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1.
Infection ; 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627354

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by dysregulated host response to infection. The purpose of the study was to measure the associations of specific exposures (deprivation, ethnicity, and clinical characteristics) with incident sepsis and case fatality. METHODS: Two research databases in England were used including anonymized patient-level records from primary care linked to hospital admission, death certificate, and small-area deprivation. Sepsis cases aged 65-100 years were matched to up to six controls. Predictors for sepsis (including 60 clinical conditions) were evaluated using logistic and random forest models; case fatality rates were analyzed using logistic models. RESULTS: 108,317 community-acquired sepsis cases were analyzed. Severe frailty was strongly associated with the risk of developing sepsis (crude odds ratio [OR] 14.93; 95% confidence interval [CI] 14.37-15.52). The quintile with most deprived patients showed an increased sepsis risk (crude OR 1.48; 95% CI 1.45-1.51) compared to least deprived quintile. Strong predictors for sepsis included antibiotic exposure in prior 2 months, being house bound, having cancer, learning disability, and diabetes mellitus. Severely frail patients had a case fatality rate of 42.0% compared to 24.0% in non-frail patients (adjusted OR 1.53; 95% CI 1.41-1.65). Sepsis cases with recent prior antibiotic exposure died less frequently compared to non-users (adjusted OR 0.7; 95% CI 0.72-0.76). Case fatality strongly decreased over calendar time. CONCLUSION: Given the variety of predictors and their level of associations for developing sepsis, there is a need for prediction models for risk of developing sepsis that can help to target preventative antibiotic therapy.

2.
JAC Antimicrob Resist ; 6(1): dlae011, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38328265

RESUMO

Background: Inappropriate antibiotic prescribing is accelerating antimicrobial resistance (AMR) (Antibiotic resistant infections and associated deaths increase  https://www.gov.uk/government/news/antibiotic-resistant-infections-and-associated-deaths-increase). Pharmacy professionals (pharmacists and pharmacy technicians) promote good antibiotic prescribing practice. The traditional role of pharmacy technicians in supporting pharmacists and patients has expanded alongside the clinical expansion of pharmacist roles. (Boughen M, Fenn T. Practice, skill mix and education: the evolving role of pharmacy technicians in Great Britain. Pharmacy (Basel) 2020; 8(2): 50. doi:10.3390/pharmacy8020050) This paper focuses on the opinion of pharmacy technicians and their role in the review of acne management and the evaluation of the UKHSA TARGET acne 'How to…' review resources. Aims and objectives: To explore the impact of the TARGET resources on the capability, opportunity and motivation of pharmacy technicians in general practice in managing patients with acne.To evaluate the usefulness of the acne 'How to…' review resources. Materials and methods: A primarily quantitative study using an electronic survey asking UK-based pharmacy technicians to rate their agreement on a five-point Likert scale with 21 predefined statements, themed on the COM-B model and usefulness of the TARGET resources for acne. Discussion: The survey found that capability and opportunity in managing acne in the group familiar with TARGET resources was higher than the group not familiar with TARGET resources. Scores for motivation in both groups were high; pharmacy technicians have the motivation to undertake infection management roles, whether or not they are familiar with the TARGET toolkit.The acne 'How to…' review resources were overall rated as useful in supporting the review of patients with acne. Conclusion: The TARGET materials are effective resources that helps to upskill pharmacy technicians in the area of AMS, increasing capability and opportunity in the management of acne.

3.
Int J Equity Health ; 23(1): 34, 2024 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38383380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Sepsis is a serious and life-threatening condition caused by a dysregulated immune response to an infection. Recent guidance issued in the UK gave recommendations around recognition and antibiotic treatment of sepsis, but did not consider factors relating to health inequalities. The aim of this study was to summarise the literature investigating associations between health inequalities and sepsis. METHODS: Searches were conducted in Embase for peer-reviewed articles published since 2010 that included sepsis in combination with one of the following five areas: socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity, community factors, medical needs and pregnancy/maternity. RESULTS: Five searches identified 1,402 studies, with 50 unique studies included in the review after screening (13 sociodemographic, 14 race/ethnicity, 3 community, 3 care/medical needs and 20 pregnancy/maternity; 3 papers examined multiple health inequalities). Most of the studies were conducted in the USA (31/50), with only four studies using UK data (all pregnancy related). Socioeconomic factors associated with increased sepsis incidence included lower socioeconomic status, unemployment and lower education level, although findings were not consistent across studies. For ethnicity, mixed results were reported. Living in a medically underserved area or being resident in a nursing home increased risk of sepsis. Mortality rates after sepsis were found to be higher in people living in rural areas or in those discharged to skilled nursing facilities while associations with ethnicity were mixed. Complications during delivery, caesarean-section delivery, increased deprivation and black and other ethnic minority race were associated with post-partum sepsis. CONCLUSION: There are clear correlations between sepsis morbidity and mortality and the presence of factors associated with health inequalities. To inform local guidance and drive public health measures, there is a need for studies conducted across more diverse setting and countries.


