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3.
Food Res Int ; 187: 114416, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38763666

RESUMO

An amaranth beverage (AB) was subjected to a simulated process of dynamic gastrointestinal digestion DIDGI®, a simple two-compartment in vitro dynamic gastrointestinal digestion system. The structural changes caused to the proteins during digestion and the digesta inhibitory capacity of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) were investigated. In gastric compartment the degree of hydrolysis (DH) was 14.7 ± 1.5 % and in the intestinal compartment, proteins were digests in a greater extent (DH = 60.6 ± 8.4 %). Protein aggregation was detected during the gastric phase. The final digesta obtained both at the gastric and intestinal level, showed ACE inhibitory capacity (IC50 80 ± 10 and 140 ± 20 µg/mL, respectively). Purified fractions from these digesta showed even greater inhibitory capacity, being eluted 2 (E2) the most active fraction (IC50 60 ± 10 µg/mL). Twenty-six peptide sequences were identified. Six of them, with potential antihypertensive capacity, belong to A. hypochondriacus, 3 agglutinins and 3 encrypted sequences in the 11S globulin. Results obtained provide new and useful information on peptides released from the digestion of an amaranth based beverage and its ACE bioactivity.


Assuntos
Amaranthus , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina , Anti-Hipertensivos , Bebidas , Digestão , Amaranthus/química , Anti-Hipertensivos/química , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Hidrólise , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo
4.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302242, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722962

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is one of the most prevalent pediatric chronic conditions. Without proper intervention, significant delays in motor skill performance and learning may persist until adulthood. Moderate-to-vigorous physical exercise has been proven to improve motor learning (adaptation and consolidation) in children with or without disorders. However, the effect of a short bout of physical exercise on motor adaptation and consolidation in children with DCD has not been examined. Furthermore, the role of perceptual-motor integration and attention as mediators of learning has not been examined via neuroimaging in this population. OBJECTIVES: Therefore, the primary aims of this project will be to compare children with and without DCD to (a) examine the effect of acute exercise on motor learning (adaptation and consolidation) while performing a rotational visuo-motor adaptation task (rVMA), and (b) explore cortical activation in the dorsolateral- and ventrolateral-prefrontal cortex areas while learning the rVMA task under rest or post-exercise conditions. METHODS: One hundred twenty children will be recruited (60 DCD, 60 controls) and within-cohort randomly assigned to either exercise (13-minute shuttle run task) or rest prior to performing the rVMA task. Adaptation and consolidation will be evaluated via two error variables and three retention tests (1h, 24h and 7 days post adaptation). Cortical activation will be registered via functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) during the baseline, adaptation, and consolidation. DISCUSSION: We expect to find exercise benefits on motor learning and attention so that children with DCD profiles will be closer to those of children with typical development. The results of this project will provide further evidence to: (a) better characterize children with DCD for the design of educational materials, and (b) establish acute exercise as a potential intervention to improve motor learning and attention.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Aprendizagem , Transtornos das Habilidades Motoras , Destreza Motora , Humanos , Transtornos das Habilidades Motoras/fisiopatologia , Criança , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Adaptação Fisiológica , Adolescente , Terapia por Exercício/métodos
6.
Int J Cancer ; 2024 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38761410

RESUMO

Thailand is among countries with the highest global incidence and mortality rates of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA). While viral hepatitis and liver fluke infections have been associated with HCC and iCCA, respectively, other environmental risk factors, overall risk factor commonality and combinatorial roles, and effects on survival have not been systematically examined. We conducted a TIGER-LC consortium-based population study covering all high-incidence areas of both malignancies across Thailand: 837 HCC, 1474 iCCA, and 1112 controls (2011-2019) were comprehensively queried on lifelong environmental exposures, lifestyle, and medical history. Multivariate logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards analyses were used to evaluate risk factors and associated survival patterns. Our models identified shared risk factors between HCC and iCCA, such as viral hepatitis infection, liver fluke infection, and diabetes, including novel and shared associations of agricultural pesticide exposure (OR range of 1.50; 95% CI: 1.06-2.11 to 2.91; 95% CI: 1.82-4.63) along with vulnerable sources of drinking water. Most patients had multiple risk factors, magnifying their risk considerably. Patients with lower risk levels had better survival in both HCC (HR 0.78; 95% CI: 0.64-0.96) and iCCA (HR 0.84; 95% CI: 0.70-0.99). Risk factor co-exposures and their common associations with HCC and iCCA in Thailand emphasize the importance for future prevention and control measures, especially in its large agricultural sector. The observed mortality patterns suggest ways to stratify patients for anticipated survivorship and develop plans to support medical care of longer-term survivors, including behavioral changes to reduce exposures.

