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1.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38831016

RESUMO

Although invasive alien species have long been recognized as a major threat to nature and people, until now there has been no comprehensive global review of the status, trends, drivers, impacts, management and governance challenges of biological invasions. The Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) Thematic Assessment Report on Invasive Alien Species and Their Control (hereafter 'IPBES invasive alien species assessment') drew on more than 13,000 scientific publications and reports in 15 languages as well as Indigenous and local knowledge on all taxa, ecosystems and regions across the globe. Therefore, it provides unequivocal evidence of the major and growing threat of invasive alien species alongside ambitious but realistic approaches to manage biological invasions. The extent of the threat and impacts has been recognized by the 143 member states of IPBES who approved the summary for policymakers of this assessment. Here, the authors of the IPBES assessment outline the main findings of the IPBES invasive alien species assessment and highlight the urgency to act now.

2.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 10(6): 3806-3812, 2024 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709857

RESUMO

In this work, for the first time, we demonstrate light control of a therapeutic protein's release from a depot in the subcutaneous layer of the skin. The subcutaneous layer is a standard location for therapeutic protein depots due to its large size and ease of access, but prior attempts to utilize this space failed because insufficient light can reach this deeper layer. An analysis of existing biophysical literature suggested that an increase of photoactivation wavelength from 365 to 500 nm could allow an increase of depot irradiation in the subcutaneous by >100-fold. We therefore used a green light-activated thio-coumarin-based material and demonstrated robust release of a therapeutic, insulin, in response to skin illumination with an LED light source. We further demonstrated that this release is ultrafast, as fast or faster than any commercially used insulin, while maintaining the native insulin sequence. This release of insulin was then accompanied by a robust reduction in blood glucose, demonstrating the retention of bioactivity despite the synthetic processing required to generate the material. In addition, we observed that the material exhibits slow basal release of insulin, even in the absence of light, potentially through biochemical or photochemical unmasking of insulin. Thus, these materials can act much like the healthy pancreas does: releasing insulin at a slow basal rate and then, upon skin irradiation, releasing an ultrafast bolus of native insulin to reduce postprandial blood glucose excursions.


Assuntos
Insulina , Luz , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Cumarínicos/química , Tela Subcutânea/efeitos dos fármacos , Tela Subcutânea/metabolismo , Masculino , Luz Verde
3.
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0287532, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37384658

RESUMO

Influence of chemical composition of sawdust on the nutritional profile of oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) has yet to receive significant research attention. This information will help mushroom growers to select specific sawdust for the production of mushroom with desired dietary preferences. This study assessed the influence of the chemical composition of sawdust on the macronutrients and ash content of the pearl oyster mushrooms. The American Standard for Testing Materials and other widely accepted protocols were used to determine the C-N ratio, pH, lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose contents of mixed sawdust from tropical wood species. The study evaluated the fat, crude fibre, crude protein, carbohydrate, and ash content of the oyster mushroom cultivated on the sawdust. Cellulose constituted the largest component of the sawdust (47.82%), followed by lignin (33.29%). The yield of the mushroom (on 0.05 kg of sawdust) ranged from 490.1 to 540.9 g (biological efficiency: 44-50%); the average carbohydrates constituent in the mushroom was 56.28%. pH of the sawdust influenced the crude protein, carbohydrate, fat and ash content of oyster mushrooms (p<0.05) most significantly. The hemicelluloses also had a significant effect (p<0.05) on the mushroom's minerals, fat and crude fiber content. The study revealed that the mushroom producers would likely obtain high protein content using sawdust with low pH (slightly acidic to slightly basic) in the oyster mushroom. Mushrooms grown on substrates, rich in hemicelluloses, had low fat and high crude fiber content.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Pleurotus , Celulose , Lignina , Nutrientes , Madeira
4.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0279586, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36548387