Assuntos
Etnicidade , Sepse , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Grupos Minoritários , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Risco , Iniquidades em Saúde
4.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 396, 2024 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321479

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Public health campaigns with a well-defined outcome behaviour have been shown to successfully alter behaviour. However, the complex nature of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) creates challenges when evaluating campaigns aimed at raising awareness and changing behaviour. AIMS: To determine what campaigns have been conducted and which reported being effective at improving awareness of antimicrobial resistance and changing behaviour around antimicrobial use in members of the public. It also sought to determine the outcome measures studies have used to assess campaign effectiveness. METHODS: A systematic search of Ovid MEDLINE and Embase, was conducted in October 2022 using a predefined search strategy. Studies which were published between 2010 and September 2022 that outlined a campaign or invention aimed at the public and focusing on AMR or antibiotic usage were eligible for inclusion and studies which solely targeted healthcare professionals (HCP) were excluded. RESULTS: Literature searches retrieved 6961 results. De-duplication and screening removed 6925 articles, five articles from grey literature and reference screening were included, giving a total of 41 studies and 30 unique interventions. There was a distribution of campaigns globally with the majority run in Europe (n = 15) with most campaigns were conducted nationally (n = 14). Campaigns tended to focus on adult members of the public (n = 14) or targeted resources towards both the public and HCPs (n = 13) and predominately assessed changes in knowledge of and/or attitudes towards AMR (n = 16). Campaigns where an improvement was seen in their primary outcome measure tended to use mass media to disseminate information, targeted messaging towards a specific infection, and including the use of HCP-patient interactions. DISCUSSION: This review provides some evidence that campaigns can significantly improve outcome measures relating to AMR and antibiotic usage. Despite a lack of homogeneity between studies some common themes emerged between campaigns reported as being effective. However, the frequent use of observational study designs makes it difficult to establish causation between the campaign and changes seen in the studies outcome measures. It is important that clear evaluation processes are embedded as part of the design process for future campaigns; a campaign evaluation framework for use by campaign developers may facilitate this.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Promoção da Saúde/métodos
5.
Int J Pharm Pract ; 32(1): 21-28, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38092704

