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2.
J Infect Dis ; 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related (MIC) A and B (MICA and MICB) are polymorphic stress molecules recognized by natural killer cells. This study was performed to analyze MIC gene profiles in hospitalized Thai children with acute dengue illness. METHODS: MIC allele profiles were determined in a discovery cohort of patients with dengue fever or dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) (n = 166) and controls (n = 149). A replication cohort of patients with dengue (n = 222) was used to confirm specific MICB associations with disease. RESULTS: MICA*045 and MICB*004 associated with susceptibility to DHF in secondary dengue virus (DENV) infections (odds ratio [OR], 3.22; [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.18-8.84] and 1.99 [1.07-2.13], respectively), and MICB*002 with protection from DHF in secondary DENV infections (OR, 0.41; 95% CI, .21-.68). The protective effect of MICB*002 against secondary DHF was confirmed in the replication cohort (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, .22-.82) and was stronger when MICB*002 is present in individuals also carrying HLA-B*18, B*40, and B*44 alleles which form the B44 supertype of functionally related alleles (0.29, 95% CI, .14-.60). CONCLUSIONS: Given that MICB*002 is a low expresser of soluble proteins, these data indicate that surface expression of MICB*002 with B44 supertype alleles on DENV-infected cells confer a protective advantage in controlling DENV infection using natural killer cells.

3.
Interv Neuroradiol ; : 1591019920946499, 2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720822

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Tigertriever is a novel operator-adjustable clot retriever designed to enhance the operator's options to control the interaction of retriever and clot. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility, safety and efficacy of the Tigertriever device system. METHODS: Prospective multi-center registry study at three comprehensive stroke centers in Switzerland from 2017 to 2019 of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and large vessel occlusion (LVO) using Tigertriever as a first-line device. RESULTS: 30 AIS patients (median age 72.5 years (IQR 64-79), 50% women) with a median NIHSS on admission of 11 (IQR 6-13) and a median ASPECT score of 9 (IQR 7-10) were treated with the new Tigertriever and included in this study. The first-pass effect was 24% (n = 7). A good recanalization (eTICI 2 b/2c/3) was achieved in 94% of the cases. Median mRS at 90 days was 1 (IQR 1-2). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated feasibility, safety and effectiveness of the Tigertriever in AIS patients with LVO with a high reperfusion rate.

5.
Clin Neuroradiol ; 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32691077

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Endovascular therapy (EVT) represents an alternative treatment modality for symptomatic intracranial high-grade atherosclerotic stenosis (sICAS); however, periprocedural complication rates as well as midterm restenosis rates represent relevant limitations of EVT. Drug-coated balloon percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (DCB-PTA) may overcome some of these shortcomings. The aim of this study was to assess feasibility and safety as well as the stroke recurrence rate in 33 patients. METHODS: A retrospective, monocentric cohort study of sICAS patients treated with DCB-PTA. Outcome measures were the periprocedural intracranial complication rate, the recurrent stroke rate and mortality during follow-up. RESULTS: This cohort study included 33 patients with 35 sICAS treated with DCB-PTA. The median age was 72 years (interquartile range, IQR 66-77 years); median clinical and mean radiological follow-up time was 9 months (IQR 3-22 months). Median preprocedural degree of stenosis (WASID) was 80% (IQR 73-80%) and median postprocedural residual stenosis degree (WASID) was 50% (IQR 33-60%). Intracranial periprocedural complications occurred in 2 (6%) patients. The overall restenosis rate was 15% (n = 5). In four patients a symptomatic ischemic re-event occurred within 7 months after the initial treatment. None of the patients died. CONCLUSION: This DCB-PTA cohort study showed a relatively low intracranial complication rate of 6% with a symptomatic recurrence rate of 12%. Larger trials are needed to validate these promising observations.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664355

RESUMO

The main aim of this paper was two-fold: first, to design a participative methodology that facilitates lean management implementation in healthcare by adopting the action research approach; second, to illustrate the usefulness of this methodology by applying it to the sleep unit of a public hospital in Spain. This methodology proposes the implementation of lean management in its broadest sense: adopting both lean principles and some of its practical tools or practices in order to achieve competitive advantage. The complete service value chain was considered when introducing changes through lean management implementation. This implementation involved training and involving staff in the project (personnel pillar), detecting and analysing "waste" in value chain processes (processes pillar) and establishing control and measurement mechanisms in line with objectives (key performance indicators pillar) and putting in place improvement actions to achieve these objectives. The application of this methodology brought about an improvement in the management of patient flow in terms of effectiveness, efficiency and quality but also an internal transformation towards lean culture.