RESUMO

In the search for alternatives to wood fuel, to meet the bio-energy requirement of an ever-increasing global population, the International Network for Bamboo and Rattan has supported farmers in many tropical countries to establish plantations of Beema bamboo (a tissue-cultured clone from Bambusa vulgaris) and Oxytenanthera abyssinica for bio-energy production. The quality of these species as solid biofuels is unknown due to the absence of data on their physico-thermal and emission characteristics. Using the American Standard for Testing and Materials and other internationally accepted standards, their ultimate and proximate analysis, and physico-thermal and emission properties were evaluated. Beema bamboo and O. abyssinica have high Hydrogen, organic and fixed Carbon contents and low quantities of ash, moisture content, volatile matter, Oxygen, Nitrogen and Sulphur. This will contribute to their heating values and low oxide emissions. Based on their High Heating Values (Beema bamboo = 23.22 MJ/kg; O. abyssinica = 23.26 MJ/kg), the species will be suitable for high energy-using applications. The Particulate Matter and Carbon Monoxide concentrations (Beema bamboo: 90 ug/m3 and 2.83 ppm respectively; O. abyssinica: 77.33 ug/m3 and 3.20 ppm respectively) are lower than the threshold (35000 ug/m3 and 9 ppm respectively) approved by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. These properties make the species good raw materials for solid biofuel which is safe for indoor use. Their use will contribute to reducing pressure on tropical forests for wood fuel and the health hazards associated with fossil fuel use.


Assuntos
Bambusa , Biocombustíveis/análise , Madeira/química , Material Particulado/análise , Combustíveis Fósseis/análise
5.
Heliyon ; 8(5): e09434, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35607493

RESUMO

Artisanal small-scale mining (ASM) is one of the essential rural non-agricultural livelihood activities in Ghana. However, basic and rudimentary practices and tools associated with ASM activities lead to vegetation and soil destruction. Given the limitation of state-sponsored reclamation of abandoned ASM sites, the role of natural recovery in abandoned mine sites is deemed a viable option, as it lowers financial obligations, promotes pioneer species and improves local ecology. The residual impacts of different ASM methods (alluvial or chamfi) and their implications for reclamation are less explored. Using a randomised sampling approach, one hundred and eight (108) plots representing 54 abandoned mined (27 alluvial and 27 chamfi) and 54 unmined areas (control plots) were demarcated for seedling and sapling assessments. A total of 6,157 seedlings belonging to 133 species and 4,536 saplings belonging to 42 species were recorded. Pielou's evenness and Shannon indices showed that both seedlings and saplings were equitably distributed between mined-out sites and their controls for both methods but showed evidence of environmental variability. This variability was more conspicuous in chamfi mined-out sites, confirming some degradation impacts. Chromolaena odorata (L.) and Mimosa pudica L. were the dominant seedlings recorded, while Hymenostegia afzelii (Oliv.) Harms and Musanga cecropioides M. Smithii R. Br. dominated the saplings. The alluvial method exerted a far greater effect on stand features such as basal area and stand density for saplings owing to its greater soil damage. Assisted restoration measures directed at abandoned mined sites can facilitate ecosystem recovery to a trajectory reminiscent of that of nearby undisturbed forests.

6.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol ; 16(10): 885-906, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729364

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ocular barriers hinder drug delivery and reduce drug bioavailability. This article focuses on enhancing drug absorption across the corneal and conjunctival epithelium. Both, transporter targeted prodrug formulations and nanomicellar strategy is proven to enhance the drug permeation of therapeutic agents across various ocular barriers. These strategies can increase aqueous drug solubility and stability of many hydrophobic drugs for topical ophthalmic formulations. AREAS COVERED: The article discusses various ocular barriers, ocular influx, and efflux transporters. It elaborates various prodrug strategies used for enhancing drug absorption. Along with this, the article also describes nanomicellar formulation, its characteristic and advantages, and applications in for anterior and posterior segment drug delivery. EXPERT OPINION: Prodrugs and nanomicellar formulations provide an effective strategy for improving drug absorption and drug bioavailability across various ocular barriers. It will be exciting to see the efficacy of nanomicelles for treating back of the eye disorders after their topical application. This is considered as a holy grail of ocular drug delivery due to the dynamic and static ocular barriers, restricting posterior entry of topically applied drug formulations.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Oftalmopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Nanopartículas , Administração Oftálmica , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Olho/metabolismo , Humanos , Micelas , Pró-Fármacos , Solubilidade , Distribuição Tecidual
7.
Ecology ; 100(1): e02542, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30341991