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine public beliefs about antibiotics, AMR, and knowledge of antibiotic use, and how these relate to self-reported antibiotic use. METHODS: Two hundred and fifty participants from 23 countries completed a cross-sectional, online survey assessing beliefs about antibiotics and AMR, knowledge of antibiotics, and antibiotic use. Descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney U tests and Spearman's ρ correlations were used to understand relationships between outcomes. KEY FINDINGS: Respondents generally viewed antibiotics positively, with particularly strong beliefs regarding their benefit (M = 16.48 out of 20, SD = 2.62) and few concerns regarding their harm (M = 3.98 out of 10, SD = 1.82). Greater benefit beliefs about antibiotics were associated with fewer concerns about their overuse (P < .0001) and harm (P < .0001). Stronger perceived importance of AMR was associated with greater beliefs about the benefits of antibiotics (P = .006), greater concerns about their overuse (P = .009), and increased knowledge of appropriate use (P = .006). Those who reported inappropriately using their last antibiotics had greater concerns about overuse (P = .12) and less knowledge regarding appropriate use (P = .015), compared to those who did not. CONCLUSIONS: Generally, the public tends to view antibiotics as having strong benefits and have few concerns about their harm, which may have implications for inappropriate use. These initial findings highlight beliefs that could be targeted in messages to reduce inappropriate demand for antibiotics.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Lancet ; 402 Suppl 1: S24, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37997064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pharmacy professionals (pharmacists and pharmacy technicians; PPs) are recognised for delivering public health interventions (micro level). There is increased policy focus on population health management, but limited knowledge regarding the role of PPs within UK's public health meso and macro levels. This study aimed to explore UK PPs' public health qualifications, specialisations, and motivations and barriers to pursuing advanced public health practice. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we developed and piloted two surveys, and we disseminated them separately via email to UK pharmacy and public health networks and social media, between June 19, and Oct 26, 2021. PPs with an interest or experience in public or population health were invited to participate in the study. We asked PPs questions about public health qualifications, specialisations, motivations, and barriers, and we also asked PHPs for opinions regarding the value of specialist public health skills for PPs. Numerical data were summarised, and responses collated into themes. NHS Health Research Authority tool identified ethics approval not required; and the questionnaire included consent request. FINDINGS: 128 PPs (85% pharmacists) and 54 PHPs responded. Of the PPs who responded, 90 (70%) were female and 35 (27%) were male; 62 (48%) were White British, 19 (14%) were Asian or Asian British, 14 (12%) were Black or Black British. They worked in primary care (34%, n=43), secondary care (26%, n=33), Community Pharmacy (13%, n=16), and public health bodies (13%, n=16). Overall, 34 (27%) of 128 PPs (32 pharmacists; 2 pharmacy technicians) possessed public health qualifications (MPH, PhD). Motivations for these qualifications were ambition to work as PP in public health PP (31%; 17/55 respondents), public health as alternative career (29%; 16/55), general interest (27%; 15/55) recommended or required for current role (11%; 6/55). Themes of barriers included limited training opportunities and poor career pathways. For the PHP survey, 36 (67%) of 54 were female and 16 (30%) were male. They worked as Consultants or Directors (28%, n=15), Registrars (24%, n=13), Practitioners (15%, n=8). 45 (87%) of 52 PHP respondents agreed that specialist PPs in public health would be beneficial to public health; 13 (45%) of 29 respondents recommended a public health Master's degree, eight (27%) recommended experience or postgraduate modules in health economics and health inequalities, three (10%) recommended credentialing for PPs to specialise. INTERPRETATION: Findings suggest responding PPs are motivated to advance in public health practice, despite barriers. Collaboration with PHPs and development of communities of practice might address barriers identified and contribute to advanced public health practice for PPs, supporting the increased focus on population health management in the UK. Limitations include the exploratory nature of the study, and the fact that PPs responding to public health surveys might be more motivated to advance in public health practice than those not responding. FUNDING: NHS England and UK Health Security Agency.


Assuntos
Farmácias , Farmácia , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Saúde Pública , Motivação , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Lancet ; 402 Suppl 1: S25, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37997065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tackling the public health challenge of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) requires promotion of appropriate antimicrobial use by health-care professionals. The objective of this review was to identify interventions that facilitate appropriate antimicrobial behaviours when health-care professionals interact with patients and any considerations for factors associated with health inequalities. METHODS: For this systematic review, we searched electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and Google Scholar) from Jan 31, 2023, to Feb 8, 2023. We included search terms such as antimicrobial use/prescribing, health-care professionals, and AMR programmes. We included any relevant primary study published from year 2010 and in English. We conducted forward and backward citation searching from included studies on March 27, 2023. We extracted information on the interventions following the Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR) guideline and examined reports on how the interventions might impact on inequalities. We performed quality assessment using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT). We conducted descriptive synthesis. The protocol is registered with PROSPERO (CRD42023395642). FINDINGS: After screening 4979 records, we included 59 studies. Most studies were randomised trials (n=25) and qualitative/mixed methods studies (n=16). Included studies covered 16 countries, particularly the UK (n=16) and the USA (n=13). Most studies (n=34) fulfilled at least 80% of the relevant quality criteria, but 12 studies fulfilled less than 50%. Many interventions were established strategies (eg, TARGET: Treat Antibiotics Responsibly, Guidance, Education and Tools). Patient interaction elements of the interventions often involved using education materials (eg, digital/paper leaflets, and videos) and point-of-care testing. While many studies (n=49) included participants from disadvantaged groups, only three examined how outcomes differ between groups. In those studies, antimicrobial prescription was not associated with age, sex, and level of learning disability. Some other studies reported issues with language barriers and potential digital exclusion, especially for older people. INTERPRETATION: We might have missed some relevant studies due to publication year and language restrictions. Notwithstanding, this review showed that the potential impact of factors associated with health inequalities are not routinely considered during the implementation and evaluation of interventions to improve health-care professionals' interaction with patients. Future work should routinely consider this to help mitigate potential inequalities. FUNDING: UK Health Security Agency.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Idoso , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Saúde Pública , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico
9.
Euro Surveill ; 28(47)2023 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37997667

