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1.
Toxics ; 11(10)2023 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37888714

RESUMO

Heavy metals, specifically cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), contaminating water bodies of Madinah (Saudi Arabia), is a significant environmental concern that necessitates prompt action. Madinah is exposed to toxic metals from multiple sources, such as tobacco, fresh and canned foods, and industrial activities. This influx of toxic metals presents potential hazards to both human health and the surrounding environment. The aim of this study is to explore the viability of utilizing metallothionein from Pseudomonas putida (P. putida) as a method of bioremediation to mitigate the deleterious effects of pollution attributable to Pb and Cd. The use of various computational approaches, such as physicochemical assessments, structural modeling, molecular docking, and protein-protein interaction investigations, has enabled us to successfully identify the exceptional metal-binding properties that metallothionein displays in P. putida. The identification of specific amino acid residues, namely GLU30 and GLN21, is crucial in understanding their pivotal role in facilitating the coordination of lead and cadmium. In addition, post-translational modifications present opportunities for augmenting the capacity to bind metals, thereby creating possibilities for focused engineering. The intricate web of interactions among proteins serves to emphasize the protein's participation in essential cellular mechanisms, thereby emphasizing its potential contributions to detoxification pathways. The present study establishes a strong basis for forthcoming experimental inquiries, offering potential novel approaches in bioremediation to tackle the issue of heavy metal contamination. Metallothionein from P. putida presents a highly encouraging potential as a viable remedy for environmental remediation, as it is capable of proficiently alleviating the detrimental consequences related to heavy metal pollution.

2.
Microorganisms ; 11(9)2023 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37764106

RESUMO

Microorganisms are ubiquitously present in the environment and exert significant influence on numerous natural phenomena. The soil and groundwater systems, precipitation, and effluent outfalls from factories, refineries, and waste treatment facilities are all sources of heavy metal contamination. For example, Madinah, Saudi Arabia, has alarmingly high levels of lead and cadmium. The non-essential minerals cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) have been linked to damage to vital organs. Bioremediation is an essential component in the process of cleaning up polluted soil and water where biological agents such as bacteria are used to remove the contaminants. It is demonstrated that Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) isolated from activated sludge was able to remove Cd and Pb from water. The protein sequence of metallothionein from P. aeruginosa was retrieved to explore it for physicoparameters, orthologs, domain, family, motifs, and conserved residues. The homology structure was generated, and models were validated. Docking of the best model with the heavy metals was carried out to inspect the intramolecular interactions. The target protein was found to belong to the "metallothionein_pro" family, containing six motifs, and showed a close orthologous relationship with other heavy metal-resistant bacteria. The best model was generated by Phyre2. In this study, three key residues of metallothionein were identified that participate in heavy metal (Pb and Cd) binding, viz., Ala33, Ser34, and Glu59. In addition, the study provides an essential basis to explore protein engineering for the optimum use of metallothionein protein to reduce/remove heavy metals from the environment.

3.
Med J Malaysia ; 78(3): 279-286, 2023 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37271836

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cluster-associated transmission has contributed to the majority of COVID-19 cases in Malaysia. Although widely used, the performance of the World Health Organization (WHO) case definition for suspected COVID19 in environments with high numbers of such cases has not been reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All suspected cases of COVID-19 that self-presented to hospitals or were cluster screened from 1st April to 31st May 2020 were included. Positive SARS-CoV-2 rRT-PCR was used as the diagnostic reference for COVID-19. RESULTS: 540 individuals with suspected COVID-19 were recruited. Two-third of patients were identified through contact screening, while the rest presented sporadically. Overall COVID-19 positivity rate was 59.4% (321/540) which was higher in the cluster screened group (85.6% vs. 11.6%, p<0.001). Overall, cluster-screened COVID-19 cases were significantly younger, had fewer comorbidities and were less likely to be symptomatic than those present sporadically. Mortality was significantly lower in the cluster-screened COVID-19 cases (0.3% vs. 4.5%, p<0.05). A third of all chest radiographs in confirmed COVID-19 cases were abnormal, with consolidation, ground-glass opacities or both predominating in the peripheral lower zones. The WHO suspected case definition for COVID-19 accurately classified 35.4% of all COVID-19 patients, a rate not improved by the addition of baseline radiographic data. Misclassification rate was higher among the cluster-associated cases (80.6%) compared to sporadic cases (35.3%). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 cases in Malaysia identified by active tracing of community cluster outbreaks had lower mortality rate. The WHO suspected COVID-19 performed poorly in this setting even when chest radiographic information was available, a finding that has implications for future spikes of the disease in countries with similar transmission characteristics.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Malásia/epidemiologia , Teste para COVID-19 , Surtos de Doenças
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(3): 975-984, jun. 2023. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514313