RESUMO

This dataset provides the Global Naturalized Alien Flora (GloNAF) database, version 1.2. GloNAF represents a data compendium on the occurrence and identity of naturalized alien vascular plant taxa across geographic regions (e.g. countries, states, provinces, districts, islands) around the globe. The dataset includes 13,939 taxa and covers 1,029 regions (including 381 islands). The dataset is based on 210 data sources. For each taxon-by-region combination, we provide information on whether the taxon is considered to be naturalized in the specific region (i.e. has established self-sustaining populations in the wild). Non-native taxa are marked as "alien", when it is not clear whether they are naturalized. To facilitate alignment with other plant databases, we provide for each taxon the name as given in the original data source and the standardized taxon and family names used by The Plant List Version 1.1 (http://www.theplantlist.org/). We provide an ESRI shapefile including polygons for each region and information on whether it is an island or a mainland region, the country and the Taxonomic Databases Working Group (TDWG) regions it is part of (TDWG levels 1-4). We also provide several variables that can be used to filter the data according to quality and completeness of alien taxon lists, which vary among the combinations of regions and data sources. A previous version of the GloNAF dataset (version 1.1) has already been used in several studies on, for example, historical spatial flows of taxa between continents and geographical patterns and determinants of naturalization across different taxonomic groups. We intend the updated and expanded GloNAF version presented here to be a global resource useful for studying plant invasions and changes in biodiversity from regional to global scales. We release these data into the public domain under a Creative Commons Zero license waiver (https://creativecommons.org/share-your-work/public-domain/cc0/). When you use the data in your publication, we request that you cite this data paper. If GloNAF is a major part of the data analyzed in your study, you should consider inviting the GloNAF core team (see Metadata S1: Originators in the Overall project description) as collaborators. If you plan to use the GloNAF dataset, we encourage you to contact the GloNAF core team to check whether there have been recent updates of the dataset, and whether similar analyses are already ongoing.

8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(10): E2264-E2273, 2018 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29432147

RESUMO

Our ability to predict the identity of future invasive alien species is largely based upon knowledge of prior invasion history. Emerging alien species-those never encountered as aliens before-therefore pose a significant challenge to biosecurity interventions worldwide. Understanding their temporal trends, origins, and the drivers of their spread is pivotal to improving prevention and risk assessment tools. Here, we use a database of 45,984 first records of 16,019 established alien species to investigate the temporal dynamics of occurrences of emerging alien species worldwide. Even after many centuries of invasions the rate of emergence of new alien species is still high: One-quarter of first records during 2000-2005 were of species that had not been previously recorded anywhere as alien, though with large variation across taxa. Model results show that the high proportion of emerging alien species cannot be solely explained by increases in well-known drivers such as the amount of imported commodities from historically important source regions. Instead, these dynamics reflect the incorporation of new regions into the pool of potential alien species, likely as a consequence of expanding trade networks and environmental change. This process compensates for the depletion of the historically important source species pool through successive invasions. We estimate that 1-16% of all species on Earth, depending on the taxonomic group, qualify as potential alien species. These results suggest that there remains a high proportion of emerging alien species we have yet to encounter, with future impacts that are difficult to predict.


Assuntos
Espécies Introduzidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Espécies Introduzidas/história , Modelos Biológicos , Dinâmica Populacional/história
9.
PLoS One ; 10(8): e0135026, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26252004

