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1.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 13(3): 903-910, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38736817

RESUMO

Background: Khat has a stimulating and addictive effect and can induce consequences on the health and socioeconomic status of khat chewers. Objectives: This study aims to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice of khat chewing among parents in Jazan and its consequential effect on their children. Methods: This cross-sectional investigation was conducted in the Jazan region of Saudi Arabia. Data was collected via a web-based, self-administered questionnaire measuring demographics, knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning khat chewing. The Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test was used to assess factors associated with khat chewing among parents and its consequential effect on their children. Results: A total of 724 parents were included. The sample had an overall good knowledge about the health hazards of khat chewing and an attitude against khat chewing. Nonetheless, the number of parents who reported that they had ever tried khat chewing was 200 (27.6%) and 106 parents (14.6%) confirmed that their children were khat chewers. Additionally, 98 (13.5%) parents declared that they practiced khat chewing in front of their children. Higher frequencies of parents who reported providing khat to their children were identified among parents with higher attitude levels that favor khat chewing (P value = 0.04). Conclusions: Efforts should be made to develop targeted preventive and educational strategies to reduce khat chewing among parents who have favorable attitudes toward khat chewing.

2.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303445, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38723002

RESUMO

Imposter syndrome (IS) and low self-esteem (SE) are common issues affecting medical students that can impact their well-being and development. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with IS and SE among medical students at Jazan University, Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional study, 523 medical students in years 2-6 at Jazan University, Saudi Arabia, completed validated questionnaires on IS (Young Imposter Scale) and SE (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale). Sociodemographic factors were also collected. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were used to analyze IS and SE prevalence and correlates. Five hundred twenty-three students with a mean age of 22.09 ± 1.933 participated. The prevalence of low SE and positive IS was 17.6% and 24.3%, respectively. IS and SE had a significant negative correlation (p<0.001). Several sociodemographic factors were associated with increased IS, including 2nd and 4th-year students, forced study choice, and a grade point average (GPA) of 3.0-3.49 (P<0.05). Paternal education beyond high school was associated with lower IS (P<0.05). Logistic regression analyses confirmed that 2nd-year students had a 3.88 times higher odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI); 2.19-6.88), and 4th-year students had a 2.37 times higher OR (95% CI; 1.40-4.02) of IS than other years. For SE, advanced academic years, forced study choice, 7+ hours of sleep, and a GPA above 3.5 were associated with higher levels (P<0.05). Negative self-appraisals were associated with lower SE, while positive attitudes were associated with higher SE (P<0.05). Our study reveals that IS and low SE are prevalent among Jazan University, Saudi Arabia, medical students. Therefore, intervention courses that address these issues in medical education at Jazan University, Saudi Arabia, may be necessary to support medical students' well-being and academic success.


Assuntos
Autoimagem , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem , Universidades , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade
3.
Hum Antibodies ; 2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38758996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus is a highly pathogenic virus that poses a significant threat to public health. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to develop and characterize novel mouse monoclonal antibodies targeting the spike protein S1 subunit of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus (MERS-CoV). METHODS: In this study, three mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against MERS-CoV were generated and characterized using hybridoma technology. The mAbs were evaluated for their reactivity and neutralization activity. The mAbs were generated through hybridoma technology by the fusion of myeloma cells and spleen cells from MERS-CoV-S1 immunized mice. The resulting hybridomas were screened for antibody production using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). RESULTS: ELISA results demonstrated that all three mAbs exhibited strong reactivity against the MERS-CoV S1-antigen. Similarly, dot-ELISA revealed their ability to specifically recognize viral components, indicating their potential for diagnostic applications. Under non-denaturing conditions, Western blot showed the mAbs to have robust reactivity against a specific band at 116 KDa, corresponding to a putative MERS-CoV S1-antigen. However, no reactive bands were observed under denaturing conditions, suggesting that the antibodies recognize conformational epitopes. The neutralization assay showed no in vitro reactivity against MERS-CoV. CONCLUSION: This study successfully generated three mouse monoclonal antibodies against MERS-CoV using hybridoma technology. The antibodies exhibited strong reactivity against MERS-CoV antigens using ELISA and dot ELISA assays. Taken together, these findings highlight the significance of these mAbs for potential use as valuable tools for MERS-CoV research and diagnosis (community and field-based surveillance and viral antigen detection).