RESUMO

BackgroundPrevious United Kingdom campaigns targeting antimicrobial resistance (AMR) recommended running multimedia campaigns over an increased timeframe. The 3-year-long Keep Antibiotics Working (KAW) campaign was a mass media campaign in England targeting the public and general practitioners (GPs).MethodsEvery year, pre- and post-campaign questionnaire data were collected from the public, whereas post-campaign interview data were obtained from GPs. Data were weighted to allow pre- and post-campaign comparisons between independent samples. Significant changes in nominal and ordinal data were determined using Pearson's chi-squared (X2) and Mann-Whitney U tests, respectively.ResultsPrompted campaign recognition was high, increasing by 6% from 2018 to 2019 (2017: data unavailable; 2018: 68% (680/1,000); 2019: 74% (740/1,000); X2 = 8.742, p = 0.003). Knowledge regarding declining antibiotic effectiveness when taken inappropriately improved following the campaign (net true: pre-2017 = 69.1% (691/1,000); post-2019 = 77.6%; (776/1,000); X2 = 5.753, p = 0.016). The proportion of individuals reporting concern for themselves or for children (≤ 16 years) about AMR increased by 11.2% (Z = -5.091, p < 0.001) and 6.0% (Z = -3.616, p < 0.001) respectively, pre- to post-campaign. Finally, in 2017, reported confidence to say no to patients requesting antibiotics differed significantly between GPs who were and were not aware of the campaign (net agree: 98.9% (182/184) vs 92.4% (97/105) respectively; X2 = 4.000, p = 0.045).ConclusionA high level of prompted campaign recognition was achieved. The KAW campaign improved aspects of AMR knowledge and certain attitudes towards appropriate antimicrobial use. It increased awareness of and concern about AMR, supporting GP confidence to appropriately prescribe antibiotics. Future determination of measurable behaviour changes resulting from AMR campaigns is important.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Marketing Social , Criança , Humanos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Inglaterra , Pessoal de Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde
10.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 78(Suppl 2): ii37-ii42, 2023 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37995354

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic saw unprecedented resources and funds driven into research for the development, and subsequent rapid distribution, of vaccines, diagnostics and directly acting antivirals (DAAs). DAAs have undeniably prevented progression and life-threatening conditions in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. However, there are concerns of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), antiviral resistance specifically, for DAAs. To preserve activity of DAAs for COVID-19 therapy, as well as detect possible mutations conferring resistance, antimicrobial stewardship and surveillance were rapidly implemented in England. This paper expands on the ubiquitous ongoing public health activities carried out in England, including epidemiologic, virologic and genomic surveillance, to support the stewardship of DAAs and assess the deployment, safety, effectiveness and resistance potential of these novel and repurposed therapeutics.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Inglaterra/epidemiologia
11.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 12(9)2023 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37760680

RESUMO

Most urinary tract infections (UTIs) are self-limiting and frequently present in primary care; it is common for patients to seek symptom relief. The TARGET Treating Your Infection (TYI) leaflet was used to respond to UTI symptoms for women under 65 years presenting in community pharmacies. The widespread use of these leaflets was incentivised as part of NHS England's Pharmacy Quality Scheme (PQS) 2022-23, between October 2022 and March 2023. The TARGET TYI leaflets are aimed to support appropriate antibiotic use and antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) as well as reducing the opportunity for resistance to develop. A total of 8363 community pharmacies completed the AMS criteria within the PQS and collectively submitted data for 104,142 patients presenting with UTI symptoms. The majority, 77% (75,071), of (non-pregnant) women presented with none or only one of the three strongly predictive symptoms of dysuria, new nocturia, cloudy urine, and/or vaginal discharge and, therefore, were less likely to have a UTI, as outlined in the English UTI diagnostic guidance. Conversely, 23% (22,381) of women presented with two or more symptoms of dysuria, new nocturia, cloudy urine, and with no vaginal discharge and, therefore, they were more likely to have a UTI. The TARGET TYI UTI leaflets support community pharmacy teams to differentiate between symptoms more likely to be associated with UTIs and those that could be managed with self-care. The findings suggest that most women presenting to community pharmacies with urinary symptoms were likely to have self-limiting symptoms, and could be suitably managed with self-care, pain relief, and appropriate safety netting. Approximately one-third of patients were managed by community pharmacy team members without the need for referral to a pharmacist and one in five patients presented with escalation symptoms and were signposted to other healthcare settings. A total of 94% (97,452) of women received self-care advice of which 36% (37,565) were also provided with additional patient information leaflets.