RESUMO

SUMMARY: The toxic effects of acetaminophen appear primarily in the liver and kidney. The protective effect of blue green alga Arthrospira platensis on hepato-renal toxicity caused by acetaminophen was evaluated in male rats. The obtained results showed that subcutaneous injection of acetaminophen at a dose 120 &240 սl acetaminophen/kg by weight resulted in an observed elevation in the enzyme activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum total lipids, total cholesterol, creatinine, total bilirubin, urea, nitric oxide (NO), L- malondialdehyde (MDA) and interleukins (IL-2 &IL-6). However, there is a decrease in the serum total protein, albumin and loss in antioxidant enzyme activities in liver including; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GSH). This effect was found to be dose and time dependent. In spite of, pre- oral administration of Arthrospira platensis 1000 mg/kg .b. wt. prior acetaminophen injection succeeded to modulate the effect of the observed abnormalities caused by acetaminophen. Moreover, there were no remarkable changes in serum biomarkers of rats received Arthrospira platensis only at a dose of 1000 mg/kg by weight (group 2). The histopathological findings confirm the biochemical results that indicates the safety use of Arthrospira platensis at the selected dose in this study. Therefore, the present results clarified the protective effect of blue green alga Arthrospira platensis on oxidative stress, hepatic and nephrotoxicity induced by acetaminophen in male Wister rats.


Los efectos tóxicos del paracetamol aparecen principalmente en el hígado y el riñón. Se evaluó en ratas macho Wistar el efecto protector del alga verde azulada Arthrospira platensis sobre la toxicidad hepatorrenal causada por paracetamol. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que la inyección subcutánea de paracetamol a dosis de 120 y 240 µl de paracetamol/kg, resultó en una elevación en las actividades enzimáticas de la aspartato aminotransferasa (AST), alanina aminotransferasa (ALT) y fosfatasa alcalina (ALP), lípidos séricos totales, colesterol total, creatinina, bilirrubina total, urea, óxido nítrico (NO), L- malondialdehído (MDA) e interleucinas (IL-2 e IL-6). Sin embargo, hay una disminución en la proteína sérica total, albúmina y pérdida en las actividades de las enzimas antioxidantes en el hígado, incluyendo; superóxido dismutasa (SOD), catalasa (CAT) y glutatión reductasa (GSH). Se encontró que este efecto era dependiente de la dosis y el tiempo. A pesar de la administración preoral de Arthrospira platensis 1000 mg/kg, la inyección previa de acetaminofeno logró modular el efecto de las anormalidades observadas causadas por el acetaminofeno. Además, no hubo cambios notables en los biomarcadores séricos de ratas que recibieron Arthrospira platensis solo a una dosis de 1000 mg/kg (Grupo 2). Los hallazgos histopatológicos confirman los resultados bioquímicos que indican la seguridad del uso de Arthrospira platensis a la dosis seleccionada en este estudio. Por lo tanto, los presentes resultados aclararon el efecto protector del alga verde azulada Arthrospira platensis sobre el estrés oxidativo, la toxicidad hepática y la nefrotoxicidad inducida por paracetamol en ratas Wistar macho.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Preparações de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Spirulina , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetaminofen/toxicidade , Aspartato Aminotransferases/análise , Superóxido Dismutase , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Interleucinas , Ratos Wistar , Alanina Transaminase/análise , Fosfatase Alcalina/análise
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(15)2022 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35955929

