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1.
Digit Health ; 10: 20552076241257042, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38836049

RESUMO

Objectives: Telemedical applications are solutions to challenges in the healthcare system. However, it is unclear what intensive care unit healthcare professionals expect from such solutions. This study investigated the expectations and concerns of nurses and physicians when implementing telemedicine tools in intensive care units (tele-ICU). Methods: The study was conducted in intensive care units in 2020 during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. It used a mixed-methods approach targeted at physicians and nurses and involved 14 qualitative interviews and 63 quantitative questionnaires. Results: The qualitative and quantitative data showed that both nurses and physicians were willing to use tele-ICU. Nurses recognised the advantages of real-time access to expertise offered by tele-ICU, but feared this would reduce physicians' on-site patient time. Physicians, in turn, were concerned that they would be expected to be continuously on call. The majority in both groups agreed that any tele-ICU solution must be simple to use and integrate easily into existing organisational structures, networks, and work routines. Additionally, COVID-19 significantly influenced expectations: those who reported having more personal health concerns during the pandemic were more predisposed to favour the use of tele-ICU. Conclusions: Overall, tele-ICU supports better care, but a successful implementation depends on its ease of use and context-sensitive approaches. Effectively integrating tele-ICU solutions into daily clinical routines requires input from nurses and physicians and their involvement in the implementation process from the outset, as well as consideration of existing organisational structures. Such measures will vastly increase the chance of acceptance and successful adoption of telemedical solutions in clinical practice.

2.
Int J Surg ; 2024 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38652180

RESUMO

As one of the leading causes of global mortality and morbidity, various neurological diseases cause social and economic burdens. Despite significant advances in the treatment of neurological diseases, establishing a proper disease model, especially for degenerative and infectious diseases, remains a major challenging issue. For long, mice were the model of choice but suffered from serious drawbacks of differences in anatomical and functional aspects of the nervous system. Furthermore, the collection of post-mortem brain tissues limits their usage in cultured cell lines. Overcoming such limitations has prompted the usage of stem cells derived from the peripheral nervous system, such as the cells of the olfactory mucosa as a preferred choice. These cells can be easily cultured in vitro and retain the receptors of neuronal cells life-long. Such cells have various advantages over embryonic or induced stem cells, including homology, and ease of culture and can be conveniently obtained from diseased individuals through either biopsies or exfoliation. They have continuously helped in understanding the genetic and developmental mechanisms of degenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Moreover, the mode of infection of various viruses that can lead to post-viral olfactory dysfunction, such as the Zika virus can be monitored through these cells in vitro and their therapeutic development can be fastened.

3.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 99(1): 1-20, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38640152

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder with a global impact. The past few decades have witnessed significant strides in comprehending the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and developing diagnostic methodologies for AD, such as neuroimaging approaches. Neuroimaging techniques, including positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, have revolutionized the field by providing valuable insights into the structural and functional alterations in the brains of individuals with AD. These imaging modalities enable the detection of early biomarkers such as amyloid-ß plaques and tau protein tangles, facilitating early and precise diagnosis. Furthermore, the emerging technologies encompassing blood-based biomarkers and neurochemical profiling exhibit promising results in the identification of specific molecular signatures for AD. The integration of machine learning algorithms and artificial intelligence has enhanced the predictive capacity of these diagnostic tools when analyzing complex datasets. In this review article, we will highlight not only some of the most used diagnostic imaging approaches in neurodegeneration research but focus much more on new tools like artificial intelligence, emphasizing their application in the realm of AD. These advancements hold immense potential for early detection and intervention, thereby paving the way for personalized therapeutic strategies and ultimately augmenting the quality of life for individuals affected by AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Inteligência Artificial , Diagnóstico Precoce , Neuroimagem , Humanos , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuroimagem/métodos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Biomarcadores/análise
4.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 17(3)2024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38543181