RESUMO

Weeds are a major threat to biodiversity globally degrading natural areas of high conservation value. But what are our attitudes about weeds and their management including weeds in national parks? Do we know what a weed is? Do we consider weeds a problem? Do we support their management? Are we unintentionally spreading weeds in parks? To answer these questions, we surveyed visitors entering a large popular national park near the city of Brisbane, Australia. Park visitors were knowledgeable about weeds; with >75% correctly defining weeds as 'plants that grow where they are not wanted'. About 10% of the visitors, however, provided their own sophisticated definitions. This capacity to define weeds did not vary with people's age, sex or level of education. We constructed a scale measuring visitors' overall concern about weeds in parks using the responses to ten Likert scale statements. Over 85% of visitors were concerned about weeds with older visitors, hikers, and those who could correctly define weeds more concerned than their counterparts. The majority think visitors unintentionally introduce seeds into parks, with many (63%) having found seeds on their own clothing. However, over a third disposed of these seeds in ways that could facilitate weed spread. Therefore, although most visitors were knowledgeable and concerned about weeds, and support their control, there is a clear need for more effective communication regarding the risk of visitors unintentionally dispersing weed seeds in parks.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Conhecimento , Plantas Daninhas , Dispersão de Sementes , Adolescente , Adulto , Atitude , Austrália , Biodiversidade , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Espécies Introduzidas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parques Recreativos , Sementes , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Environ Manage ; 144: 203-11, 2014 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24956465

RESUMO

Weeds are a major threat to biodiversity including in areas of high conservation value. Unfortunately, people may be unintentionally introducing and dispersing weed seeds on their clothing when they visit these areas. To inform the management of these areas, we conducted a systematic quantitative literature review to determine the diversity and characteristics of species with seeds that can attach and be dispersed from clothing. Across 21 studies identified from systematic literature searches on this topic, seeds from 449 species have been recorded on clothing, more than double the diversity found in a previous review. Nearly all of them, 391 species, are listed weeds in one or more countries, with 58 classified as internationally-recognised environmental weeds. When our database was compared with weed lists from different countries and continents we found that clothing can carry the seeds of important regional weeds. A total of 287 of the species are listed as aliens in one or more countries in Europe, 156 are invasive species/noxious weeds in North America, 211 are naturalized alien plants in Australia, 97 are alien species in India, 33 are invasive species in China and 5 are declared weeds/invaders in South Africa. Seeds on the clothing of hikers can be carried to an average distance of 13 km, and where people travel in cars, trains, planes and boats, the seeds on their clothing can be carried much further. Factors that affect this type of seed dispersal include the type of clothing, the type of material the clothing is made from, the number and location of the seeds on plants, and seed traits such as adhesive and attachment structures. With increasing use of protected areas by tourists, including in remote regions, popular protected areas may be at great risk of biological invasions by weeds with seeds carried on clothing.


Assuntos
Vestuário , Dispersão Vegetal , Plantas Daninhas/classificação , Plantas Daninhas/fisiologia , Sementes/fisiologia
11.
PLoS One ; 8(11): e80275, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24265803

RESUMO

When traveling in cars, we can unintentionally carry and disperse weed seed; but which species, and where are they a problem? To answer these questions, we systematically searched the scientific literature to identify all original research studies that assess seed transported by cars and listed the species with seed on/in cars. From the 13 studies that fit these criteria, we found 626 species from 75 families that have seed that can be dispersed by cars. Of these, 599 are listed as weeds in some part of the world, with 439 listed as invasive or naturalized alien species in one or more European countries, 248 are invasive/noxious weeds in North America, 370 are naturalized alien species in Australia, 167 are alien species in India, 77 are invasive species in China and 23 are declared weeds/invaders in South Africa. One hundred and one are classified as internationally important environmental weeds. Although most (487) were only recorded once, some species such as Chenopodium album, Poa pratensis and Trifolium repens were common among studies. Perennial graminoids seem to be favoured over annual graminoids while annual forbs are favoured over perennial forbs. Species characteristics including seed size and morphology and where the plants grew affected the probability that their seed was transported by cars. Seeds can be found in many different places on cars including under the chassis, front and rear bumpers, wheel wells and rims, front and back mudguards, wheel arches, tyres and on interior floor mats. With increasing numbers of cars and expanding road networks in many regions, these results highlight the importance of cars as a dispersal mechanism, and how it may favour invasions by some species over others. Strategies to reduce the risk of seed dispersal by cars include reducing seed on cars by mowing road verges and cleaning cars.


Assuntos
Plantas Daninhas , Dispersão de Sementes , Viagem , Biodiversidade , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Plantas Daninhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Característica Quantitativa Herdável
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