RESUMO

In this study, an efficient multistep synthesis of novel aromatic tricyclic hybrids incorporating different biological active moieties, such as 1,3,4-thiadiazole and 1,2,4-triazole, was reported. These target scaffolds are characterized by having terminal lipophilic or hydrophilic parts, and their structures are confirmed by different spectroscopic methods. Further, the cytotoxic activities of the newly synthesized compounds were evaluated using in vitro MTT cytotoxicity screening assay against three different cell lines, including HepG-2, MCF-7, and HCT-116, compared with the reference drug Taxol. The results showed variable performance against cancer cell lines, exhibiting MCF-7 and HepG-2 selectivities by active analogs. Among these derivatives, 1,2,4-triazoles 11 and 13 and 1,3,4-thiadiazole 18 were found to be the most potent compounds against MCF-7 and HepG-2 cancer cells. Moreover, structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies led to the identification of some potent LSD1 inhibitors. The tested compounds showed good LSD1 inhibitory activities, with an IC50 range of 0.04-1.5 µM. Compounds 27, 23, and 22 were found to be the most active analogs with IC50 values of 0.046, 0.065, and 0.074 µM, respectively. In addition, they exhibited prominent selectivity against a MAO target with apparent cancer cell apoptosis, resulting in DNA fragmentation. This research provides some new aromatic-centered 1,2,4-triazole-3-thione and 1,3,4-thiadiazole analogs as highly effective anticancer agents with good LSD1 target selectivity.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Histona Desmetilases , Antineoplásicos/química , Benzeno/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Histona Desmetilases/metabolismo , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tiadiazóis , Triazóis/química
6.
Med J Malaysia ; 77(2): 189-195, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35338626

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a novel coronavirus, now widely known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which has caused 3 major pandemic waves in Malaysia. We aimed to identify the warning signs as indicators that predict the progression of disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of adult patients more than 12 years of age presenting with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 admitted in three separate hospitals around the country. RESULTS: Of the 228 patients initially admitted with mild illness, 47 had progressed requiring oxygen. The median time from admission to deterioration was 3 days (IQR 2 - 5). Age more than ≥50years old (median age = 42.5, IQR = 28.8 - 57.0), higher temperature (mean = 37.3, IQR 36.8 - 38.0), MEWS score >3 (9, 19.1%), Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) >3.13 , (18, 38.3%) C-reactive protein (CRP) >5. (12, 27.3%), multiple zonal involvement on the chest radiography on admission (2, IQR 1-3) were more common in the deteriorated group on admission. On multivariate analysis, multiple comorbidities (HR = 7.40, 95 percent CI 2.58-21.2, p0.001), presence of persistent fever (HR = 2.88, 95 percent CI 1.15 - 7.2, p = 0.024), MEWS scoring >3 (HR of 6.72 ;95 percent CI 2.81-16.0, p0.001) were associated with progression to severe illness. CONCLUSION: In our cohort, we found that several factors were associated with the severity of COVID19. Early detection of these factors could correctly identify patients who need more intensive monitoring, and early referral for ICU care.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Hospitalização , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Med J Malaysia ; 75(5): 525-530, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older persons with diabetes are the major demographic of diabetic patients followed up in primary health clinics. Despite their increasing age and morbidities, they are still being managed strictly towards good sugar control in order to achieve the ideal HbA1c level without taking their quality of life into consideration. This study aimed to determine the prevalence in the use of antidiabetic drugs among older persons with diabetes and its association with their quality of life. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 269 older persons with diabetes in all government health clinics in Kuantan using Diabetes Quality of Life questionnaire. SPSS version 23 was used for the statistical analysis. RESULTS: Majority of the respondents were females (61%), Malays (84.8%), pensioners (54.3%) with education up to primary school (52%) and are staying with family members (93.7%). Most of the patients were on two antidiabetic agents (48%) followed by a single antidiabetic agent (32%). Despite the risk of hypoglycaemia, 0.4% of them are on glibenclamide. The use of insulin is still common among 21% of them that are on intermediate-acting insulin, 15.6% on premixed insulin and 7.8% on short-acting insulin. Those taking a higher number of antidiabetic agents were found to be associated with poorer quality of life (p=0.001) compared to those taking one or two antidiabetic medications. Those on insulin also have significantly poorer quality of life score (p=0.012). CONCLUSION: Despite aiming for controlled diabetes, older persons suffer poor quality of life with further intensification of their antidiabetic medications according to the guidelines. This includes the complexity of insulin usage and polypharmacy, which contribute to the low quality of life score.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
J Appl Microbiol ; 126(3): 730-739, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30431693