RESUMO

Adverse drug reactions continue to be not only one of the most urgent problems in clinical medicine, but also a social problem. The aim of this study was a bibliometric analysis of the use of digital technologies to prevent adverse drug reactions and an overview of their main applications to improve the safety of pharmacotherapy. The search was conducted using the Web of Science database for the period 1991-2023. A positive trend in publications in the field of using digital technologies in the management of adverse drug reactions was revealed. A total of 72% of all relevant publications come from the following countries: the USA, China, England, India, and Germany. Among the organizations most active in the field of drug side effect management using digital technologies, American and Chinese universities dominate. Visualization of publication keywords using VOSviewer software 1.6.18 revealed four clusters: "preclinical studies", "clinical trials", "pharmacovigilance", and "reduction of adverse drug reactions in order to improve the patient's quality of life". Molecular design technologies, virtual models for toxicity modeling, data integration, and drug repurposing are among the key digital tools used in the preclinical research phase. Integrating the application of machine learning algorithms for data analysis, monitoring of electronic databases of spontaneous messages, electronic medical records, scientific databases, social networks, and analysis of digital device data into clinical trials and pharmacovigilance systems, can significantly improve the efficiency and safety of drug development, implementation, and monitoring processes. The result of combining all these technologies is a huge synergistic provision of up-to-date and valuable information to healthcare professionals, patients, and health authorities.

5.
J Mol Evol ; 92(1): 72-86, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38285197

RESUMO

Autoimmune Regulator 1 (AIRE1) and Forebrain Embryonic Zinc Finger-Like Protein 2 (FEZF2) play pivotal roles in orchestrating the expression of tissue-restricted antigens (TRA) to facilitate the elimination of autoreactive T cells. AIRE1's presence in the gonads of various vertebrates has raised questions about its potential involvement in gene expression control for germline cell selection. Nevertheless, the evolutionary history of these genes has remained enigmatic, as has the rationale behind their apparent redundancy in vertebrates. Furthermore, the origin of the elimination process itself has remained elusive. To shed light on these mysteries, we conducted a comprehensive evolutionary analysis employing a range of tools, including multiple sequence alignment, phylogenetic tree construction, ancestral sequence reconstruction, and positive selection assessment. Our investigations revealed intriguing insights. AIRE1 homologs emerged during the divergence of T cells in higher vertebrates, signifying its role in this context. Conversely, FEZF2 exhibited multiple homologs spanning invertebrates, lampreys, and higher vertebrates. Ancestral sequence reconstruction demonstrated distinct origins for AIRE1 and FEZF2, underscoring that their roles in regulating TRA have evolved through disparate pathways. Furthermore, it became evident that both FEZF2 and AIRE1 govern a diverse repertoire of genes, encompassing ancient and more recently diverged targets. Notably, FEZF2 demonstrates expression in both vertebrate and invertebrate embryos and germlines, accentuating its widespread role. Intriguingly, FEZF2 harbors motifs associated with autophagy, such as DKFPHP, SYSELWKSSL, and SYSEL, a process integral to cell selection in invertebrates. Our findings suggest that FEZF2 initially emerged to regulate self-elimination in the gonads of invertebrates. As organisms evolved toward greater complexity, AIRE1 likely emerged to complement FEZF2's role, participating in the regulation of cell selection for elimination in both gonads and the thymus. This dynamic interplay between AIRE1 and FEZF2 underscores their multifaceted contributions to TRA expression regulation across diverse evolutionary contexts.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T , Animais , Filogenia
7.
Int J Legal Med ; 138(1): 3-14, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37828300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To improve the currently low conviction rate in cases of child abuse a forensic examination center for children and adolescents (FOKUS) was established in Vienna, Austria. Besides a state of the art treatment combined with forensic documentation, one of FOKUS' key goals is to identify potential areas for improvements within the process legal proceedings in cases of child abuse through constant scientific monitoring. The accompanying study at hand includes all patients referred to FOKUS within a two year timeframe (n = 233), monitoring their progression from first contact with the medical professionals from FOKUS to the end of criminal proceedings. A detailed analysis of case files was performed in those cases that were reported to the legal authorities by the clinicians of FOKUS (n = 87). Aim of the study is to investigate which factors contribute to the initiation of legal proceedings and a successful conviction. RESULTS: Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that main proceedings were opened more often in cases where the offender was an adult (p < 0.001) or admitted his guilt (p < 0.001) and if digital traces were available (p = 0.001) or trial support (p = 0.024) present. Furthermore, the combined occurrence of medical documentation and victim disclosure was related to a higher probability of opening main trials. CONCLUSION: These findings underline how challenging the successful persecution of an offender in cases of child abuse is.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância , Maus-Tratos Infantis , Criança , Adulto , Adolescente , Humanos , Áustria , Maus-Tratos Infantis/diagnóstico , Documentação , Revelação , Abuso Sexual na Infância/diagnóstico
8.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1255706, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38131024