4.
Eur Geriatr Med ; 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38750403

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Hospital at Home (HaH) services are expanding to provide acute multidisciplinary care in an individual's home. In this pilot study, we interviewed HaH staff to understand challenges and opportunities for service development. METHODS: We conducted 23 semi-structured interviews with multidisciplinary staff working across three HaH services in Scotland. The questions focussed on service strengths and challenges. RESULTS: Four themes emerged: raising referral awareness, service design and efficiency, staff security on home visits, and sustainability. HaH staff described Emergency Department posters, experience days for non-HaH staff, and daily communication of virtual bed capacity to raise awareness for referrals. Ideas for maximising clinician time were prioritised to improve service efficiency and investment in electric vehicles was strongly supported to mitigate climate impact. CONCLUSION: We found high job satisfaction and engagement amongst HaH staff. Our interviews suggest enthusiasm for further development of HaH while raising important challenges to address during service expansion.

5.
Cureus ; 16(3): e55338, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38559547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lifestyle includes habits, behaviors, values, attitudes, and economic levels that define an individual or group's way of living for people living in the same region at a specific time. In the last few decades, with urbanization and modernization, most adults, especially in Arab countries, including Saudi Arabia, have adopted a sedentary, less active lifestyle. This study aims to assess lifestyle choices and satisfaction among employees of Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study that was conducted in the Jazan University campus in the southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. Data were collected through personal interviews conducted by trained medical students. A structured questionnaire was filled out during the interviews. Data analysis was conducted using R software (version 4.2.3) (R Development Core Team, Vienna, Austria). RESULTS: This study involved 1126 employees of Jazan University, with a response rate of 75%. The occupational distribution was as follows: 576 (51%) in administrative positions, 516 (46%) as faculty members, and 34 (3%) as healthcare workers. In terms of physical activity, 488 (43%) engaged in less than 150 minutes of weekly physical activity, while 363 (32%) reported no physical activity at all. Regarding body weight satisfaction, 590 (52%) were satisfied, while 536 (48%) were not. Males reported a higher satisfaction in body weight, physical activity, and eating behavior. Dietary choices, such as eating fruits and vegetables, low-fat meats, and avoiding high-sugar foods, positively correlated with satisfaction in eating behavior and body weight. The assessment of satisfaction with body weight, physical activity level, and eating behavior indicates that some university affiliates are satisfied with their lifestyle despite having unhealthy lifestyle choices. CONCLUSION: The current findings indicate that Jazan University affiliates are experiencing a high prevalence of unhealthy lifestyles, especially in terms of low levels of physical activity, selection of unhealthy food items, and overweight and obesity. This study should be followed up by interventional designs to investigated best evidence-based approaches for lifestyle behavior change, especially among aging populations such as university affiliates.

