simulated datasets and a large set of real E. coli WGS data (n=1818 isolates) to systematically investigate genotyping methods in greater detail. Simulated constructs and real sequences were processed using four different bioinformatic programs (ABRicate, ARIBA, KmerResistance and SRST2, run with the ResFinder database) and their outputs compared. For simulation tests where 3079 AMR gene variants were inserted into random sequence constructs, KmerResistance was correct for 3076 (99.9 %) simulations, ABRicate for 3054 (99.2 %), ARIBA for 2783 (90.4 %) and SRST2 for 2108 (68.5 %). For simulation tests where two closely related gene variants were inserted into random sequence constructs, KmerResistance identified the correct alleles in 35 338/46 318 (76.3 %) simulations, ABRicate identified them in 11 842/46 318 (25.6 %) simulations, ARIBA identified them in 1679/46 318 (3.6 %) simulations and SRST2 identified them in 2000/46 318 (4.3 %) simulations. In real data, across all methods, 1392/1818 (76 %) isolates had discrepant allele calls for at least 1 gene. In addition to highlighting areas for improvement in challenging scenarios, (e.g. identification of AMR genes at <10× coverage, identifying multiple closely related AMR genes present in the same sample), our evaluations identified some more systematic errors that could be readily soluble, such as repeated misclassification (i.e. naming) of genes as shorter variants of the same gene present within the reference resistance gene database. Such naming errors accounted for at least 2530/4321 (59 %) of the discrepancies seen in real data. Moreover, many of the remaining discrepancies were likely 'artefactual', with reporting of cut-off differences accounting for at least 1430/4321 (33 %) discrepants. Whilst we found that comparing outputs generated by running multiple algorithms on the same dataset could identify and resolve these algorithmic artefacts, the results of our evaluations emphasize the need for developing new and more robust genotyping algorithms to further improve accuracy and performance.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Genômica , Escherichia coli/genética , Biologia Computacional , Alelos , Algoritmos
6.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 76(11)2023 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37942558

RESUMO

This study compared the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of Escherichia coli detected from single samples vs. pooled samples at herd level. The national monitoring dataset included isolates from one sample per pig holding, whereas the research study included isolates from pooled samples of 10 pigs per holding. In both datasets, caecal samples were collected from healthy pigs randomly selected at slaughterhouses and plated on non-selective and antibiotic selective media. Resistance against a panel of nine antibiotics was compared between datasets by generalized linear mixed effects models (GLMMs) and by bootstrapped generalized linear model (GLM) to account for pooling. The highest proportion of resistant E. coli was observed against tetracycline and ampicillin in both datasets. In non-selective media, single and pooled samples showed similar results, but the bootstrapped GLM detected significantly lower resistance to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid in the national dataset. In selective media, a significantly greater proportion of resistant isolates was observed in the research dataset for ceftazidime (OR: 0.05, 95%CI = 0.01-0.42) and nalidixic acid (OR: 0.15, 95%CI = 0.05-0.51). The results suggest that one sample per holding provides similar information on AMR at herd level as pooled samples for most of the tested antibiotics, although less resistance to ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, and nalidixic acid was detected.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Escherichia coli , Suínos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Ácido Nalidíxico , Ceftazidima , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Ciprofloxacina , Reino Unido
7.
Lancet Microbe ; 4(12): e1063-e1070, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37977163

RESUMO

Whole-genome sequencing of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens is increasingly being used for antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance, particularly in high-income countries. Innovations in genome sequencing and analysis technologies promise to revolutionise AMR surveillance and epidemiology; however, routine adoption of these technologies is challenging, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries. As part of a wider series of workshops and online consultations, a group of experts in AMR pathogen genomics and computational tool development conducted a situational analysis, identifying the following under-used innovations in genomic AMR surveillance: clinical metagenomics, environmental metagenomics, gene or plasmid tracking, and machine learning. The group recommended developing cost-effective use cases for each approach and mapping data outputs to clinical outcomes of interest to justify additional investment in capacity, training, and staff required to implement these technologies. Harmonisation and standardisation of methods, and the creation of equitable data sharing and governance frameworks, will facilitate successful implementation of these innovations.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Genômica/métodos , Genoma , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
8.
Lancet Microbe ; 4(12): e1056-e1062, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37977165