7.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1341321, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605950

RESUMO

Objective: To describe severe infection, foci of infection, microorganisms, associated factors, and impact on mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD). Patients and methods: The study was based on a multicenter prospective cohort of patients with RA-ILD followed up from 2015 to 2023. The main outcome measures were incident severe infection and fatal infection. We evaluated infectious foci, etiologic agents, vaccination status, variables associated with lung function, and clinical-therapeutic variables in RA. The incidence rate (IR) for infection and mortality was calculated per 100 person-years, and 3 multivariate models were constructed to explore factors associated with infection. Results: We followed up 148 patients with RA-ILD for a median 56.7 months (699.3 person-years). During this period, 142 patients (96%) had at least 1 infection. A total of 368 infectious episodes were recorded, with an IR of 52.6 per 100 person-years. Of the 48 patients who died, 65% did so from infection. Respiratory infections were the most common first infection (74%), infection overall (74%), and fatal infection (80%) and were caused mostly by SARS CoV-2, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and influenza A virus. The factors associated with an increased risk of infection and death in patients with RA-ILD were age, inflammatory activity, and therapy with corticosteroids and immunosuppressants. Conclusion: Patients with RA-ILD have a high risk of serious infection, especially respiratory infection. Infection develops early, is recurrent, and is frequently fatal. The presence of associated factors such as advanced age, joint inflammation, and treatment highlight the importance of integrated and preventive medical care.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/etiologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/complicações , Incidência
8.
Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl ; 24: 100927, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38617092

RESUMO

Wild boars have a worldwide distribution and also have major economic, veterinary, and medical importance. Due to a small amount of data on the parasitic fauna of wild boars in the Russian Far East, especially in Prymorye territory, a post-mortem parasitic examination of 20 wild boars was provided. The general prevalence was 25%, and a total of six helminth species, including one larva stage, were found. The most prevalent helminth species were Gnathostoma doloresi (25%) and Metastrongylus elongatus (20%). Followed by Trichuris suis and Ascaris suum (15%). The lowest prevalence was registered for Cysticercus tenuicollis (the larvae stage of T. hydatigena). Parasites were found in each region, with the highest prevalence registered in the Chuguevskii region. Totally 100% of adult boars were positive for helminth infections, instead of 60% of young specimens. Some helminthes found (G. doloresi, T. suis, A. suum) have zoonotic potential and can be involved in the circulation of human parasitic diseases, especially in rural areas. Further research work on parasitic infections in wild boars in Prymorye is necessary due to the high prevalence of helminthes in wild boars.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38664154

RESUMO

Survivors of critical illness may present physical, psychological, or cognitive symptoms after hospital discharge, encompassed within what is known as post-intensive care syndrome. These alterations result from both the critical illness itself and the medical interventions surrounding it. For its prevention, the implementation of the ABCDEF bundle (Assess/treat pain, Breathing/awakening trials, Choice of sedatives, Delirium reduction, Early mobility and exercise, Family) has been proposed, along with additional strategies grouped under the acronym GHIRN (Good communication, Handout materials, Redefined ICU architectural design, Respirator, Nutrition). In addition to these preventive measures during the ICU stay, high-risk patients should be identified for subsequent follow-up through multidisciplinary teams coordinated by Intensive Care Medicine Departments.