RESUMO

Nutrition is a key determinant of health, and the dissemination of reliable nutrition information to consumers is of great importance for public health. Especially with the rise of digital communication technologies and the wide-spread online misinformation, the provision of qualitative science-based information related to diet is of great importance. The NutritionFacts.org has been established as a prominent online source of evidence-based nutrition information. In this work we aimed to investigate the use of the associated hashtag #NutritionFacts on X (formerly Twitter) over a 5 years period, from 10th of April 2018 to 10th of April 2023. The conducted analysis with the use of Symplur Signals revealed that 18,998 tweets mentioning #NutritionFacts were posted by 6,136 X users, generating a total of 50,348,223 impressions (views). Both institutional and individual accounts were broadly participating in the dissemination of #NutritionFacts tweets, and the user location profiling indicated wide international engagement with the hashtag. This work indicates that #NutritionFacts has been established as an important hashtag utilized on X for the dissemination of evidence-based information related to nutrition.


Assuntos
Mídias Sociais , Humanos , Comunicação , Saúde Pública , Estado Nutricional
9.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 11(22)2023 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37998496

RESUMO

This study conducted a comprehensive patent and bibliometric analysis to elucidate the evolving scientific landscape surrounding the development and application of pulse oximeters, including in the field of digital medicine. Utilizing data from the Lens database for the period of 2000-2023, we identified the United States, China, the Republic of Korea, Japan, Canada, Australia, Taiwan, and the United Kingdom as the predominant countries in patent issuance for pulse oximeter technology. Our bibliometric analysis revealed a consistent temporal trend in both the volume of publications and citations, underscoring the growing importance of pulse oximeters in digitally-enabled medical practice. Using the VOSviewer software(version 1.6.18), we discerned six primary research clusters: (1) measurement accuracy; (2) integration with the Internet of Things; (3) applicability across diverse pathologies; (4) telemedicine and mobile applications; (5) artificial intelligence and deep learning; and (6) utilization in anesthesiology, resuscitation, and intensive care departments. The findings of this study indicate the prospects for leveraging digital technologies in the use of pulse oximetry in various fields of medicine, with implications for advancing the understanding, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of cardio-respiratory pathologies. The conducted patent and bibliometric analysis allowed the identification of technical solutions to reduce the risks associated with pulse oximetry: improving precision and validity, technically improved clinical diagnostic use, and the use of machine learning.