RESUMO

The intersection of human, animal, and ecosystem health at One Health interfaces is recognised as being of key importance in the evolution and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and represents an important, and yet rarely realised opportunity to undertake vital AMR surveillance. A working group of international experts in pathogen genomics, AMR, and One Health convened to take part in a workshop series and online consultation focused on the opportunities and challenges facing genomic AMR surveillance in a range of settings. Here we outline the working group's discussion of the potential utility, advantages of, and barriers to, the implementation of genomic AMR surveillance at One Health interfaces and propose a series of recommendations for addressing these challenges. Embedding AMR surveillance at One Health interfaces will require the development of clear beneficial use cases, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. Evidence of directionality, risks to human and animal health, and potential trade implications were also identified by the working group as key issues. Addressing these challenges will be vital to enable genomic surveillance technology to reach its full potential for assessing the risk of transmission of AMR between the environment, animals, and humans at One Health interfaces.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Saúde Única , Animais , Humanos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Ecossistema , Genômica
10.
Phage (New Rochelle) ; 4(1): 11-25, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37214653

RESUMO

We examined the activity of phages to control the growth of chicken and swine Salmonella strains in avian (CHIC-8E11), porcine (IPEC-1), and human (HT-29) cell cultures. We optimized a six-phage cocktail by selecting the five most effective myoviruses and a siphovirus that have optimal lysis on prevalent serovars. We observed ∼20% of 7 log10 PFU/well phage and 3-6 log10 CFU bacterial adhesions, and 3-5 log10 CFU bacterial invasion per 2 cm2 of the cultured cells at 2 h post-treatment. The invasive bacteria when plated had a variable reduced susceptibility to the phages. After phage application at an MOI of 10, the prophylaxis regimen had better efficacy at controlling bacterial growth with an up to 6 log10 CFU/well reduction as compared with the 1-2 log10 CFU/well bacterial reduction observed in the remedial and coinfection regimens. Our data support the development of these phages to control salmonellosis in chickens, pigs, and humans.

11.
Front Microbiol ; 14: 1166615, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37234523

RESUMO

Salmonella is a food-borne pathogen often linked to poultry sources, causing gastrointestinal infections in humans, with the numbers of multidrug resistant (MDR) isolates increasing globally. To gain insight into the genomic diversity of common serovars and their potential contribution to disease, we characterized antimicrobial resistance genes, and virulence factors encoded in 88 UK and 55 Thai isolates from poultry; the presence of virulence genes was detected through an extensive virulence determinants database compiled in this study. Long-read sequencing of three MDR isolates, each from a different serovar, was used to explore the links between virulence and resistance. To augment current control methods, we determined the sensitivity of isolates to 22 previously characterized Salmonella bacteriophages. Of the 17 serovars included, Salmonella Typhimurium and its monophasic variants were the most common, followed by S. Enteritidis, S. Mbandaka, and S. Virchow. Phylogenetic analysis of Typhumurium and monophasic variants showed poultry isolates were generally distinct from pigs. Resistance to sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin was highest in isolates from the UK and Thailand, respectively, with 14-15% of all isolates being MDR. We noted that >90% of MDR isolates were likely to carry virulence genes as diverse as the srjF, lpfD, fhuA, and stc operons. Long-read sequencing revealed the presence of global epidemic MDR clones in our dataset, indicating they are possibly widespread in poultry. The clones included MDR ST198 S. Kentucky, harboring a Salmonella Genomic Island-1 (SGI)-K, European ST34 S. 1,4,[5],12:i:-, harboring SGI-4 and mercury-resistance genes, and a S. 1,4,12:i:- isolate from the Spanish clone harboring an MDR-plasmid. Testing of all isolates against a panel of bacteriophages showed variable sensitivity to phages, with STW-77 found to be the most effective. STW-77 lysed 37.76% of the isolates, including serovars important for human clinical infections: S. Enteritidis (80.95%), S. Typhimurium (66.67%), S. 1,4,[5],12:i:- (83.3%), and S. 1,4,12: i:- (71.43%). Therefore, our study revealed that combining genomics and phage sensitivity assays is promising for accurately identifying and providing biocontrols for Salmonella to prevent its dissemination in poultry flocks and through the food chain to cause infections in humans.