12.
J Public Health Afr ; 14(6): 2335, 2023 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37538939

RESUMO

In recent years, health partnerships have shared infection prevention and control innovations between United Kingdom hospitals and Low-Middle-Income Countries. However, none had focused on antimicrobial stewardship (AMS), a core component of tackling antimicrobial resistance (AMR). This paper documents an effective approach to developing a program to increase AMS capacity in four African countries: Ghana, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia as part of the Commonwealth Partnerships for Antimicrobial Stewardship (CwPAMS) program. A systematic approach was applied to assess gaps in AMS interventions and inform the development of the CwPAMS program through deskbased assessments, including National Action Plans on AMR, online focus group meetings, and expert advisory group reviews. Twelve partnerships were selected for the CwPAMS program. AMS support tools were developed based on recommendations from the scoping, including an AMS checklist tool, a healthcare worker knowledge and attitudes questionnaire, and an antimicrobial prescribing app to support clinical decision-making. Training workshops on AMS were developed and delivered to volunteers in Africa and the UK using a train-the-trainer model. The tools and workshops facilitated capacity building for AMS through the generation and strengthening of knowledge, skills, commitment, structures, systems, and leadership among stakeholders in the UK and Africa. The overall average rating assigned to the program following independent evaluation using the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development Assistance Committee Evaluation Criteria was very good. The evaluation also highlighted that the majority of the HPs (75%) focused on AMS and/or improved prescribing practice; all HPs have developed and implemented AMS strategies, guidelines, and tools within their hospitals; and NHS staff were able to translate the knowledge and skills they had received early on in the program into clinical practice in response to COVID-19 challenges.

13.
Explor Res Clin Soc Pharm ; 11: 100310, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37645452

RESUMO

Introduction: Acne is a common skin condition treated in community pharmacy but moderate to severe cases may need referral to general practice for treatment that may include topical or oral antimicrobial treatments. Pharmacy teams working in the community are well-placed to manage acne treatments in line with NICE guidance. Objectives: To explore the perceived current and future roles of community pharmacy (CP) teams alongside needs to achieve potential future roles. Additionally, usefulness of the TARGET acne 'How to' toolkit to support these roles was sought. Methods: A mixed-methods electronic survey of UK-based CP professionals and stakeholders in March 2023. Results: 54 pharmacy professionals and stakeholders responded to the survey. The current confidence of pharmacy professionals in managing acne was rated as moderate and reviewing long-term medications for acne prescribed by another healthcare professional was seen as a future role. The needs identified to undertake such a role were: training, availability of prescribing or supply frameworks, and appropriate remuneration. The TARGET acne resources were thought of as being very useful for acne management. Conclusions: Potential future roles for CP have been identified, alongside additional needs to undertake these roles; the TARGET acne 'How to' resources could support pharmacy professionals in the management and review of antimicrobial treatment for acne.

14.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 78(10): 2392-2394, 2023 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37611224

RESUMO

The negative impact of high antimicrobial use (AMU), antimicrobial resistance and healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) on children is concerning. However, a lack of available paediatric data makes it challenging to design and implement interventions that would improve health outcomes in this population, and impedes efforts to secure additional resources. The upcoming 2023 national point-prevalence survey of HCAIs and AMU in hospitals, led by the UK Health Security Agency, is an opportunity to collect valuable information, which will enable healthcare providers and policy makers to optimize antimicrobial stewardship and infection prevention practices in all populations, including children. These data will facilitate benchmarking and sharing of best practice, internally, nationally and internationally. This is a joint call to action asking all healthcare professionals-particularly in paediatrics-to nominate a lead for their institution and participate in this survey, to ensure appropriate paediatric representation, and help protect children from these growing threats.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Infecção Hospitalar , Humanos , Criança , Prevalência , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Padrões de Prática Médica , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
15.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 78(10): 2387-2391, 2023 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37596897

RESUMO

The plans for a new antimicrobial utilization and resistance national surveillance programme, alongside the development of quality measures and methods to monitor unintended outcomes of antimicrobial stewardship and both public and professional behaviour interventions were published in 2013. Since then, England has published an annual surveillance report including outlining progress against the ambitions of the UK national action plans on antimicrobial resistance (2013 to 2018 and 2019 to 2024). A decade later we provide a brief update on progress so far, with a focus on key highlights from the latest report published in November 2022. We also provide our recommendations for areas of focus as we move into the next decade. From an initial focus on antibiotic consumption and resistance, the report now includes surveillance data for antifungals, antivirals (including novel agents, such as those targeting SARS-CoV-2) and antimalarials. Evaluation of key stewardship interventions including professional and public engagement initiatives are also reported, as well as progress against NHS England's (NHSE's) improvement measures.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , COVID-19 , Humanos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , SARS-CoV-2 , Inglaterra/epidemiologia
16.
JAC Antimicrob Resist ; 5(4): dlad095, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37560542