RESUMO

AIM: Analysing the effect of step-wise exposure of Escherichia coli isolates to sublethal concentrations of triclosan (TCS) that is widely used as an antiseptic, preservative and disinfectant. METHODS AND RESULTS: Changes in the tolerance to the biocide itself and the cross-resistance to clinically important antibiotics were analysed. The involvement of efflux mechanism was studied as well as the possible implication of modifications in cytoplasmic membrane properties including integrity, permeability, potential and depolarization in the resistance mechanisms. Most of E. coli isolates that were adapted to TCS showed increased antimicrobial resistance, lower outer and inner membrane permeability, higher membrane depolarization, more negative membrane potential and enhanced efflux activity using qRT-PCR. Nonsignificant change in membrane integrity was found in the adapted cells. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the extensive use of TCS at sublethal concentrations contributed to the emergence of antibiotic resistance in E. coli clinical isolates, by inducing changes in bacterial membrane properties and enhancing the efflux system. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The extensive usage of TCS has a deleterious effect on the spread of antibiotic resistance, and more studies are needed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of TCS.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Triclosan/farmacologia , Adaptação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
9.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 136 Pt B: 993-1000, 2015 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25459625

RESUMO

Spectroscopic (IR, Raman, NMR, UV-visible, and ESR), and structural studies of the ligand 3-methoxy-N-salicylidene-o-amino phenol (H2L) and its synthesized complexes with some transition metal ions (Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II)), Cu(II) and Zn(II)) were recorded and analyzed. The magnetic properties and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and DTA) were also measured for the complexes. The metal complexes were found to have The structural formula ML⋅H2O and the metal ions Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II)) and Zn(II) were found to form tetrahedral complexes with the ligand whereas Cu(II) formed a square planar one. Antimicrobial activity of the ligand and its complexes were also investigated and discussed.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Fenol/farmacologia , Bases de Schiff/química , Bases de Schiff/farmacologia , Análise Espectral Raman , Elementos de Transição/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Elétrons , Íons , Ligantes , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fenol/química , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Termogravimetria
10.
Med J Malaysia ; 68(4): 323-5, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24145260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although a vital test, blood culture is often plagued with the problem of contamination and false results, especially in a chaotic emergency department setting. The objectives of this pilot study is to find out the level of understanding among healthcare staffs in emergency department, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) regarding good blood culture sampling practice. METHODS: All healthcare staffs in emergency department, HUSM who consented to this study were given a set of selfadministered anonymous questionnaire to fill. RESULTS: More than half (53.1%) of the 64 participants are emergency medicine residents. Majority of them (75%) have been working in the emergency medicine, HUSM for more than 2 years. More than half of them were able to answer correctly the amount of blood volume needed for culture in adult and pediatric patients. When asked what are the factors required to improve the true yield as well as to reduce the risk of culture contamination, the four commonest answers given were observing proper aseptic technique during blood sampling, donning sterile glove, proper hand scrubbing as well as ensuring the sterility of the equipments. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: This study suggests that there is a lack of proper knowledge of good blood culture sampling practice among our healthcare staffs in emergency department.