12.
Front Microbiol ; 14: 1070340, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36998408

RESUMO

Introduction: There are concerns that antimicrobial usage (AMU) is driving an increase in multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria so treatment of microbial infections is becoming harder in humans and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate factors, including usage, that affect antimicrobial resistance (AMR) on farm over time. Methods: A population of 14 cattle, sheep and pig farms within a defined area of England were sampled three times over a year to collect data on AMR in faecal Enterobacterales flora; AMU; and husbandry or management practices. Ten pooled samples were collected at each visit, with each comprising of 10 pinches of fresh faeces. Up to 14 isolates per visit were whole genome sequenced to determine presence of AMR genes. Results: Sheep farms had very low AMU in comparison to the other species and very few sheep isolates were genotypically resistant at any time point. AMR genes were detected persistently across pig farms at all visits, even on farms with low AMU, whereas AMR bacteria was consistently lower on cattle farms than pigs, even for those with comparably high AMU. MDR bacteria was also more commonly detected on pig farms than any other livestock species. Discussion: The results may be explained by a complex combination of factors on pig farms including historic AMU; co-selection of AMR bacteria; variation in amounts of antimicrobials used between visits; potential persistence in environmental reservoirs of AMR bacteria; or importation of pigs with AMR microbiota from supplying farms. Pig farms may also be at increased risk of AMR due to the greater use of oral routes of group antimicrobial treatment, which were less targeted than cattle treatments; the latter mostly administered to individual animals. Also, farms which exhibited either increasing or decreasing trends of AMR across the study did not have corresponding trends in their AMU. Therefore, our results suggest that factors other than AMU on individual farms are important for persistence of AMR bacteria on farms, which may be operating at the farm and livestock species level.

13.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 2500, 2023 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36781908

RESUMO

Plasmids are major vectors of bacterial antibiotic resistance, but understanding of factors associated with plasmid antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) carriage is limited. We curated > 14,000 publicly available plasmid genomes and associated metadata. Duplicate and replicate plasmids were excluded; where possible, sample metadata was validated externally (BacDive database). Using Generalised Additive Models (GAMs) we assessed the influence of 12 biotic/abiotic factors (e.g. plasmid genetic factors, isolation source, collection date) on ARG carriage, modelled as a binary outcome. Separate GAMs were built for 10 major ARG types. Multivariable analysis indicated that plasmid ARG carriage patterns across time (collection years), isolation sources (human/livestock) and host bacterial taxa were consistent with antibiotic selection pressure as a driver of plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance. Only 0.42% livestock plasmids carried carbapenem resistance (compared with 12% human plasmids); conversely, tetracycline resistance was enriched in livestock vs human plasmids, reflecting known prescribing practices. Interpreting results using a timeline of ARG type acquisition (determined by literature review) yielded additional novel insights. More recently acquired ARG types (e.g. colistin and carbapenem) showed increases in plasmid carriage during the date range analysed (1994-2019), potentially reflecting recent onset of selection pressure; they also co-occurred less commonly with ARGs of other types, and virulence genes. Overall, this suggests that following acquisition, plasmid ARGs tend to accumulate under antibiotic selection pressure and co-associate with other adaptive genes (other ARG types, virulence genes), potentially re-enforcing plasmid ARG carriage through co-selection.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Bactérias , Humanos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Plasmídeos/genética , Bactérias/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Carbapenêmicos
14.
Front Microbiol ; 14: 1335173, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38352060

RESUMO

Introduction: Surveillance is vital for monitoring the increasing risk of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacteria leading to failures in humans and animals to treat infections. In a One Health context, AMR bacteria from livestock and food can transfer through the food chain to humans, and vice versa, which can be characterized in detail through genomics. We investigated the critical aspects of AMR and the dynamics of AMR in poultry in the UK. Methods: In this study, we performed whole genome sequencing for genomic characterization of 761 extended-spectrum cephalosporinases (ESCs) harboring Escherichia coli isolated from poultry caeca and meat through EU harmonized monitoring of AMR in zoonotic and commensal bacteria from 2016 and 2018 and UK national monitoring in 2020. Results: The most common ESC in 2016 and 2018 was blaCTX-M-1; however, 2020 had a greater diversity of ESCs with blaCTX-M-55 dominant in chickens and blaCTX-M-15 more prevalent in turkeys. Co-resistance to sulphonamides, tetracycline, and trimethoprim was widespread, and there were several positive correlations between the sequence types (STs) and ESC genes. We identified certain AMR genotypes and STs that were frequent each year but not as successful in subsequent years, e.g., ST350 harboring blaCTX-M-1, sul2, and tetA-v4.Phylogenetic comparison of isolates prevalent in our panel with global ones from the same STs available in public databases showed that isolates from the UK generally clustered together, suggesting greater within-country than between-country transmission. Discussion: We conclude that future genomic surveillance of indicator organisms will be invaluable as it will enable detailed comparisons of AMR between and within neighboring countries, potentially identifying the most successful sequence types, plasmids, or emerging threats.