6.
J Vector Borne Dis ; 2024 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38634364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dengue poses a considerable public health threat in Saudi Arabia, with escalating outbreaks in Jazan, where seasonal rains create ideal mosquito breeding conditions. Elucidating local epidemiological dynamics is imperative to strengthen evidence-based prevention policies. This study analyzed the spatiotemporal, demographic, and meteorological patterns of dengue in Jazan from 2015-2020. METHODS: This retrospective cross-sectional study utilized surveillance records for 3427 confirmed dengue cases. Descriptive analyses characterized geographic, seasonal, age, sex, and nationality distributions. Forecasting models project expected epidemics through 2025. Regression analysis identified climate factors associated with monthly case counts. RESULTS: Dengue exhibited shifting seasonal peaks, transitioning into year-round transmission by 2019, indicating endemic establishment. Cases clustered in different high-burden sectors annually, requiring localized vector control. The majority of affected individuals were young male adults, with gender gaps narrowing over time. Saudi nationals had an escalating incidence, but non-citizens showed a higher risk, signaling importation threats. Seasonal outbreaks were associated with temperature, wind speed, and direction. CONCLUSION: Enhanced surveillance, outbreak forecasting, targeted control activities, and integrated prevention policies grounded in continuous evidence assessment can effectively address endemic dengue transmission in Jazan. This study provides key insights to optimize data-driven decision-making for dengue control in Saudi Arabia.

7.
Cureus ; 16(3): e56068, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38618389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a serious public health concern. It is associated with many psychological problems, such as depression, anxiety, and eating disorders. These co-morbidities are associated with improper adherence to treatment, self-care, poor glycemic control, more complications, and worse outcomes. METHODS: This study aimed to measure the level of medication adherence among type 2 diabetics in Jazan, Saudi Arabia, and to find its association with their psychological status (specifically, depression and anxiety). A cross-sectional descriptive design was used among adults with type 2 diabetes at the Diabetes and Endocrinology Center in Jazan, Saudi Arabia. The estimated sample size was 480 patients. The General Medication Adherence Scale and Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4) were used as tools to achieve the study objectives. RESULTS: A total of 449 diabetic patients completed the survey (93.5% response rate). Patients with poor, low, and partial adherence account for 337 (75%) of patients and only 112 (25%) have good and high medication adherence. Employment and duration of illness were highly significant with a positive relationship to treatment adherence (p = 0.010 and 0.000, respectively). On the other hand, age and disease duration had a significant relationship with psychological disorders (p = 0.029 and 0.002, respectively). Of the patients, 64 (14.3%) had high scores on the PHQ-4, with depressive symptoms in 46 (10.24%) and anxiety symptoms in 75 (16.7%). Correlation analysis reveals that there is a highly significant negative correlation between psychological disorders and adherence to medications (r = -0.288, p = 0.000). CONCLUSION: A negative correlation between psychological disorders and adherence to medications was found. The findings indicate the importance of psychological support for diabetic patients for better treatment adherence.

8.
BMC Immunol ; 25(1): 21, 2024 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38637733

RESUMO

Helminth-derived proteins have immunomodulatory properties, influencing the host's immune response as an adaptive strategy for helminth survival. Helminth-derived proteins modulate the immune response by inducing anti-inflammatory cytokines, promoting regulatory T-cell development, and ultimately favouring a Th2-biased immune response. This systematic review focused on helminth-derived proteins and explored their impact on reducing inflammatory responses in mouse models of colitis. A systematic search across Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library identified fourteen relevant studies. These studies reported immunomodulatory changes, including increased production of anti-inflammatory cells and cytokines. In mouse models of colitis treated with on helminth-derived proteins, significant improvements in pathological parameters such as body weight, colon length, and microscopic inflammatory scores were observed compared to control groups. Moreover, helminth-derived proteins can enhance the function of Tregs and alleviate the severity of inflammatory conditions. The findings underscore the pivotal role of helminth-derived proteins in immunomodulation, specifically in the axis of cytokine secretion and immune cell polarization. The findings offer new opportunities for treating chronic inflammatory conditions such Crohn's disease.