RESUMO

Background: Pharmacists play a key role in antimicrobial stewardship (AMS). Consensus-based national AMS competencies for undergraduate healthcare professionals in the UK reflect the increasing emphasis on competency-based healthcare professional education. However, the extent to which these are included within undergraduate pharmacy education programmes in the UK is unknown. Objectives: To explore which of the AMS competencies are delivered, including when and at which level, within UK undergraduate MPharm programmes. Methods: A cross-sectional online questionnaire captured the level of study of the MPharm programme in which each competency was taught, the method of delivery and assessment of AMS education, and examples of student feedback. Results: Ten institutions completed the survey (33% response rate). No institution reported covering all 54 AMS competencies and 5 of these were taught at half or fewer of the institutions. Key gaps were identified around taking samples, communication, outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy and surgical prophylaxis. The minimum time dedicated to AMS teaching differed between institutions (range 9-119 h), teaching was generally through didactic methods, and assessment was generally through knowledge recall and objective structured clinical examinations. Feedback from students suggests they find AMS and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) to be complex yet important topics. Conclusions: UK schools of pharmacy should utilize the competency framework to identify gaps in their AMS, AMR and infection teaching. To prepare newly qualified pharmacists to be effective at delivering AMS and prescribing antimicrobials, schools of pharmacy should utilize more simulated environments and clinical placements for education and assessment of AMS.

17.
Eur J Public Health ; 33(6): 987-993, 2023 12 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37561411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: National Health Service (NHS) guidance for acute respiratory tract infections (RTIs) advocates self-care, encourages utilization of local pharmacies and recommends consulting general practitioners (GPs) primarily for the vulnerable or those with persistent symptoms. Coronavirus disease 2019 exerted substantial strain on the English NHS, affecting public access to primary care services. METHODS: For 3 years, public surveys assessed RTI incidences in the previous 12 months and associated health-seeking behaviours. Telephone surveys of 1676 respondents across England were conducted in March 2021 and 1663 respondents in March 2022. Findings were compared with a face-to-face baseline survey of 2022 respondents from March 2020. Key demographics were representative of the population. RESULTS: In 2021, the proportion of respondents who reported an RTI (51%) significantly declined from 2020 (70%, P < 0.05), then returned to pre-pandemic rates in 2022 (67%). Respondents reported more proactive symptom management in both 2021 and 2022 from 2020: there were greater reports of seeking over-the-counter treatments (55%, 55% vs. 35%, P < 0.05) and use of alternative remedies (38%, 38% vs. 21%, P < 0.05). 2022 observed a reduction in those who reported consulting their GP for their most recent RTI (15%) compared to 2021 (25%, P < 0.05) and 2020 (23%), which was not accounted for through greater consultation rates with other healthcare services. CONCLUSIONS: Public health bodies should consider how pandemic-related changes may have facilitated increased self-care for self-limiting infections such as RTIs. Resources and support must include safety-netting advice to safeguard against unintentional consequences of increased self-care.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções Respiratórias , Humanos , Pandemias , Medicina Estatal , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/terapia , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde
18.
BMJ Open ; 13(7): e068299, 2023 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37419640