9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 9047, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493997

RESUMO

Dengue is one of the most widespread vector-borne viral diseases in the world. However, the size, heterogeneity, and temporal dynamics of the cell-associated viral reservoir during acute dengue virus (DENV) infection remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed cells infected in vitro with DENV and PBMC from an individual experiencing a natural DENV infection utilizing 5' capture single cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq). Both positive- and negative-sense DENV RNA was detected in reactions containing either an oligo(dT) primer alone, or in reactions supplemented with a DENV-specific primer. The addition of a DENV-specific primer did not increase the total amount of DENV RNA captured or the fraction of cells identified as containing DENV RNA. However, inclusion of a DENV-specific cDNA primer did increase the viral genome coverage immediately 5' to the primer binding site. Furthermore, while the majority of intracellular DENV sequence captured in this analysis mapped to the 5' end of the viral genome, distinct patterns of enhanced coverage within the DENV polyprotein coding region were observed. The 5' capture scRNAseq analysis of PBMC not only recapitulated previously published reports by detecting virally infected memory and naïve B cells, but also identified cell-associated genomic variants not observed in contemporaneous serum samples. These results demonstrate that oligo(dT) primed 5' capture scRNAseq can detect DENV RNA and quantify virus-infected cells in physiologically relevant conditions, and provides insight into viral sequence variability within infected cells.

10.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 163(2): 280-283, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513045

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to compare the protection afforded by a standard face shield design with a new enhanced design in a controlled setting. METHODS: This study was exempted from review by institutional review board waiver. A flexible fiberoptic endoscopy was placed through stellate openings in the standard face shield and the enhanced face shield. A series of simulated coughs were created with bursts of fluorescein dye through an atomizer tip placed within the test participant's mouth. Ultraviolet lighting illuminated the test area, and areas of dye splatter were noted. RESULTS: Fluorescein dye is easily aerosolized along the lateral inferior aspect of a standard shield with significant contamination of the surrounds. The enhanced face shield maintained a barrier to the aerosolized dye. DISCUSSION: Face shields, rather than face masks, should be considered a preferred alternative for the public and for health care professionals alike, as they address many of the personal protective equipment concerns especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. Otolaryngologists are at high risk from aerosol-generating procedures, such as flexible fiberoptic endoscopy, even when wearing personal protective equipment. Here we describe a uniquely designed face shield to be worn by the patient as another layer of protection for the environment and for medical personnel. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: During the course of a flexible fiberoptic endoscopy, medical personnel are safely isolated from potential infectious particles with a newly designed face shield.

11.
Clin Rheumatol ; 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32557255

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyze the effect of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) on the outcome of interstitial lung disease secondary to rheumatoid arthritis (RA-ILD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a multicenter, prospective, observational study of patients with RA-ILD receiving DMARDs between 2015 and 2017. The patients were assessed using high-resolution computed tomography and pulmonary function tests at baseline and at 24 months. The radiological assessment was centralized. The main outcome measure at 24 months was changed in lung function (improvement, stabilization, worsening, or death). We recorded the 28-joint Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28) and adverse events. A logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with worsening of ILD. RESULTS: After 24 months, lung disease was stabilized in 40 patients (57.1%), improved in 8 (11.4%), and worse in 21 (30.0%). One patient (1.4%) died. The factors associated with worsening of ILD in the multivariate analysis were treatment with abatacept, tocilizumab, or rituximab (OR, 0.102 [95%CI, 0.015-0.686]), DAS28 (OR, 1.969 [95%CI, 1.005-3.857]), and smoking (OR, 6.937 [95%CI, 1.378-4.900]). During follow-up, 30 patients (42.9%) experienced an adverse event, which was severe in 12 cases (17.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Lung function is stable and inflammatory activity well controlled in most patients with RA-ILD receiving treatment with DMARDs. Non-anti-TNF DMARDs reduce the risk of worsening of lung disease in 90% of patients. The inflammatory activity of RA and smoking, on the other hand, are associated with worsening.Key Points• We have performed prospectively evaluated lung and joint function in patients with RA-ILD receiving treatment with various DMARDs.• In our study, the lung function is stable and inflammatory activity well controlled in most patients with RA-ILD receiving treatment with DMARDs.• Neither csDMARDs nor anti-TNF agents were associated with a significant risk of worsening of lung disease, whereas non-anti-TNF bDMARDs could reduce the risk of worsening of lung disease.• Smoking and poor control of joint involvement were the main factors associated with worsening of lung disease.