Assuntos
Colite , Proteínas de Helminto , Animais , Camundongos , Colite/terapia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteínas de Helminto/uso terapêutico , Helmintos , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Fatores Imunológicos
9.
Metabolites ; 14(4)2024 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38668338

RESUMO

The irrational use of antibiotics has favored the emergence of resistant bacteria, posing a serious threat to global health. To counteract antibiotic resistance, this research seeks to identify novel antimicrobials derived from essential oils that operate through several mechanisms. It aims to evaluate the quality and composition of essential oils from Origanum compactum and Origanum elongatum; test their antimicrobial activity against various strains; explore their synergies with commercial antibiotics; predict the efficacy, toxicity, and stability of compounds; and understand their molecular interactions through docking and dynamic simulations. The essential oils were extracted via hydrodistillation from the flowering tops of oregano in the Middle Atlas Mountains in Morocco. Gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to examine their composition. Nine common antibiotics were chosen and tested alone or in combination with essential oils to discover synergistic effects against clinically important and resistant bacterial strains. A comprehensive in silico study was conducted, involving molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations (MD). O. elongatum oil includes borneol (8.58%), p-cymene (42.56%), thymol (28.43%), and carvacrol (30.89%), whereas O. compactum oil is mostly composed of γ-terpinene (22.89%), p-cymene (15.84%), thymol (10.21%), and (E)-caryophyllene (3.63%). With O. compactum proving to be the most potent, these essential oils showed antibacterial action against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Certain antibiotics, including ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, amoxicillin, and ampicillin, have been shown to elicit synergistic effects. To fight resistant bacteria, the essential oils of O. compactum and O. elongatum, particularly those high in thymol and (E)-caryophyllene, seem promising when combined with antibiotics. These synergistic effects could result from their ability to target the same bacterial proteins or facilitate access to target sites, as suggested by molecular docking simulations. Molecular dynamics simulations validated the stability of the examined protein-ligand complexes, emphasizing the propensity of substances like thymol and (E)-caryophyllene for particular target proteins, opening the door to potentially effective new therapeutic approaches against pathogens resistant to multiple drugs.

10.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 26(6): 2439-2445, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38558524

RESUMO

AIM: To examine the effect of interrupting prolonged sitting with short, frequent, light-intensity activity on postprandial cardiovascular markers in people with type 1 diabetes (T1D). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a randomized crossover trial, 32 adults with T1D (mean ± SD age 28 ± 5 years, glycated haemoglobin 67.9 ± 12.6 mmol/mol, 17 women) completed two 7-h laboratory visits separated by >7 days. Participants either remained seated for 7 h (SIT) or interrupted sitting with 3-min bouts of self-paced walking at 30-min intervals commencing 1 h after each meal (SIT-LESS). Physical activity, insulin regimen, experimental start times, and meal consumption were standardized during each arm. Plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-1ß, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 and fibrinogen were sampled at baseline, 3.5 and 7 h, and assessed for within- and between-group effects using a repeated measures ANOVA. The estimated glucose disposal rate was used to determine the insulin resistance status. RESULTS: Vascular-inflammatory parameters were comparable between SIT and SIT-LESS at baseline (p > .05). TNF-α, IL-1ß, PAI-1 and fibrinogen increased over time under SIT, whereas these rises were attenuated under SIT-LESS (p < .001). Specifically, over the 7 h under SIT, postprandial increases were detected in TNF-α, IL-1ß, PAI-1 and fibrinogen (+67%, +49%, +49% and +62%, respectively; p < .001 for all). Conversely, the SIT-LESS group showed no change in IL-1ß (-9%; p > .50), whereas reductions were observed in TNF-α, PAI-1 and fibrinogen (-22%, -42% and -44%, respectively; p < .001 for all). The intervention showed enhanced effects in insulin-resistant individuals with T1D. CONCLUSIONS: Interrupting prolonged sitting with light-intensity activity ameliorates postprandial increases in vascular-inflammatory markers in T1D. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was prospectively registered (ISRCTN13641847).