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This rapid review aimed to assess and collate intravenous-to-oral switch (IVOS) criteria from the literature to achieve safe and effective antimicrobial IVOS in the hospital inpatient adult population. DESIGN: The rapid review follows the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. DATA SOURCES: OVID Embase and Medline databases. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Articles of adult populations published globally between 2017 and 2021 were included. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: An Excel spreadsheet was designed with specific column headings. IVOS criteria from UK hospital IVOS policies informed the framework synthesis. RESULTS: IVOS criteria from 45/164 (27%) local IVOS policies were categorised into a five-section framework: (1) timing of IV antimicrobial review, (2) clinical signs and symptoms, (3) infection markers, (4) enteral route and (5) infection exclusions. The literature search identified 477 papers, of which 16 were included. The most common timing for review was 48-72 hours from initiation of intravenous antimicrobial (n=5, 30%). Nine studies (56%) stated clinical signs and symptoms must be improving. Temperature was the most frequently mentioned infection marker (n=14, 88%). Endocarditis had the highest mention as an infection exclusion (n=12, 75%). Overall, 33 IVOS criteria were identified to go forward into the Delphi process. CONCLUSION: Through the rapid review, 33 IVOS criteria were collated and presented within five distinct and comprehensive sections. The literature highlighted the possibility of reviewing IVOS before 48-72 hours and of presenting heart rate, blood pressure and respiratory rate as a combination early warning score criterion. The criteria identified can serve as a starting point of IVOS criteria review for any institution globally, as no country or region limits were applied. Further research is required to achieve consensus on IVOS criteria from healthcare professionals that manage patients with infections. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42022320343.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Humanos , Adulto , Administração Intravenosa , Hospitais , Políticas
19.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 23(1): 770, 2023 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37468860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major global health threat caused by the inappropriate use of antimicrobials in healthcare and other settings. Antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) is a broad multi-component health services intervention that promotes and monitors the judicious use of antimicrobials to preserve their future effectiveness. A main component of AMS is education and training (E&T). However, there are often discrepancies in how such interventions are implemented and delivered in hospital-based care. The aim of this study was to explore the factors influencing the implementation of AMS E&T in UK hospitals. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with AMS E&T trainers in UK hospitals. The interview schedule was developed using the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation = Behaviour (COM-B) model. Participants were identified via professional networks and social media. Interviews were analysed using inductive thematic analysis, followed by deductive analysis using the COM-B model as a framework. RESULTS: A total of 34 participants (26 antimicrobial pharmacists, 3 nurses, 1 advanced clinical practitioner, 2 infectious disease consultants, 1 microbiologist and 1 clinical scientist). responsible for designing, implementing and evaluating AMS E&T in UK hospitals (five from Northern Ireland, four from Wales, two from Scotland and 23 from England) took part in virtual interviews. Key themes were: (1) The organisational context, including system-level barriers to AMS included competing organisational targets (Reflective motivation and physical opportunity) and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on activity (Physical opportunity); (2) Healthcare professionals' roles and the wider multi-disciplinary team, such that AMS roles were defined and addressed poorly in E&T (Social opportunity); and (3) The individual perception of the need for AMS E&T in hospital-based care, manifest in a perceived lack of conviction of the wider threat of AMR and the resulting need for AMS E&T (Reflective motivation). CONCLUSION: This study has identified factors influencing implementation of AMS E&T in UK hospitals and further identified where implemented, AMS E&T did not address real-world challenges. Current AMS E&T needs to be optimised to elicit practice change, with recommendations including training and engaging the wider work-force and drawing upon theoretically-informed intervention development frameworks to inform AMS E&T to better target AMS behaviour change.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Gestão de Antimicrobianos , COVID-19 , Humanos , Motivação , Gestão de Antimicrobianos/métodos , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Hospitais , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inglaterra
20.
Bull World Health Organ ; 101(6): 403-411, 2023 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37265674

RESUMO

Efficient and secure supply chains are vital for effective health services worldwide. In low- and middle-income countries, the accessibility, affordability and availability of essential medicines, including antimicrobials, remain challenging. Ineffective supply chains often cause antimicrobial shortages, leading to inappropriate use of alternative agents and increasing the risk of antimicrobial resistance. Shortages, coupled with insecure supply chains, also encourage the infiltration of substandard and falsified medicines, leading to suboptimal treatment and further promoting antimicrobial resistance. Addressing antimicrobial supply-chain issues should be considered a key component of antimicrobial stewardship programmes. We have explored the link between medicine supply chains and antimicrobial use in seven focus countries: Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania and Zambia. We explored country medicine supply-system structures, national medicine supply-chain policy documents and global study reports. Our aim was to develop evidence-based strategies to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of the medicine supply chains in supporting antimicrobial stewardship efforts. Better management of medical supply chains involves rational selection, quantification, forecasting, procurement, storage, distribution, use and stock management of antimicrobials. Important supply-chain considerations include pooled procurement networks to ensure consistent pricing of quality-assured antimicrobials, and improved resource utilization and information exchange among relevant stakeholders. We propose adaptable recommendations for integrating medicine supply chains as an essential part of antimicrobial stewardship programmes, with a call for action at the local, regional and national levels in low- and middle-income countries.