12.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; : e13886, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483908

RESUMO

The pathophysiology of jackhammer esophagus is complex and remains unclear. Radiofrequency catheter ablation is indicated for highly symptomatic and drug-refractory atrial fibrillation. This technique can induce esophageal and nerve lesions, due to thermal injury. In this report, we describe a case of hypercontractile esophagus diagnosed by HRM (high-resolution manometry). Esophageal symptoms and HRM normalized immediately after RFCA, and we discuss the pathophysiology of hypercontractile esophagus.

13.
Anon.
Rev. colomb. psicol ; 29(1): 9-10, ene.-jun. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1115622
14.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 15(1): 138, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503579

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a rare vascular disease with autosomal dominant inheritance. Disease-causing variants in endoglin (ENG) and activin A receptor type II-like 1 (ACVRL1) genes are detected in more than 90% of cases submitted to molecular diagnosis. METHODS: We used data from the RiHHTa (Computerized Registry of Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia) registry to describe genetic variants and to assess their genotype-phenotype correlation among HHT patients in Spain. RESULTS: By May 2019, 215 patients were included in the RiHHTa registry with a mean age of 52.5 ± 16.5 years and 136 (63.3%) were women. Definitive HHT diagnosis defined by the Curaçao criteria were met by 172 (80%) patients. Among 113 patients with genetic test, 77 (68.1%) showed a genetic variant in ACVRL1 and 36 (31.8%) in ENG gene. The identified genetic variants in ACVRL1 and ENG genes and their clinical significance are provided. ACVRL1 mutations were more frequently nonsense (50%) while ENG mutations were more frequently, frameshift (39.1%). ENG patients were significantly younger at diagnosis (36.9 vs 45.7 years) and had pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) (71.4% vs 24.4%) and cerebral AVMs (17.6% vs 2%) more often than patients with ACVRL1 variants. Patients with ACVRL1 variants had a higher cardiac index (2.62 vs 3.46), higher levels of hepatic functional blood tests, and anemia (28.5% vs 56.7%) more often than ENG patients. CONCLUSIONS: ACVRL1 variants are more frequent than ENG in Spain. ACVRL1 patients developed symptomatic liver disease and anemia more often than ENG patients. Compared to ACVRL1, those with ENG variants are younger at diagnosis and show pulmonary and cerebral AVMs more frequently.

15.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-6, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502997

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Temporary parent vessel occlusion performed to establish a high-flow interpositional bypass carries the risk of infarcts. The authors investigated the feasibility of a novel technique to establish a high-flow bypass without temporary parent vessel occlusion in order to lower the risk of ischemic complications. METHODS: In 10 New Zealand white rabbits, a carotid artery side-to-end anastomosis was performed under parent artery patency with a novel endovascular balloon device. Intraoperative angiography, postoperative neurological assessments, and postoperative MRI/MRA were performed to evaluate the feasibility and safety of the novel technique. RESULTS: A patent anastomosis was established in 10 of 10 animals; 3 procedure-related complications occurred. No postoperative focal neurological deficits were observed. The MRI/MRA findings include no infarcts and bypass patency in 50% of the animals. CONCLUSIONS: The authors demonstrated the feasibility of an endovascular assisted, nonocclusive high-flow bypass. Future refinement of the device and technique in an animal model is necessary to lower the complication rate and increase patency rates.