10.
J Clin Med ; 13(8)2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38673587

RESUMO

Background: Tandem lesions (TLs) cause up to 15-30% of all acute ischemic strokes (AISs). Endovascular treatment (EVT) is regarded as the first-line treatment; however, uncertainties remain with respect to the treatment and predictive outcome parameters. Here, we aimed to identify the clinical and demographic factors associated with functional short- and long-term outcomes in AIS patients with arteriosclerotic TLs undergoing EVT. Methods: This was a retrospective, mono-centric cohort study of 116 consecutive AIS patients with arteriosclerotic TLs who were endovascularly treated at a stroke center, with analysis of the relevant demographic, procedural, and imaging data. Results: A total of 116 patients were included in this study, with a median age of 72 years (IQR 63-80), 31% of whom were female (n = 36). The median NIHSS on admission was 14 (IQR 7-19), with a median ASPECT score of 9 (IQR 8-10) and median NASCET score of 99% (IQR 88-100%). A total of 52% of the patients received intravenous thrombolysis. In 77% (n = 89) of the patients, an antegrade EVT approach was used, with a good recanalization (mTICI2b3) achieved in 83% of patients (n = 96). Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage occurred in 12.7% (n = 15) of patients. A favorable outcome (mRS0-2) and mortality at 3 months were obtained for 40% (n = 47) and 28% of patients (n = 32), respectively. Age and NIHSS on admission were strongly associated with outcome parameters. Diabetes mellitus and previous neurological disorders were independently associated with long-term mortality (median 11 months, IQR 0-42). Conclusions: Younger age, lower stroke severity, and good recanalization were found to be independently associated with a favorable outcome. In contrast, older age, higher stroke severity, previous neurological disorders, and diabetes were correlated with mortality. The endovascular treatment of acute arteriosclerotic tandem lesions is feasible and relatively safe.

11.
Crit Care ; 28(1): 91, 2024 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38515193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) can be classified into sub-phenotypes according to different inflammatory/clinical status. Prognostic enrichment was achieved by grouping patients into hypoinflammatory or hyperinflammatory sub-phenotypes, even though the time of analysis may change the classification according to treatment response or disease evolution. We aimed to evaluate when patients can be clustered in more than 1 group, and how they may change the clustering of patients using data of baseline or day 3, and the prognosis of patients according to their evolution by changing or not the cluster. METHODS: Multicenter, observational prospective, and retrospective study of patients admitted due to ARDS related to COVID-19 infection in Spain. Patients were grouped according to a clustering mixed-type data algorithm (k-prototypes) using continuous and categorical readily available variables at baseline and day 3. RESULTS: Of 6205 patients, 3743 (60%) were included in the study. According to silhouette analysis, patients were grouped in two clusters. At baseline, 1402 (37%) patients were included in cluster 1 and 2341(63%) in cluster 2. On day 3, 1557(42%) patients were included in cluster 1 and 2086 (57%) in cluster 2. The patients included in cluster 2 were older and more frequently hypertensive and had a higher prevalence of shock, organ dysfunction, inflammatory biomarkers, and worst respiratory indexes at both time points. The 90-day mortality was higher in cluster 2 at both clustering processes (43.8% [n = 1025] versus 27.3% [n = 383] at baseline, and 49% [n = 1023] versus 20.6% [n = 321] on day 3). Four hundred and fifty-eight (33%) patients clustered in the first group were clustered in the second group on day 3. In contrast, 638 (27%) patients clustered in the second group were clustered in the first group on day 3. CONCLUSIONS: During the first days, patients can be clustered into two groups and the process of clustering patients may change as they continue to evolve. This means that despite a vast majority of patients remaining in the same cluster, a minority reaching 33% of patients analyzed may be re-categorized into different clusters based on their progress. Such changes can significantly impact their prognosis.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Humanos , Análise por Conglomerados , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Estudos Prospectivos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
J Clin Med ; 13(6)2024 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38542033

RESUMO

Background: The ability to predict a long duration of mechanical ventilation (MV) by clinicians is very limited. We assessed the value of machine learning (ML) for early prediction of the duration of MV > 14 days in patients with moderate-to-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Methods: This is a development, testing, and external validation study using data from 1173 patients on MV ≥ 3 days with moderate-to-severe ARDS. We first developed and tested prediction models in 920 ARDS patients using relevant features captured at the time of moderate/severe ARDS diagnosis, at 24 h and 72 h after diagnosis with logistic regression, and Multilayer Perceptron, Support Vector Machine, and Random Forest ML techniques. For external validation, we used an independent cohort of 253 patients on MV ≥ 3 days with moderate/severe ARDS. Results: A total of 441 patients (48%) from the derivation cohort (n = 920) and 100 patients (40%) from the validation cohort (n = 253) were mechanically ventilated for >14 days [median 14 days (IQR 8-25) vs. 13 days (IQR 7-21), respectively]. The best early prediction model was obtained with data collected at 72 h after moderate/severe ARDS diagnosis. Multilayer Perceptron risk modeling identified major prognostic factors for the duration of MV > 14 days, including PaO2/FiO2, PaCO2, pH, and positive end-expiratory pressure. Predictions of the duration of MV > 14 days showed modest discrimination [AUC 0.71 (95%CI 0.65-0.76)]. Conclusions: Prolonged MV duration in moderate/severe ARDS patients remains difficult to predict early even with ML techniques such as Multilayer Perceptron and using data at 72 h of diagnosis. More research is needed to identify markers for predicting the length of MV. This study was registered on 14 August 2023 at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT NCT05993377).