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Estudos Cross-Over , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio , Período Pós-Prandial , Caminhada , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Masculino , Adulto , Caminhada/fisiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Fibrinogênio/análise , Adulto Jovem , Resistência à Insulina , Comportamento Sedentário , Inflamação/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Glicemia/análise
11.
Cureus ; 16(4): e58765, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38654963

RESUMO

Eating disorders (EDs) are among the most dangerous mental illnesses, that are characterized by high mortality rates, multisystem comorbidity, and an often chronic and relapsing disease course. EDs occur most commonly in the female gender, with a ratio of 10 females to 1 male for anorexia nervosa (AN). We present the case of a 15-year-old Saudi boy who presented with weight loss (BMI 11.6 kg/m2) and began to have symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in prayer and ablution. His first treatment plan was psychoeducation. He then developed a fear of gaining weight and began to count calories; he was diagnosed with AN and started on olanzapine 2.5 mg. The patient had a history of multiple admissions due to electrolyte imbalance, hypokalemia, hypoglycemia, and anal fissure due to constipation, and was prescribed olanzapine 5 mg, fluoxetine 20. His last admission was the worst, as he became semi-comatose with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of 13, was diffused and disoriented to time and person, unable to walk or sit, and was uncooperative in answering questions. During admission, we changed the fluoxetine to paroxetine 25 mg and increased the olanzapine to 10 mg, and the patient showed a huge improvement physically and mentally. This case emphasizes the significance of including paroxetine in the treatment of diagnoses for AN to prevent unnecessary wasting of time and effort.

12.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 9798, 2024 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38684784

RESUMO

Aging-related sarcopenia is a degenerative loss of strength and skeletal muscle mass that impairs quality of life. Evaluating NUDT3 gene and myogenin expression as new diagnostic tools in sarcopenia. Also, comparing the concomitant treatment of resistance exercise (EX) and creatine monohydrate (CrM) versus single therapy by EX, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), and CrM using aged rats. Sixty male rats were equally divided into groups. The control group, aging group, EX-treated group, the CoQ10 group were administered (500 mg/kg) of CoQ10, the CrM group supplied (0.3 mg/kg of CrM), and a group of CrM concomitant with resistance exercise. Serum lipid profiles, certain antioxidant markers, electromyography (EMG), nudix hydrolase 3 (NUDT3) expression, creatine kinase (CK), and sarcopenic index markers were measured after 12 weeks. The gastrocnemius muscle was stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and myogenin. The EX-CrM combination showed significant improvement in serum lipid profile, antioxidant markers, EMG, NUDT3 gene, myogenin expression, CK, and sarcopenic index markers from other groups. The NUDT3 gene and myogenin expression have proven efficient as diagnostic tools for sarcopenia. Concomitant treatment of CrM and EX is preferable to individual therapy because it reduces inflammation, improves the lipid serum profile, promotes muscle regeneration, and thus has the potential to improve sarcopenia.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Creatina , Músculo Esquelético , Treinamento Resistido , Sarcopenia , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Sarcopenia/tratamento farmacológico , Sarcopenia/metabolismo , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Miogenina/metabolismo , Miogenina/genética , Ubiquinona/farmacologia , Ubiquinona/uso terapêutico , Pirofosfatases/genética , Pirofosfatases/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Ratos Wistar
13.
Life Sci ; 344: 122546, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38462227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autophagy is a well-preserved mechanism essential in minimizing endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER)-related cell death. Defects in ß-cell autophagy have been linked to type 1 diabetes, particularly deficits in the secretion of insulin, boosting ER stress sensitivity and possibly promoting pancreatic ß-cell death. Quercetin (QU) is a potent antioxidant and anti-diabetic flavonoid with low bioavailability, and the precise mechanism of its anti-diabetic activity is still unknown. Aim This study aimed to design an improved bioavailable form of QU (liposomes) and examine the impact of its treatment on the alleviation of type 1 diabetes induced by STZ in rats. METHODS: Seventy SD rats were allocated into seven equal groups 10 rats of each: control, STZ, STZ + 3-MA, STZ + QU-Lip, and STZ + 3-MA + QU-Lip. Fasting blood glucose, insulin, c-peptide, serum IL-6, TNF-α, pancreatic oxidative stress, TRAF-6, autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) markers expression and their regulatory microRNA (miRNA) were performed. As well as, docking analysis for the quercetin, ER stress, and autophagy were done. Finally, the histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis were conducted. SIGNIFICANCE: QU-Lip significantly decreased glucose levels, oxidative, and inflammatory markers in the pancreas. It also significantly downregulated the expression of ER stress and upregulated autophagic-related markers. Furthermore, QU-Lip significantly ameliorated the expression of several MicroRNAs, which both control autophagy and ER stress signaling pathways. However, the improvement of STZ-diabetic rats was abolished upon combination with an autophagy inhibitor (3-MA). The findings suggest that QU-Lip has therapeutic promise in treating type 1 diabetes by modulating ER stress and autophagy via an epigenetic mechanism.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , MicroRNAs , Nanopartículas , Ratos , Masculino , Animais , Quercetina/uso terapêutico , Lipossomos/uso terapêutico , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Lábio/metabolismo , Lábio/patologia , Ratos Wistar , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Insulina/metabolismo , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Autofagia
14.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1350208, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38533510