10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(22)2023 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38003575

RESUMO

Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) have higher infection rates compared to those without SCI. In this review, the immune status difference between individuals with and without traumatic SCI is investigated by examining their peripheral immune cells and markers. PubMed, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Ovid MEDLINE were searched without language or date restrictions. Studies reporting peripheral immune markers' concentration and changes in functional capabilities of immune cells that compared individuals with and without SCI were included. Studies with participants with active infection, immune disease, and central nervous system (CNS) immune markers were excluded. The review followed the PRISMA guidelines. Effect estimates were measured by Weighted Mean Difference (WMD) using a random-effects model. Study quality was assessed using the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Quality Assessment Tool. Fifty-four studies (1813 with SCI and 1378 without SCI) contributed to the meta-analysis. Leukocytes (n = 23, WMD 0.78, 95% CI 0.17; 1.38, I2 83%), neutrophils (n = 11, WMD 0.76, 95% CI 0.09; 1.42, I2 89%), C-reactive protein (CRP) (n = 12, WMD 2.25, 95% CI 1.14; 3.56, I2 95%), and IL6 (n = 13, WMD 2.33, 95% CI 1.20; 3.49, I2 97%) were higher in individuals with SCI vs. without SCI. Clinical factors (phase of injury, completeness of injury, sympathetic innervation impairment, age, sex) and study-related factors (sample size, study design, and serum vs. plasma) partially explained heterogeneity. Immune cells exhibited lower functional capability in individuals with SCI vs. those without SCI. Most studies (75.6%) had a moderate risk of bias. The immune status of individuals with SCI differs from those without SCI and is clinically influenced by the phase of injury, completeness of injury, sympathetic innervation impairment, age, and sex. These results provide information that is vital for monitoring and management strategies to effectively improve the immune status of individuals with SCI.


Assuntos
Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Humanos , Biomarcadores , Proteína C-Reativa , Masculino , Feminino
11.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1268730, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38035302

RESUMO

Background: The digitalization of medicine is becoming a transformative force in modern healthcare systems. This study aims to investigate discussions regarding patient safety, as well as summarize perceived approaches to mitigating risks of adverse events expressed through the #PatientSafety Twitter hashtag during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This research is grounded in the analysis of data extracted from Twitter under the hashtag #PatientSafety between December 1, 2019 and February 1, 2023. Symplur Signals, which represents a tool offering a method to monitor tweets containing hashtags registered with the Symplur Healthcare Hashtag Project, was used for analyzing the tweets shared in the study period. For text analytics of the relevant data, we further used the word cloud generator MonkeyLearn, and VOSviewer. Results: The analysis encompasses 358'809 tweets that were shared by 90'079 Twitter users, generating a total of 1'183'384'757 impressions. Physicians contributed to 18.65% of all tweets, followed by other healthcare professionals (14.31%), and health-focused individuals (10.91%). Geographically, more than a third of tweets (60.90%) were published in the United States. Canada and India followed in second and third positions, respectively. Blocks of trending terms of greater interest to the global Twitter community within the hashtag #PatientSafety were determined to be: "Patient," "Practical doctors," and "Health Care Safety Management." The findings demonstrate the engagement of the Twitter community with COVID-19 and problems related to the training, experience of doctors and patients during a pandemic, communication, the vaccine safety and effectiveness, and potential use of off-label drugs. Noteworthy, in the field of pharmacovigilance, Twitter has the possibility of identifying adverse reactions associated with the use of drugs, including vaccines. The issue of medical errors has been also discussed by Twitter users using the hashtag #PatientSafety. Conclusion: It is clear that various stakeholders, including students, medical practitioners, health organizations, pharmaceutical companies, and regulatory bodies, leverage Twitter to rapidly exchange medical information, data on the disease symptoms, and the drug effects. Consequently, there is a need to further integrate Twitter-derived data into the operational routines of healthcare organizations.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Segurança do Paciente , Mídias Sociais , Humanos , Comunicação , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Pandemias
12.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1196596, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37822534

RESUMO

Digital health technologies have been in use for many years in a wide spectrum of healthcare scenarios. This narrative review outlines the current use and the future strategies and significance of digital health technologies in modern healthcare applications. It covers the current state of the scientific field (delineating major strengths, limitations, and applications) and envisions the future impact of relevant emerging key technologies. Furthermore, we attempt to provide recommendations for innovative approaches that would accelerate and benefit the research, translation and utilization of digital health technologies.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Biomédica , Atenção à Saúde
13.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; 41: 100905, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37731897