16.
Rev. esp. cir. oral maxilofac ; 42(2): 60-68, abr.-jun. 2020. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-189942

RESUMO

El brote epidémico causado por el virus SARS-CoV-2 se encuentra plenamente activo en España. Alrededor del 10-15 % de los pacientes ingresados precisan cuidados en unidades de críticos, siendo intubados de forma prolongada y precisando la realización de traqueotomías. Se realiza un estudio observacional de las traqueotomías realizadas por nuestro Servicio de Cirugía Oral y Maxilofacial a pacientes COVID-19 de unidades de cuidados intensivos realizadas entre el 17 de marzo y el 17 de abril de 2020. El estudio analiza aspectos epidemiológicos y clínicos de los pacientes, el tipo de técnica quirúrgica empleada, el tiempo quirúrgico, el tipo de cánula empleada, las complicaciones postquirúrgicas y el seguimiento clínico de los pacientes. Un total de 22 pacientes fueron sometidos a traquetomía reglada abierta. Fueron dieciocho hombres y cuatro mujeres de edades entre 40 y 77 años (64,9 años de media). En todos los casos la realización de traqueotomía fue como consecuencia del proceso pulmonar por la neumonia bilateral COVID-19. Dos pacientes presentaron un neumotórax en el postoperatorio inmediato como complicación, un paciente falleció durante la realización del procedimiento y otro tras su llegada a la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos tras la realización de la traqueotomía. A pesar de que la traqueotomía es una técnica quirúrgica reglada, las características especiales de los pacientes COVID-19 hacen de este procedimiento una situación crítica por la inestabilidad pulmonar y la rápida desaturación del paciente. Todo ello obliga a la realización del procedimiento por facultativos con experiencia para disminuir el tiempo quirúrgico y poder enfrentarse a cualquier eventualidad


The outbreak caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus is currently very active in Spain. Many infected people still require to be hospitalized. Around 10-15 % of hospitalized patients require intensive care, where they are intubated for a prolonged period, needing tracheotomies some weeks after the intubation. We will be conducting an observational study of the tracheotomies performed by our oral and maxillofacial Department to COVID-19 patients on intensive care units between March 17th and April 17th, 2020. This study will be analyzing the patients' epidemiological and clinical aspects, surgical technique employed, surgical time, type of cannula used, postoperative complications and the patients' clinical monitoring. A total of 22 patients underwent open elective tracheotomy. There were twenty-two males and three females aged between 40 and 77 (mean: 64,9 years-old). In all cases tracheotomy was carried out due to pulmonary process caused by COVID-19 bilateral pneumonia. Two patients presented pneumothorax in the immediate postoperatory care as a complication, one perished during the procedure and another did so after arriving to the Intensive Care Unit after the tracheotomy surgery. Even though tracheotomy is a ruled surgical technique, the special characteristics of COVID-19 patients make of this procedure a critical situation, mainly due to lung instability and quick desaturation of the patients. This requires the surgery to be carried out by experienced physicians in order to reduce operative time and to be able to react to any eventualities that may arise


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/cirurgia , Pneumonia Viral/cirurgia , Betacoronavirus , Pandemias , Traqueostomia/instrumentação , Traqueostomia/métodos , Hospitais Universitários , Seguimentos , Estado Terminal , Fatores de Tempo , Espanha
17.
Chem Soc Rev ; 49(12): 3748-3763, 2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458909

RESUMO

Lignin, the most abundant aromatic polymer in nature, enables sustainable supply of miscellaneous aromatics as green fuels and chemicals. Obtaining the value-added aromatics from lignin, though subjected to enormous research efforts, mainly relies on depolymerization induced by activated hydrogen species or oxygen species, delivering hydrocarbons and oxygenates. The future bio-refinery demands a broad spectrum of fine chemicals, especially those containing elements other than C, H and O. Heteroatom-containing compounds have emerged as powerful reagents to participate in the bond cleavage in lignin; meanwhile, the obtained heteroatom-containing aromatics, which could be used as dye precursors, pharmaceutical precursors, hydrogen storage materials, etc., extend the application of lignin-derived products. This tutorial review updates recent advances in the lignin C-C and C-O bond cleavages induced by heteroatoms X (N, Si, I and Li), which also lead to functionalized products containing C-X and O-X bonds. The representative reaction pathways and feasibilities in lignin models and extracts are summarized. Potential applications of functionalized monomers in synthetic transformations, pharmaceuticals, dyes and energy storage are also discussed.