Assuntos
Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 28(2): 78-83, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20660972

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The role of caretakers at day-care centers has become more imperative in promoting oral health care in children since many new mothers opt to work outside their homes, leaving their children at day-care centers. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of oral health promoting factors among secondary caretakers of children attending day-care centers. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional exploratory study conducted among secondary caretakers in Kubang Kerian, Malaysia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-four caretakers fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria participated in the study. The data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire addressing various aspects of knowledge, attitude and practice of oral health in children. Analysis was done using SPSS version 12.0. RESULTS: The knowledge of factors causing dental caries was found to be good among majority of the caretakers, but the concepts of transmissibility of caries and effect of hidden sugars were not evident. Seventy one percent did not know that frequent bottle feeding could cause tooth decay. Attitudes seemed to be governed by the cultural practices of the region rather than the knowledge obtained. The knowledge was not translated to practice adequately. Giving sweetened liquid in bottles was practiced by 53% of the caretakers. CONCLUSION: Implementation of nursery-based oral health promotion programs for secondary caretakers is needed to counteract early childhood caries.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Creches , Educação em Saúde Bucal , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Malásia , Projetos Piloto , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 13(11): 527-36, 2010 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21848066

RESUMO

To evaluate neurological changes developing during paediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL) therapy clinically and through electrophysiological Study of Somatosensory Evoked Potentials (SSEPs) changes in different phases of therapy. Thirty five-ALL patients with age range from 3-14 years were included compared to 30 healthy controls. History, neurological examination, complete blood counts, cytological examination of bone marrow aspirate and cerebrospinal fluid with Measurement of Serum Methotrexate (MTX) were done. The SSEPs were performed and patients subjected to another SSEP with measurement of serum MTX level before and 10 days after intra-thecal injection (IMTX). Clinical neurological findings in patients after induction were depressed deep tendon reflexes (43.3%), hypotonia (28.6%), lost pain sensation (28.6%), muscle weakness (17.1%) and movement disorders (17.1%). Percentage of delayed SSEPs after induction were at levels of brachial plexus (28.6%), spinal cord (68.6%), cortical conduction (31.4%), ERB-N13 Inter Peak Latency (IPL) (74.3%) and N13-N20 IPL (17.1%) in the studied patients. Significant prolonged latency of N13 (p = 0.005), N20 (p = 0.04) and IPL of ERB-N 13 (p = 0.005), N13-N20 (p = 0.01), Inter-Side Difference (ISD) of N13 (p = 0.01), ERB-N13 (p = 0.02) and N13-N20 (p = 0.03) after induction compared to values at diagnosis. Significant positive correlation were found between serum MTX after IMTX with N13-N20 IPL (p = 0.01), N20 ISD (p = 0.03) with significant prolongation in N20 latency, N13-N20 IPL and ISD of N20 compared to values before injection. ALL patients have prolonged latency of SSEPs at cervical cord and cortical levels which increased after IMTX due to axonal injury throughout the cord. SSEPs could be an early diagnostic tool for subclinical neuropathy.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/sangue , Metotrexato/sangue , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/complicações , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/diagnóstico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/complicações , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Simulação por Computador , Egito , Eletrodos , Eletrofisiologia , Potenciais Somatossensoriais Evocados/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Risco
14.
Malays J Pathol ; 31(2): 147-50, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20514860

RESUMO

Klebsiella ozaenae is a Gram negative bacillus. It has been described as a colonizer of oral and nasopharyngeal mucosa and is a cause of atrophic rhinitis. Klebsiella ozaenae has seldom been isolated from serious infections. However, several reports have stated that Klebsiella ozaenae may cause invasive infections and even mortality. We report a 55-year-old man with Klebsiella ozaenae infection causing abscesses involving the right eye and left kidney and possibly also in the brain, lungs and prostate. The isolates were sensitive to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim but resistant to ampicillin. He responded well to 4 weeks of i.v. ceftazidime and i.v. amoxycillin-clavulanic acid. To our knowledge, such a multiorgan infection has not been reported previously for this organism.