RESUMO

In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), the fields of medicine and public health grapple with numerous challenges that continue to hinder patients' access to healthcare services. ChatGPT, a publicly accessible chatbot, has emerged as a potential tool in aiding public health efforts in LMICs. This viewpoint details the potential benefits of employing ChatGPT in LMICs to improve medicine and public health encompassing a broad spectrum of domains ranging from health literacy, screening, triaging, remote healthcare support, mental health support, multilingual capabilities, healthcare communication and documentation, medical training and education, and support for healthcare professionals. Additionally, we also share potential concerns and limitations associated with the use of ChatGPT and provide a balanced discussion on the opportunities and challenges of using ChatGPT in LMICs.

14.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1205903, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37621612

RESUMO

The high need for optimal diabetes management among an ever-increasing number of patients dictates the development and implementation of new digital sensors for continuous glucose monitoring. The purpose of this work is to systematize the global patenting trends of digital sensors for continuous glucose monitoring and analyze their effectiveness in controlling the treatment of diabetes patients of different ages and risk groups. The Lens database was used to build the patent landscape of sensors for continuous glucose monitoring. Retrospective analysis showed that the patenting of sensors for continuous glucose monitoring had positive trend over the analyzed period (2000-2022). Leading development companies are Dexcom Inc., Abbott Diabetes Care Inc., Medtronic Minimed Inc., Roche Diabetes Care Inc., Roche Diagnostics Operations Inc., Roche Diabetes Care Gmbh, and Ascensia Diabetes Care Holdings Ag, among others. Since 2006, a new approach has emerged where digital sensors are used for continuous glucose monitoring, and smartphones act as receivers for the data. Additionally, telemedicine communication is employed to facilitate this process. This opens up new opportunities for assessing the glycemic profile (glycemic curve information, quantitative assessment of the duration and amplitude of glucose fluctuations, and so on), which may contribute to improved diabetes management. A number of digital sensors for minimally invasive glucose monitoring are patented, have received FDA approval, and have been on the market for over 10 years. Their effectiveness in the clinic has been proven, and advantages and disadvantages have been clarified. Digital sensors offer a non-invasive option for monitoring blood glucose levels, providing an alternative to traditional invasive methods. This is particularly useful for patients with diabetes who require frequent monitoring, including before and after meals, during and after exercise, and in other scenarios where glucose levels can fluctuate. However, non-invasive glucose measurements can also benefit patients without diabetes, such as those following a dietary treatment plan, pregnant women, and individuals during fasting periods like Ramadan. The availability of non-invasive monitoring is especially valuable for patients in high-risk groups and across different age ranges. New world trends have been identified in the patenting of digital sensors for non-invasive glucose monitoring in interstitial skin fluid, saliva, sweat, tear fluid, and exhaled air. A number of non-invasive devices have received the CE mark approval, which confirms that the items meet European health, safety, and environmental protection standards (TensorTip Combo-Glucometer, Cnoga Medical Ltd.; SugarBEAT, Nemaura Medical; GlucoTrack, GlucoTrack Inc.), but are not FDA-approved yet. The above-mentioned sensors have characteristics that make them popular in the treatment of diabetes: they do not require implantation, do not cause an organism reaction to a foreign body, and are convenient to use. In the EU, in order to increase clinical safety and the level of transparency about medical devices, manufacturers must obtain certificates in accordance with Regulation (EU) 2017/745, taking into account the transition period. The development of systems, which include digital sensors for continuous glucose monitoring, mobile applications, and web platforms for professional analysis of glycemic control and implementation of unified glycemic assessment principles in mobile healthcare, represent promising approaches for controlling glycaemia in patients.