Partout dans le monde, les performances des services de santé dépendent de l'efficacité et de la sécurité des chaînes d'approvisionnement. Mais dans les pays à revenu faible et intermédiaire, l'accessibilité et la disponibilité des médicaments à prix abordable, y compris des antimicrobiens, représentent toujours un défi. L'inefficacité des chaînes d'approvisionnement entraîne souvent des pénuries d'antimicrobiens et, par conséquent, un recours à des alternatives inappropriées et une augmentation du risque de résistance aux antimicrobiens. Ces pénuries, alliées à des chaînes d'approvisionnement peu fiables, favorisent également l'introduction de médicaments falsifiés et de qualité inférieure, altérant l'efficacité du traitement et renforçant encore davantage la résistance aux antimicrobiens. Résoudre les problèmes liés aux chaînes d'approvisionnement en antimicrobiens devrait donc figurer parmi les priorités des programmes de gestion des antimicrobiens. Le présent document s'intéresse au lien entre les chaînes d'approvisionnement en médicaments et l'utilisation d'antimicrobiens dans sept pays cibles: le Kenya, le Malawi, le Nigeria, l'Ouganda, la République-Unie de Tanzanie, la Sierra Leone et la Zambie. Pour chacun de ces pays, nous avons examiné les structures du système d'approvisionnement en médicaments, les documents relatifs à la politique d'approvisionnement national et les rapports d'études globaux. Notre objectif consistait à développer des stratégies fondées sur des données factuelles, afin d'améliorer le fonctionnement et l'efficacité des chaînes d'approvisionnement en médicaments et de contribuer ainsi aux efforts de gestion des antimicrobiens. Une meilleure logistique requiert une certaine rationalité dans la sélection, la quantification, la planification, l'approvisionnement, le stockage, la distribution, l'utilisation et la gestion des stocks d'antimicrobiens. Dans ce contexte, plusieurs éléments sont importants tels que les réseaux d'achats groupés, qui assurent la stabilité des prix pour des antimicrobiens de qualité garantie, ou encore l'optimisation des ressources et l'échange d'informations entre les acteurs concernés. Nous formulons des recommandations ajustables en vue de rendre les chaînes d'approvisionnement en médicaments incontournables dans les programmes de gestion des antimicrobiens, avec un appel à agir à l'échelle locale, régionale et nationale dans les pays à revenu faible et intermédiaire.


Unas cadenas de suministro eficientes y seguras son vitales para la eficacia de los servicios sanitarios en todo el mundo. En los países de ingresos bajos y medios, la accesibilidad, asequibilidad y disponibilidad de los medicamentos esenciales, incluidos los antimicrobianos, sigue siendo un reto. Con frecuencia, las cadenas de suministro ineficaces provocan escasez de antimicrobianos, lo que conlleva un uso inadecuado de agentes alternativos y aumenta el riesgo de resistencia a los antimicrobianos. La escasez, sumada a la inseguridad de las cadenas de suministro, también favorece la infiltración de medicamentos de calidad inferior y adulterados, lo que conduce a un tratamiento subóptimo y fomenta aún más la resistencia a los antimicrobianos. Abordar los problemas de la cadena de suministro de antimicrobianos se debería considerar un componente clave de los programas de administración de antimicrobianos. Hemos explorado la relación entre las cadenas de suministro de medicamentos y el uso de antimicrobianos en siete países seleccionados: Kenia, Malawi, Nigeria, Sierra Leona, Uganda, República Unida de Tanzania y Zambia. Exploramos las estructuras de los sistemas de suministro de medicamentos de los países, los documentos de política nacional sobre la cadena de suministro de medicamentos y los informes de estudios globales. Nuestro objetivo era desarrollar estrategias basadas en evidencias para mejorar la eficacia y la eficiencia de las cadenas de suministro de medicamentos en apoyo de los esfuerzos de administración antimicrobiana. Una mejor gestión de las cadenas de suministro de medicamentos implica la selección racional, la cuantificación, la previsión, la adquisición, el almacenamiento, la distribución, el uso y la gestión de las existencias de antimicrobianos. Entre las consideraciones importantes sobre la cadena de suministro se incluyen las redes de adquisición mancomunada para garantizar precios coherentes de antimicrobianos de calidad garantizada y una mejor utilización de los recursos e intercambio de información entre las partes interesadas pertinentes. Proponemos recomendaciones adaptables para integrar las cadenas de suministro de medicamentos como parte esencial de los programas de administración de antimicrobianos, con una llamada a la acción a nivel local, regional y nacional en los países de ingresos bajos y medios.


Assuntos
Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Humanos , Quênia , Tanzânia , Uganda , Nigéria
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