Assuntos
Abscesso/patologia , Infecções por Klebsiella/diagnóstico , Klebsiella/isolamento & purificação , Melioidose/diagnóstico , Abscesso/microbiologia , Combinação Amoxicilina e Clavulanato de Potássio/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Ceftazidima/uso terapêutico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Injeções Intravenosas , Klebsiella/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella/fisiologia , Infecções por Klebsiella/complicações , Infecções por Klebsiella/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Med J Malaysia ; 63 Suppl C: 15-7, 2008 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19227671

RESUMO

The National Mental Health Registry (NMHR) collects information about patients with mental disorder in Malaysia. This information allows us to estimate the incidence of selected mental disorders, and to evaluate risk factors and treatment in the country. The National Mental Health Registry (NMHR) presented its first report in 2004, a year after its establishment. The report focused on schizophrenia as a pioneer project for the National Mental Health Registry. The development of the registry has progressed with data collected from government-based facilities, the academia and the private sector. The 2003-2005 report was recently published and distributed. Since then the registry has progressed to include suicides and other mental illnesses such as depression. The NMHR Report 2003-2005 provides detailed information about the profile of persons with Schizophrenia who presented for the first time to various psychiatry and mental health providers throughout Malaysia. More detailed description regarding pharmacotherapy is reported and few cross tabulations done in an effort to provide better understanding and more clinically meaningful reports.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bases de Dados como Assunto , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Gut ; 54(6): 858-66, 2005 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15888797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The response rates and duration of peginterferon alpha (PEG-IFN-alpha) and ribavirin combination therapy in chronic hepatitis C genotype 4, the prevalent genotype in the Middle East and Africa, are poorly documented. AIMS: To compare the efficacy and safety of 24, 36, or 48 weeks of PEG-IFN-alpha-2b and ribavirin therapy in chronic hepatitis C genotype 4. METHODS: In this prospective, randomised, double blind study, 287 patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 4 were randomly assigned to PEG-IFN-alpha-2b (1.5 mug/kg) once weekly plus daily ribavirin (1000-1200 mg) for 24 weeks (group A, n = 95), 36 weeks (group B, n = 96), or 48 weeks (group C, n = 96) and followed for 48 weeks after completion of treatment. Early viral kinetics and histopathological evaluation of pre- and post treatment liver biopsies were performed. The primary end point was viral clearance 48 weeks after completion of treatment. RESULTS: Sustained virological response was achieved in 29%, 66%, and 69% of patients treated with PEG-IFN-alpha-2b and ribavirin for 24, 36, and 48 weeks, respectively, by intention to treat analysis. No statistically significant difference in sustained virological response rates was detected between 36 and 48 weeks of therapy (p = 0.3). Subjects with sustained virological response showed greater antiviral efficacy (epsilon) and rapid viral load decline from baseline to treatment week 4 compared with non-responders and improvement in liver histology. The incidence of adverse events was higher in the group treated for 48 weeks. CONCLUSION: PEG-IFN-alpha-2b and ribavirin for 36 or 48 weeks was more effective in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C genotype 4 than treatment for 24 weeks. Thirty six week therapy was well tolerated and produced sustained virological and histological response rates similar to the 48 week regimen.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Interferon alfa-2 , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Polietilenoglicóis , Proteínas Recombinantes , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral
17.
Neuropharmacology ; 48(4): 607-16, 2005 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15755488