Assuntos
Automonitorização da Glicemia , Glicemia , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Glucose
15.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 10: 1138051, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37497278

RESUMO

Objectives: Continuous non-invasive monitoring of blood pressure is one of the main factors in ensuring the safety of the patient's condition in anesthesiology, intensive care, surgery, and other areas of medicine. The purpose of this work was to analyze the current patent situation and identify directions and trends in the application of non-invasive medical sensors for continuous blood pressure monitoring, with a focus on clinical experience in critical care and validation thereof. Materials and methods: The research results reflect data collected up to September 30, 2022. Patent databases, Google Scholar, the Lens database, Pubmed, Scopus databases were used to search for patent and clinical information. Results: An analysis of the patent landscape indicates a significant increase in interest in the development of non-invasive devices for continuous blood pressure monitoring and their implementation in medical practice, especially in the last 10 years. The key players in the intellectual property market are the following companies: Cnsystems Medizintechnik; Sotera Wireless INC; Tensys Medical INC; Healthstats Int Pte LTD; Edwards Lifesciences Corp, among others. Systematization of data from validation and clinical studies in critical care practice on patients with various pathological conditions and ages, including children and newborns, revealed that a number of non-invasive medical sensor technologies are quite accurate and comparable to the "gold standard" continuous invasive blood pressure monitoring. They are approved by the FDA for medical applications and certified according to ISO 81060-2, ISO 81060-3, and ISO/TS 81060-5. Unregistered and uncertified medical sensors require further clinical trials. Conclusion: Non-invasive medical sensors for continuous blood pressure monitoring do not replace, but complement, existing methods of regular blood pressure measurement, and it is expected to see more of these technologies broadly implemented in the practice in the near future.

16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(11)2023 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37298715

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) accounts for a global health problem. It is a complex disease as a result of the combination of environmental as well as genetic factors. Morbidity is still increasing across the world. One of the possibilities for the prevention and mitigation of the negative consequences of type 2 diabetes is a nutritional diet rich in bioactive compounds such as polyphenols. This review is focused on cyanidin-3-O-glucosidase (C3G), which belongs to the anthocyanins subclass, and its anti-diabetic properties. There are numerous pieces of evidence that C3G exerts positive effects on diabetic parameters, including in vitro and in vivo studies. It is involved in alleviating inflammation, reducing blood glucose, controlling postprandial hyperglycemia, and gene expression related to the development of T2D. C3G is one of the beneficial polyphenolic compounds that may help to overcome the public health problems associated with T2D.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Antocianinas/uso terapêutico , Glucosídeos , Nutrigenômica
17.
Digit Health ; 9: 20552076231179053, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37312949

RESUMO

Objective: This study provided a content analysis of English and Chinese YouTube videos related to dental radiation safety. Method: The search string, entered in English and Chinese respectively, was: (dental x-ray safe). The searches were performed and exported with Apify YouTube scraper. By screening the resultant videos and their related videos (as recommended by YouTube), a total of 89 videos were screened. Finally, 45 videos (36 English and nine Chinese) were included and analyzed. The specific information regarding dental radiation was evaluated. The Patient Education Material Assessment Tool for Audiovisual Materials was used to assess understandability and actionability. Results: There was no significant difference between the English and Chinese videos in terms of view count, like count, comment count, and video duration. Half of the videos explicitly reassured the audience that dental x-rays are safe. Two of the English videos specifically stated that dental x-rays do not cause cancers. Numerous analogies were made in regard to radiation dose, such as equivalence to taking a flight or eating some bananas. About 41.7% of the English videos and 33.3% of the Chinese videos mentioned that patients could be further protected from scatter radiation by wearing a lead apron and thyroid collar. Videos had a good understandability score (91.3) but a poor actionability score (0). Conclusions: Some of the analogies and the claimed radiation dose were questionable. One Chinese video even wrongly stated that dental x-rays are nonionizing radiation. The videos generally did not mention their information sources or the underlying radiation protection principles.