13.
Anon.
J. bras. nefrol ; 46(1): 107-108, Mar. 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1534767
16.
Dent Traumatol ; 2024 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38459669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Mouthguards are crucial for protecting athletes against orofacial injuries, yet concerns persist regarding their potential impact on oral functions. This study aimed to investigate the effects of sports mouthguards on oral functions and speech over time. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty national rugby players received custom-fitted mouthguards. Questionnaire responses and speech recordings were collected before mouthguard use and at various intervals after using mouthguards: immediately, 1 week, 2 month, and 6 months. Spectrographic analysis was performed to measure voice onset time (VOT) for /p, b, t, d/ phonemes. Questionnaire responses were assessed with Friedman's test, while VOT changes were examined using one-way repeated measure analysis of variance. RESULTS: Compliance with mouthguard use improved during training and competitions, with consistent wear reported during matches. Over time, speaking difficulties and lisping decreased significantly (p < .001). The perception of nausea improved (p < .001), stabilizing after 1 month (p = .414). Sensations of bulkiness declined (p < .001). Mouth dryness reduced steadily, with no occurrences reported by all players by the end of the study. None of the participants reported bad breath, ulcers, or redness in the mouth. VOT changed immediately after wearing mouthguards (p < .001), gradually regressing toward the baseline, although not completely reaching it. Players held a favorable view of mouthguard use, with comfort and support for mandatory use increasing over time. CONCLUSIONS: Custom-fitted mouthguards do not lead to significant long-term disruptions in oral functions. Athletes generally adapt to mouthguard use, reporting improved comfort and greater support for their use.

17.
Intensive Care Med ; 50(2): 258-267, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38353714

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the best strategy to achieve fast and safe extubation. METHODS: This multicenter trial randomized patients with primary respiratory failure and low-to-intermediate risk for extubation failure with planned high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) preventive therapy. It included four groups: (1) conservative screening with ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) to fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) ≥ 150 and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) ≤ 8 cmH2O plus conservative spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) with pressure support 5 cmH2O + PEEP 0 cmH2O); (2) screening with ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) to fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) ≥ 150 and PEEP ≤ 8 plus aggressive SBT with pressure support 8 + PEEP 5; (3) aggressive screening with PaO2/FiO2 > 180 and PEEP 10 maintained until the SBT with pressure support 8 + PEEP 5; (4) screening with PaO2/FiO2 > 180 and PEEP 10 maintained until the SBT with pressure support 5 + PEEP 0. Primary outcomes were time-to-extubation and simple weaning rate. Secondary outcomes included reintubation within 7 days after extubation. RESULTS: Randomization to the aggressive-aggressive group was discontinued at the interim analysis for safety reasons. Thus, 884 patients who underwent at least 1 SBT were analyzed (conservative-conservative group, n = 256; conservative-aggressive group, n = 267; aggressive-conservative group, n = 261; aggressive-aggressive, n = 100). Median time to extubation was lower in the groups with aggressive screening (p < 0.001). Simple weaning rates were 45.7%, 76.78% (205 patients), 71.65%, and 91% (p < 0.001), respectively. Reintubation rates did not differ significantly (p = 0.431). CONCLUSION: Among patients at low or intermediate risk for extubation failure with planned HFNC, combining aggressive screening with preventive PEEP and a conservative SBT reduced the time to extubation without increasing the reintubation rate.


Assuntos
Extubação , Artérias , Humanos , Pressão Parcial , Pressão , Oxigênio
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