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1.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 33(1): e013823, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359299

RESUMO

The big-headed Amazon River turtle, Peltocephalus dumerilianus, is endemic to the Orinoco and Amazon River basins. It is a food source for local communities, often unsustainably. Knowledge about P. dumerilianus' parasitological fauna and host-parasite relationships is limited. Thus, ecological aspects of gastrointestinal parasitism in this species were investigated. Helminths were found in the gastrointestinal tract of 21 turtles, morphologically identified, and infection descriptors calculated. All animals harbored helminths: nematodes Ancyracanthus pinnatifidus, Paratractis hystrix, Atractis trematophila, Klossinemella conciliatus indeterminate three Klossinemella species, and digeneans Nematophila grandis, Helicotrema spirale, and Telorchis hagmanni. The highest parasite load occurred in the large intestine, followed by the small intestine and stomach. Shell length directly correlated with parasite burden of heteroxenic helminths, with males having higher burden than females. This is the first record of A. trematophila, K. conciliatus, and T. hagmanni in P. dumerilianus, and new location record for A. trematophila, P. hystrix, N. grandis, H. spirale, and T. hagmanni. Three potentially new Klossinemella species are presented.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Parasitos , Tartarugas , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Tartarugas/parasitologia , Brasil , Parques Recreativos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária
2.
Parasit Vectors ; 16(1): 449, 2023 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38053206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wild boars (Sus scrofa) may cause substantial damage to crops and can spread zoonotic parasites to domestic animals, posing a risk to health and animal production. Metastrongylus spp. can negatively affect the wild boar population, increasing piglet mortality. In addition to that, studies with Metastrongylus genetic characterization are still scarce in Brazil. The present study aims to characterize Metastrongylus spp. from wild boars hunted in the states of São Paulo, Paraná, and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, using traditional morphological description and DNA sequences in an integrative taxonomic approach. METHODS: After nematode collection from 58 wild boars, the parasites were morphologically identified and genetically characterized by the amplification of 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), 28S rDNA, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, and cox-1 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Descriptors of infection were determined and Pearson's Chi-square test was applied to compare the prevalence of infections among the identified parasite species, host age group (juveniles and adults), and sex. The Mann-Whitney U test was performed to compare the mean intensity between the age groups and sex. RESULTS: Metastrongylus salmi, Metastrongylus apri, and Metastrongylus pudendotectus were identified in 77.6% (45/58) of the necropsied wild boars. Metastrongylus salmi was the most prevalent and abundant species (70.7%, 11.1), followed by M. pudendotectus (18.9%, 4.3) and M. apri (17.2%, 2.2). Metastrongylus pudendotectus showed the highest mean intensity and range (25.2, 1-93), followed by M. salmi (15.7, 1-58) and M. apri (12.6, 3-27). We found a significantly higher prevalence of Metastrongylus spp. and M. salmi in adult wild boars, probably associated with a more prolonged time of exposure to intermediate host species. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that ITS2 region and cox-1 mtDNA are the most suitable genetic markers for Metastrongylus species characterization. Genetic variability between M. apri and M. salmi isolates was verified. CONCLUSIONS: We expand the knowledge about the Metastrongylus community in the non-captive wild boar population from Brazil as well as the importance of this exotic species in the maintenance of Metastrongylus spp. in its areas of occurrence. The novel genetic sequences obtained may help further studies to understand the genetic diversity in other nematode populations from Brazil and other countries.


Assuntos
Metastrongyloidea , Parasitos , Doenças dos Suínos , Suínos , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Filogenia , DNA Ribossômico/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Sus scrofa , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia
3.
Pathogens ; 12(2)2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36839447

RESUMO

Wild boars (Sus scrofa) are a significant invasive species in Brazil. We evaluated the helminth diversity of 96 wild boars in São Paulo state. Helminth infection descriptors were calculated, the species were identified and their 18S, 28S rDNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions were amplified for phylogenetic analyses. Ascarops strongylina, Strongyloides ransomi, Globocephalus urosubulatus, Oesophagostomum dentatum, Trichuris suis, Metastrongylus salmi, Metastrongylus pudendotecus, Ascaris suum and Stephanurus dentatus and Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus were identified. Globocephalus urosubulatus had the highest prevalence and mean abundance, and most animals had mixed infections with three parasite species. There was no association between parasite intensity and prevalence and host sex and body condition index (p > 0.05). Novel DNA sequences were obtained from G. urosubulatus, A. strongylina, and S. dentatus. This is the first study on the helmint diversity of non-captive wild boars in Brazil, and the first report of the occurrence of M. hirudinaceus, G. urosubulatus and S. dentatus in Brazilian wild boars. Non-captive wild boars of São Paulo State did not act as capture hosts for native helminth species but maintained their typical parasites, common to domestic pigs. They may act as parasite dispersers for low-tech subsistence pig farming and for native Tayassuidae.

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