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of morphine on thalamic neuronal responses in naive rats and rats with carrageenan-induced hindpaw inflammation. Multiple single unit ventral posterolateral (VPL) and posterior complex (Po) activity was recorded and mechanically- (7 g, 14 g, 21 g, 60 g and 80 g) evoked responses of VPL and Po neurones were measured in naive rats and rats with carrageenan (100 microl, 2%)-induced hindpaw inflammation. Effects of systemic (0.5 mg kg(-1)) and intra-thalamic (66 microM, 250 nL) morphine on neuronal responses were determined. Mechanically-evoked (60 g) nociceptive responses of VPL neurones were significantly larger in inflamed rats (29 +/- 4 spikes s(-1)) compared to naive rats (19 +/- 2 spikes s(-1), P < 0.05). Systemic morphine inhibited 7 g-evoked responses of VPL neurones in inflamed (24 +/- 8% control, P < 0.01), but not in naive rats (123 +/- 3% control). Frank noxious-evoked responses of VPL neurones in inflamed rats were less sensitive to the effects of systemic and intra-thalamic morphine, compared to naive rats (P < 0.05 for both). These data provide evidence for altered evoked responses of neurones at the level of VPL, but not at Po, during hindpaw inflammation and suggest that thalamic sites of action contribute to the effects of systemic morphine.


Assuntos
Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Inibição Neural/fisiologia , Núcleos Posteriores do Tálamo/fisiologia , Receptores Opioides mu/fisiologia , Núcleos Ventrais do Tálamo/fisiologia , Animais , Membro Posterior/efeitos dos fármacos , Membro Posterior/fisiologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Morfina/farmacologia , Morfina/uso terapêutico , Inibição Neural/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Núcleos Posteriores do Tálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Núcleos Ventrais do Tálamo/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12696425

RESUMO

Maize, Zea mays, L. is one of the most important field crops in Egypt. It is used mainly for human, animal and poultry feeding. Corn plants are usually attacked by several injourious insect pests at different stages of development. Out of them, the pink stem borer, Sesamia cretica (Led.), the purple lined borer, Chilo agamemnon (Bles.), and the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hb.); which cause great damage and yield losses. It is profitable to adopt an effective and sustainable strategy for controlling these insect-pests. In this concern, sowing dates, planting spaces, foliar fertilizers (macro and micro-nutrients), mineral and/or biofertilization, were investigated to evaluate their role as tools in the so-called Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program of corn pests. In general, the used planting spaces of 60 and 70 cm apart between furrows insignificantly affected the level of stem borers infestation. It was clearly observed that the sowing dates have a role in the incidence of stem borers infestation throughout the corn growing seasons of 1994 and 1995. Moreover, The biofertilized corn plants were more tolerant to the infestation by the stem borers than the minerally fertilized ones. Application of Polytrin significantly decreased the mean numbers of larvae. The tested nutrients preparations affected to less extent, the infestation levels. Concerning the interaction effect of applied nutrients preparations, used sowing dates and/or fertilizer type on the deduced means of larval numbers, it was revealed that: (i) the application of the nutrients preparations decreased to a great extent the effect of the studied sowing dates on the stem borers infestation; particularly in case of spraying ascorbic acid alone or in sequence with Polymex, coppersulphate & Potasin-F, (ii) the dressing of corn grains with the biofertilizers Phosphorin & Rhizobacterin before sowing, lowered to some extent the levels of infestation by Ch. agamemnon and O. nubilalis, in comparison to the minerally fertilized corn plants, especially in case of spraying Potasin-F, copper sulphate and scorbic acid followed by Polymex for Ch. agamemnon. Spraying Ascorbic acid alone or in sequence with Polymex; Potasin-F followed by Copper sulphate gave promising results for the control of O. nubilalis. In comparison to insecticide treatment, the used foliar nutrients & fertilizer type in both sowing dates gave positive interaction effects in decreasing levels of stem borers infestation and greatly improved the yield and yield characteristics of corn plants. Such agricultural practices enabled corn plants to tackle the going on infestation; thus crop loss due to the attack of the stem borers could be compensated.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Fertilizantes/toxicidade , Lepidópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agroquímicos/toxicidade , Animais , Ácido Ascórbico/toxicidade , Sulfato de Cobre/toxicidade , Interações Medicamentosas , Egito , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Lepidópteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Tempo , Zea mays/parasitologia
19.
Pharmacol Res ; 43(3): 233-40, 2001 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11401414