18.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(7): 717-725, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32422180

RESUMO

Global health care is experiencing an unprecedented surge in the number of critically ill patients who require mechanical ventilation due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The requirement for relatively long periods of ventilation in those who survive means that many are considered for tracheostomy to free patients from ventilatory support and maximise scarce resources. COVID-19 provides unique challenges for tracheostomy care: health-care workers need to safely undertake tracheostomy procedures and manage patients afterwards, minimising risks of nosocomial transmission and compromises in the quality of care. Conflicting recommendations exist about case selection, the timing and performance of tracheostomy, and the subsequent management of patients. In response, we convened an international working group of individuals with relevant expertise in tracheostomy. We did a literature and internet search for reports of research pertaining to tracheostomy during the COVID-19 pandemic, supplemented by sources comprising statements and guidance on tracheostomy care. By synthesising early experiences from countries that have managed a surge in patient numbers, emerging virological data, and international, multidisciplinary expert opinion, we aim to provide consensus guidelines and recommendations on the conduct and management of tracheostomy during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Internacionalidade , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Traqueostomia/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle
19.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The human microbiome evolves rapidly in early life with contributions from various factors such as diet, delivery mode, medical history, antibiotics exposure, genetics, immunomodulators and the environment. A high use of antibiotics in pediatric outpatient settings has been well documented, and improvement in antibiotic selection is required to reduce the risks of antibiotic resistance and disruption of the microbiome. METHODS: We performed an exploratory study using 16S rRNA gene-based sequencing to characterize the gut and nasopharyngeal microbiome of children (n = 50) age 1-6 years of age in a pediatric otolaryngology practice. RESULTS: Relative abundance of Haemophilus and Moraxella were higher in nasopharyngeal swabs, while Prevotella, Bacteroides, Porphyromonas and Faecalibacterium were highly abundant in rectal swabs. The gut microbiome composition in children <2 years old was different compared with children ≥2 years age. Gut bacterial diversity increased with an increase in age of the children. Children taking probiotics had a notable increase in abundance of potentially beneficial gut bacteria such as Bacteroides and Akkermansia. The nasopharyngeal microbiome differed between children who received antibiotics in the 3 months before sample collection compared with those that did not. Haemophilus spp. was highly abundant in children who received antibiotics 3 months before sampling. CONCLUSIONS: The pediatric nasopharyngeal and rectal microbiomes differ in bacterial composition and diversity. The increased abundance of Haemophilus spp. in the nasopharyngeal microbiome of children who received antibiotics during the 3 months before sampling suggests a potential impact of antibiotics in colonization with the otopathogen and may be relevant to clinical practice.

20.
Cancer Lett ; 487: 21-26, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454144

RESUMO

We aimed to evaluate lung cancer survival in never-smokers, both overall and specifically by sex, exposure to residential-radon, age, histological type, and diagnostic stage. We included lung cancer cases diagnosed in a multicentre, hospital-based, case-control-study of never-smoker patients, diagnosed from January-2011 to March-2015 (Lung Cancer Research In Never Smokers study). 369 never-smokers (79% women; median age 71 years; 80% adenocarcinoma; 66% stage IV) were included. Median overall survival, and at one, 3 and 5 years of diagnosis was 18.3 months, 61%, 32% and 22%, respectively. Higher median survival rates were obtained for: younger age, adenocarcinoma, actionable mutations, and earlier-stage at diagnosis. Higher indoor radon showed a higher risk of death in multivariate analysis. Median lung cancer survival in never-smokers seems higher than that in ever-smokers. Patients with actionable mutations have a significantly higher survival. Higher indoor-radon exposure has a negative effect on survival.

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