18.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1010674, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37361173

RESUMO

Google Trends data have been used to investigate various themes on online information seeking. It was unclear if the population from different parts of the world shared the same amount of attention to different mask types during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to reveal which types of masks were frequently searched by the public in different countries, and evaluated if public attention to masks could be related to mandatory policy, stringency of the policy, and transmission rate of COVID-19. By referring to an open dataset hosted at the online database Our World in Data, the 10 countries with the highest total number of COVID-19 cases as of 9th of February 2022 were identified. For each of these countries, the weekly new cases per million population, reproduction rate (of COVID-19), stringency index, and face covering policy score were computed from the raw daily data. Google Trends were queried to extract the relative search volume (RSV) for different types of masks from each of these countries. Results found that Google searches for N95 masks were predominant in India, whereas surgical masks were predominant in Russia, FFP2 masks were predominant in Spain, and cloth masks were predominant in both France and United Kingdom. The United States, Brazil, Germany, and Turkey had two predominant types of mask. The online searching behavior for masks markedly varied across countries. For most of the surveyed countries, the online searching for masks peaked during the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic before the government implemented mandatory mask wearing. The search for masks positively correlated with the government response stringency index but not with the COVID-19 reproduction rate or the new cases per million.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Estados Unidos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Máscaras , Ferramenta de Busca
19.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1147991, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37033914

RESUMO

Commonly used clinical strategies against coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), including the potential role of monoclonal antibodies for site-specific targeted drug delivery, are discussed here. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) tailored with tocilizumab (TCZ) and loading cannabidiol (CBD) are proposed for the treatment of COVID-19 by oral route. TCZ, as a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody and an interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor agonist, can attenuate cytokine storm in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. CBD (an anti-inflammatory cannabinoid and TCZ agonist) alleviates anxiety, schizophrenia, and depression. CBD, obtained from Cannabis sativa L., is known to modulate gene expression and inflammation and also shows anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. It has also been recognized to modulate angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) expression in SARS-CoV-2 target tissues. It has already been proven that immunosuppressive drugs targeting the IL-6 receptor may ameliorate lethal inflammatory responses in COVID-19 patients. TCZ, as an immunosuppressive drug, is mainly used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, although several attempts have been made to use it in the active hyperinflammatory phase of COVID-19, with promising outcomes. TCZ is currently administered intravenously. It this review, we discuss the potential advances on the use of SLN for oral administration of TCZ-tailored CBD-loaded SLN, as an innovative platform for managing SARS-CoV-2 and related infections.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Canabidiol , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Canabidiol/uso terapêutico , Tratamento Farmacológico da COVID-19 , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores
20.
Eur J Med Chem ; 254: 115386, 2023 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37094450

RESUMO

The modulatory interactions between neurotensin (NT) and the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system in the brain suggest that NT may be associated with the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). NT exerts its neurophysiological effects by interactions with the human NT receptors type 1 (hNTS1) and 2 (hNTS2). Therefore, both receptor subtypes are promising targets for the development of novel NT-based analogs for the treatment of PD. In this study, we used a virtually guided molecular modeling approach to predict the activity of NT(8-13) analogs by investigating the docking models of ligands designed for binding to the human NTS1 and NTS2 receptors. The importance of the residues at positions 8 and/or 9 for hNTS1 and hNTS2 receptor binding affinity was experimentally confirmed by radioligand binding assays. Further in vitro ADME profiling and in vivo studies revealed that, compared to the parent peptide NT(8-13), compound 10 exhibited improved stability and BBB permeability combined with a significant enhancement of the motor function and memory in a mouse model of PD. The herein reported NTS1/NTS2 dual-specific NT(8-13) analogs represent an attractive tool for the development of therapeutic strategies against PD and potentially other CNS disorders.


Assuntos
Neurotensina , Doença de Parkinson , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Dopamina , Ligantes , Neurotensina/farmacologia , Neurotensina/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Ligação Proteica , Receptores de Neurotensina/metabolismo
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