RESUMO

The effects of aminoguanidine (AG; 100 mg x kg(-1)) and desferrioxamine (DFO; 50 mg x kg(-1)) on some vascular and biochemical changes associated with streptozotocin (STZ; 65 mg x kg(-1); i.p.)-induced hyperglycaemia were investigated in rats. Both AG and DFO were administered i.p., once daily, for 14 consecutive days to normal and hyperglycaemic animals. The responsiveness of the isolated aortic rings to phenylephrine (PE) was tested. In addition, biochemical markers for oxidative stress such as plasma levels of lipid peroxides and total thiols, as well as the activities of erythrocytic superoxide dismutase (SOD) and whole blood glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were assessed. Results of the present study indicated that induction of hyperglycaemia was associated with increased aortic ring responsiveness to PE, loss in body weight, increase in urine volume, elevation of plasma total thiols and lipid peroxide levels and elevated SOD and GSH-Px enzymatic activities. Treatment of normal rats with AG reduced the response of their aortae to PE. Furthermore, a profound increase in body weight without any significant change in the measured biochemical parameters was observed. In hyperglycaemic animals, AG tended to normalize the enhanced aortic response to PE and modulated STZ-induced biochemical changes without affecting the elevated plasma glucose level. Treatment of normal rats with DFO reduced the response of their aortae to PE and decreased their body weight without altering any of the chosen biochemical parameters. In hyperglycaemic animals, DFO attenuated the responsiveness of their aortae to PE and at the same time, did not affect the loss in body weight and the elevation of plasma glucose level observed in the hyperglycaemic group. Additionally, DFO normalized the elevated plasma level of total thiols and exerted a modulatory influence on the enhanced activities of SOD and GSH-Px as well as on the increased levels of lipid peroxides. Our data lend further credence for the contribution of oxidative stress in the vascular and biochemical changes associated with STZ-induced hyperglycaemia. It is also apparent that advanced glycosylation end products and nitric oxide might be involved. Until clinical studies prove the efficacy and safety of these drugs, specific agents which could scavenge free radicals and block protein glycosylation seem beneficial as a helpful adjunct to the therapy of diabetes.


Assuntos
Desferroxamina/farmacologia , Guanidinas/farmacologia , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Análise de Variância , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Quelantes/farmacologia , Interações Medicamentosas , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Hiperglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperglicemia/enzimologia , Hiperglicemia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Fenilefrina/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Estreptozocina , Micção/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasoconstrição/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasoconstritores/farmacologia
20.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 16(1): 33-5, 2001.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11367937

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To effectively respond to this relatively new, complex mandate, it is essential to find effective models of coordination to ensure that medical and health services can meet the standards now expected in a disaster situation. This theme explored various models, noting both the strengths that can be built on and the weaknesses that still need to be overcome. METHODS: Details of the methods used are provided in the preceding paper. The chairs moderated all presentations and produced a summary that was presented to an assembly of all of the delegates. Since the findings from the Theme 1 and Theme 4 groups were similar, the chairs of both groups presided over one workshop that resulted in the generation of a set of Action Plans that then were reported to the collective group of all delegates. RESULTS: The main points developed during the presentations and discussion included: (1) preplanning (predisaster goals), (2) information collection (assessment), (3) communication (materials and methods); and (4) response centres and personnel. There exists a need for institutionalization of processes for learning from experiences obtained from disasters. DISCUSSION: Action plans presented include: (1) creation of an information and data clearinghouse on disaster management, (2) identification of incentives and disincentives for readiness and develop strategies and interventions, and (3) action on lessons learned from evidence-based research and practical experience. CONCLUSIONS: There is an urgent need to proactively establish coordination and management procedures in advance of any crisis. A number of important insights for improvement in coordination and management during disasters emerged.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Planejamento em Saúde/organização & administração , Relações Interinstitucionais , Modelos Organizacionais , Coleta de Dados , Sistemas de Comunicação entre Serviços de Emergência/organização & administração , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Sistemas de Informação , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Objetivos Organizacionais , Desenvolvimento de Programas/métodos
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