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer globally and presents a significant challenge owing to its high mortality rate and the limitations of traditional treatment options such as surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. While these treatments are foundational, they are often poorly effective owing to tumor resistance. Immunotherapy is a groundbreaking alternative that has recently emerged and offers new hope for success by exploiting the body's own immune system. This article aims to provide an extensive review of clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of various immunotherapies, including CRC vaccines, chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapies, and immune checkpoint inhibitors. We also discuss combining CRC vaccines with monoclonal antibodies, delve into preclinical studies of novel cancer vaccines, and assess the impact of these treatment methods on patient outcomes. This review seeks to provide a deeper understanding of the current state of CRC treatment by evaluating innovative treatments and their potential to redefine the prognosis of patients with CRC.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer , Neoplasias Colorretais , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Antib Ther ; 7(1): 53-66, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38371953

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) are highly pathogenic human coronaviruses (CoVs). Anti-CoVs mAbs and vaccines may be effective, but the emergence of neutralization escape variants is inevitable. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 enzyme are the getaway receptors for SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV, respectively. Thus, we reformatted these receptors as Fc-fusion decoy receptors. Then, we tested them in parallel with anti-SARS-CoV (ab1-IgG) and anti-MERS-CoV (M336-IgG) mAbs against several variants using pseudovirus neutralization assay. The generated Fc-based decoy receptors exhibited a strong inhibitory effect against all pseudotyped CoVs. Results showed that although mAbs can be effective antiviral drugs, they might rapidly lose their efficacy against highly mutated viruses. We suggest that receptor traps can be engineered as Fc-fusion proteins for highly mutating viruses with known entry receptors, for a faster and effective therapeutic response even against virus harboring antibodies escape mutations.

16.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 60(2)2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38399586

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Primary headaches are highly prevalent among medical students, negatively impacting their health and academic performance. Excessive electronic device use has been implicated as a risk factor, in contrast to physical activity, which may be a protective factor; however, comprehensive data are lacking, especially for Saudi medical trainees. This study aims to investigate the associations between device use, exercise, and headaches among Saudi medical students. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 504 medical students at Jazan University completed an online survey collecting sociodemographic factors, headache characteristics/triggers, electronic device habits, exercise frequency, and headache impacts. Descriptive analyses summarized sample characteristics. Logistic regression identified predictors of 12-month headache prevalence. Results: Overall, 83% reported experiencing headaches in the past year. High headache prevalence was observed among females (86.6%) and third-year students (88.3%). Using electronic devices ≥4 h daily was associated with higher adjusted odds of headaches (OR 13.89, 95% CI 1.96-98.54) compared to ≤1 h daily. Low physical activity (exercising 1 day vs. 7 days a week) also increased headache odds (OR 3.89, 95% CI 1.61-9.42). Headaches impairing productivity (OR 4.39, 95% CI 2.28-8.45) and exacerbated by exercise (OR 10.37, 95% CI 2.02-53.35) were further associated with headache susceptibility. Conclusions: Excessive electronic device use and physical inactivity appear to be modifiable risk factors for frequent headaches in Saudi medical students. Multifaceted interventions incorporating education campaigns, skills training, and support services focused on promoting responsible technology habits, and regular exercise may help mitigate headaches in this population. Robust longitudinal studies and trials are warranted to establish causal mechanisms between lifestyle factors and headaches among medical undergraduates.