15.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 955136, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36299725

RESUMO

Acute non-typhoidal salmonellosis (NTS) caused by a Gram-negative bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Tm) is one of the most common bacterial foodborne diseases worldwide. Bacteriophages (phages) can specifically target and lyse their host bacteria, including the multidrug-resistant strains, without collateral damage to other bacteria in the community. However, the therapeutic use of Salmonella phages in vivo is still poorly investigated. Salmonella phages ST-W77 and SE-W109 have previously been shown by our group to be useful for biocontrol properties. Here, we tested whether phages ST-W77 and SE-W109 can reduce Salmonella invasion into cultured human cells and confer a therapeutic benefit for acute NTS in a mammalian host. Human colonocytes, T84 cells, were treated with phages ST-W77, SE-W109, and its combination for 5 min before S. Tm infection. Gentamicin protection assays demonstrated that ST-W77 and SE-W109 significantly reduced S. Tm invasion and inflammatory response in human colonocytes. Next, streptomycin-pretreated mice were orally infected with S. Tm (108 CFU/mouse) and treated with a single or a combination of ST-W77 and SE-W109 (1010 PFU/mouse for 4 days) by oral feeding. Our data showed that phage-treated mice had lower S. Tm numbers and tissue inflammation compared to the untreated mice. Our study also revealed that ST-W77 and SE-W109 persist in the mouse gut lumen, but not in systemic sites. Together, these data suggested that Salmonella phages ST-W77 and SE-W109 could be further developed as an alternative approach for treating an acute NTS in mammalian hosts.

16.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 937968, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35935201

RESUMO

The rise in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacteria is reducing therapeutic options for livestock and human health, with a paucity of information globally. To fill this gap, a One-Health approach was taken by sampling livestock on farms (n = 52), abattoir (n = 8), and animal markets (n = 10), and in-contact humans in Southeast Nigeria. Extended spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant (ESC-R) Escherichia coli was selectively cultured from 975 healthy livestock faecal swabs, and hand swabs from in-contact humans. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) was performed on all ESC-R E. coli. For isolates showing a multi-drug resistance (MDR) phenotype (n = 196), quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was performed for confirmation of extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) and carbapenemase genes. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was performed on a subset (n = 157) for detailed molecular characterisation. The results showed ESC-R E. coli was present in 41.2% of samples, with AST results indicating 48.8% of isolates were phenotypically MDR. qPCR confirmed presence of ESBL genes, with bla CTX-M present in all but others in a subset [bla TEM (62.8%) and bla SHV (0.5%)] of isolates; none harboured transferable carbapenemase genes. Multi-locus sequence typing identified 34 Sequence Types (ST) distributed among different sampling levels; ST196 carrying bla CTX-M-55 was predominant in chickens. Large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the core genome of isolates, even within the same clade by phylogenetic analysis, indicated high genetic diversity. AMR genotyping indicated the predominant bla CTX-M variant was bla CTX-M-15 (87.9%), although bla CTX-M-55, bla CTX-M-64, and bla CTX-M-65 were present; it was notable that bla CTX-M-1, common in livestock, was absent. Other predominant AMR genes included: sul2, qnrS1, strB, bla TEM-1b, tetA-v2, and dfrA14, with prevalence varying according to host livestock species. A bla CTX-M-15 harbouring plasmid from livestock isolates in Ebonyi showed high sequence identity to one from river/sewage water in India, indicating this ESBL plasmid to be globally disseminated, being present beyond the river environment. In conclusion, ESC-R E. coli was widespread in livestock and in-contact humans from Southeast Nigeria. WGS data indicated the isolates were genetically highly diverse, probably representing true diversity of wild type E. coli; they were likely to be MDR with several harbouring bla CTX-M-15. Surprisingly, human isolates had highest numbers of AMR genes and pigs the least.

17.
Microb Genom ; 8(3)2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35344479

RESUMO

Food animals may be reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) passing through the food chain, but little is known about AMR prevalence in bacteria when selective pressure from antimicrobials is low or absent. We monitored antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli over 1 year in a UK outdoor pig farm with low antimicrobial usage (AMU) compared to conventional pig farms in the United Kingdom. Short and selected long-read whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was performed to identify AMR genes, phylogeny and mobile elements in 385 E. coli isolates purified mainly from pig and some seagull faeces. Generally, low levels of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli were present, probably due to low AMU. Those present were likely to be multi-drug resistant (MDR) and belonging to particular Sequence Types (STs) such as ST744, ST88 or ST44, with shared clones (<14 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) apart) isolated from different time points indicating epidemiological linkage within pigs of different ages, and between pig and the wild bird faeces. Although importance of horizontal transmission of AMR is well established, there was limited evidence of plasmid-mediated dissemination between different STs. Non-conjugable MDR plasmids or large AMR gene-bearing transposons were stably integrated within the chromosome and remained associated with particular STs/clones over the time period sampled. Heavy metal resistance genes were also detected within some genetic elements. This study highlights that although low levels of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli correlates with low AMU, a basal level of MDR E. coli can still persist on farm potentially due to transmission and recycling of particular clones within different pig groups. Environmental factors such as wild birds and heavy metal contaminants may also play important roles in the recycling and dissemination, and hence enabling persistence of MDR E. coli. All such factors need to be considered as any rise in AMU on low usage farms, could in future, result in a significant increase in their AMR burden.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Fazendas , Genômica , Suínos
18.
J Microbiol Methods ; 193: 106418, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35041877

RESUMO

The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) advised to prioritize monitoring carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in food producing animals. Therefore, this study evaluated the performance of different commercially available selective agars for the detection of CPE using spiked pig caecal and turkey meat samples and the proposed EFSA cultivation protocol. Eleven laboratories from nine countries received eight samples (four caecal and four meat samples). For each matrix, three samples contained approximately 100 CFU/g CPE, and one sample lacked CPE. After overnight enrichment in buffered peptone water, broths were spread upon Brilliance™ CRE Agar (1), CHROMID® CARBA (2), CHROMagar™ mSuperCARBA™ (3), Chromatic™ CRE (4), CHROMID® OXA-48 (5) and Chromatic™ OXA-48 (6). From plates with suspected growth, one to three colonies were selected for species identification, confirmation of carbapenem resistance and detection of carbapenemase encoding genes, by methods available at participating laboratories. Of the eleven participating laboratories, seven reported species identification, susceptibility tests and genotyping on isolates from all selective agar plates. Agars 2, 4 and 5 performed best, with 100% sensitivity. For agar 3, a sensitivity of 96% was recorded, while agar 1 and 6 performed with 75% and 43% sensitivity, respectively. More background flora was noticed for turkey meat samples than pig caecal samples. Based on this limited set of samples, most commercially available agars performed adequately. The results indicate, however, that OXA-48-like and non-OXA-48-like producers perform very differently, and one should consider which CPE strains are of interest to culture when choosing agar type.


Assuntos
Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae , Ágar , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Técnicas Bacteriológicas/métodos , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/diagnóstico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Suínos , beta-Lactamases/genética
20.
Curr Opin Microbiol ; 64: 152-158, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739920

RESUMO

To understand the dynamics of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), in a One-Health perspective, surveillance play an important role. Monitoring systems already exist in the human health and livestock sectors, but there are no environmental monitoring programs. Therefore there is an urgent need to initiate environmental AMR monitoring programs nationally and globally, which will complement existing systems in different sectors. However, environmental programs should not only identify anthropogenic influences and levels of AMR, but they should also allow for identification of transmissions to and from human and animal populations. In the current review we therefore propose using antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli as indicators for monitoring occurrence and levels of AMR in the environment, including wildlife.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Humanos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...