Assuntos
Estudantes de Medicina , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Cefaleia/etiologia , Exercício Físico
18.
19.
J Hosp Infect ; 144: 56-65, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38070709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The concerning growth of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) renders common infections life-threatening due to irrational antibiotic use and a lack of effective antimicrobial stewardship programmes (ASPs). AIM: To investigate the awareness, perceptions and practices of physicians regarding ASPs, AMR and antibiotic prescribing in tertiary care hospitals in Bangladesh. METHODS: This hospital-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in 11 tertiary care hospitals across Bangladesh between September 2020 and January 2021. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered through face-to-face interviews for data collection. Descriptive and multi-variate analyses were performed using STATA Version 13. RESULTS: In total, 559 physicians were enrolled in this survey. Overall, 40.6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 36.5-44.8] of physicians reported being aware of ASPs, and this figure was higher in public hospitals compared with private hospitals (43.8% vs 27.1%). None of the study hospitals had any ASP initiatives. More than half (55.1%) of the participants were willing to receive feedback from an ASP on their antibiotic selection. Only 30.9% of respondents stated that they wait for the findings of microbiological tests before prescribing antibiotics, although challenges included empiric use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, delayed laboratory results and the existence of drug-resistant patients. In contrast, physicians aware of ASPs were 33% (adjusted odds ratio 0.67, 95% CI 0.45-0.98; P=0.033) less likely to wait for laboratory results before prescribing antibiotics. However, 42.5% of physicians considered patient affordability of purchasing antibiotics when prescribing. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians' fundamental knowledge of ASPs and rational antibiotic prescription were found to fall short of the standard. Context-specific and integrated ASP activities, availability and use of guidelines, and improved laboratory facilities are required to battle AMR in Bangladesh.


Assuntos
Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Médicos , Humanos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Gestão de Antimicrobianos/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Bangladesh , Padrões de Prática Médica
20.
Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 62(1): 71-75, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38057176

RESUMO

In the surgery-first approach (SFA), orthognathic surgery is performed without the need for presurgical orthodontic treatment. This study was aimed at assessing the treatment durations and occlusal outcomes for a consecutive cohort of patients, with a range of dentofacial deformities, who had completed orthognathic treatment using SFA. The duration of orthognathic treatment was measured. The overall change in occlusion, and the quality of the final occlusion, were evaluated using the patients' study casts. A single, independent, calibrated operator carried out the occlusal scores, using the validated Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) index. This was repeated to test intraoperator reliability. A total of 51 patients completed surgery-first treatment during the study period. The mean (range) age at surgery was 23.3 (15-47) years. The pre-treatment skeletal jaw relationship was Class III in 39 cases, and Class II in 12 cases. The mean (SD) overall treatment duration was 11.7 (5.7) months. The intraexaminer reliability of assessing the occlusion was high. The PAR scores confirmed a significant improvement in the quality of occlusion at the completion of treatment, which compares favourably with previous studies on the conventional orthodontics-first approach. The surgery first approach can be effective at correcting both Class II and Class III malocclusion types with reduced treatment times.


Assuntos
Deformidades Dentofaciais , Cirurgia Ortognática , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ortognáticos , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ortodontia Corretiva , Deformidades Dentofaciais/cirurgia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Resultado do Tratamento
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