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1.
JAC Antimicrob Resist ; 5(5): dlad109, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37818393

RESUMO

Objectives: Healthcare institutions implement antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programmes to optimize the use of antibiotics. The focus is often on inpatient rather than outpatient settings. We aimed to explore perceptions of AMS stakeholders on effective interventions for appropriate antibiotic use in outpatient settings, and the role of clinical pharmacists in the AMS multidisciplinary team. Methods: A qualitative semi-structured interview study using thematic analysis by two researchers independently. Participants that practice AMS programmes were recruited from healthcare facilities in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Interviews were conducted face to face or online and transcribed verbatim. Results: Four themes emerged: (i) Perceived factors leading to unnecessary or inappropriate antibiotic prescribing and their impact on patients and the community; (ii) current outpatient AMS activities and perceived barriers and facilitators for their sustainability; (iii) suggested outpatient AMS strategies to be implemented in outpatient settings; and (iv) perceived future AMS implementation barriers and suggested mitigation strategies. Conclusions: Several AMS interventions, together with the presence of a clinical pharmacist, may be effective in improving antibiotic use in UAE outpatient settings. Future research should investigate the most appropriate AMS strategy considering barriers and possible mitigation strategies to ensure sustainability.

2.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(10)2022 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36289964

RESUMO

Antimicrobial stewardship interventions are targeted efforts by healthcare organizations to optimize antimicrobial use in clinical practice. The study aimed to explore effective interventions in improving antimicrobial use in hospitals. Literature was systemically searched for interventional studies through PubMed, CINAHL, and Scopus databases that were published in the period between January 2010 to April 2022. A random-effects model was used to pool and evaluate data from eligible studies that reported antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) interventions in outpatient and inpatient settings. Pooled estimates presented as proportions and standardized mean differences. Forty-eight articles were included in this review: 32 in inpatient and 16 in outpatient settings. Seventeen interventions have been identified, and eight outcomes have been targeted. AMS interventions improved clinical, microbiological, and cost outcomes in most studies. When comparing non-intervention with intervention groups using meta-analysis, there was an insignificant reduction in length of stay (MD: -0.99; 95% CI: -2.38, 0.39) and a significant reduction in antibiotics' days of therapy (MD: -2.73; 95% CI: -3.92, -1.54). There were noticeable reductions in readmissions, mortality rates, and antibiotic prescriptions post antimicrobial stewardship multi-disciplinary team (AMS-MDT) interventions. Studies that involved a pharmacist as part of the AMS-MDT showed more significant improvement in measured outcomes than the studies that did not involve a pharmacist.

3.
Med Sci Educ ; 32(4): 891-897, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36035526

RESUMO

Background: The impact of clinical proficiency on individual student scores on the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) Subject Examinations remains uncertain. We hypothesised that increasing the length of time spent in a clinical environment would augment students' performance. Methods: Performance on the NBME Subject Examination in Internal Medicine (NBME-IM) of three student cohorts was observed longitudinally. Scores at the end of two unique internal medicine clerkships held at the third and fourth years were compared. The score differences between the two administrations were compared using paired t-tests, and the effect size was measured using Cohen's d. Moreover, linear regression was used to assess the correlation between the NBME-IM score gains and performance on a pre-clinical Comprehensive Basic Science Examination (CBSE). A two-tailed p-value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: Of the 236 students enrolled during the third year, age, gender, CBSE, and NBME-IM scores were similar across all cohorts. The normalised score gain on the NBME-IM at the fourth year was 9.5% (range -38 to +45%) with a Cohen's d of 0.47. However, a larger effect size with a Cohen's d value of 0.96 was observed among poorly scoring students. Performance on the CBSE was a significant predictor of score gain on the NBME-IM (R 0.51, R 2 0.26, p-value < 0.001). Conclusions: Despite the increased length of clinical exposure, modest improvement in students' performance on repeated NBME-IM examination was observed. Medical educators need to reconsider how the NBME-IM is used in clerkship assessments.

4.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(11)2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34827227

RESUMO

Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASP) are an essential strategy to combat antimicrobial resistance. This study aimed to measure the impact of an ASP multidisciplinary team (MDT) escalating intervention on improvement of clinical, microbiological, and other measured outcomes in hospitalised adult patients from medical, intensive care, and burns units. The escalating intervention reviewed the patients' cases in the intervention group through the clinical pharmacists in the wards and escalated complex cases to ID clinical pharmacist and ID physicians when needed, while only special cases required direct infectious disease (ID) physicians review. Both non-intervention and intervention groups were each followed up for six months. The study involved a total of 3000 patients, with 1340 (45%) representing the intervention group who received a total of 5669 interventions. In the intervention group, a significant reduction in length of hospital stay (p < 0.01), readmission (p < 0.01), and mortality rates (p < 0.01) was observed. Antibiotic use of the WHO AWaRe Reserve group decreased in the intervention group (relative rate change = 0.88). Intravenous to oral antibiotic ratio in the medical ward decreased from 4.8 to 4.1. The presented ASP MDT intervention, utilizing an escalating approach, successfully improved several clinical and other measured outcomes, demonstrating the significant contribution of clinical pharmacists atimproving antibiotic use and informing antimicrobial stewardship.

5.
Trop Dis Travel Med Vaccines ; 7(1): 17, 2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34118991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a dearth of information on liver abscesses in the United Arab Emirates. Herein, we describe the clinical features of liver abscesses and determine their incidence rates and clinical outcomes. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical charts of adult patients with a primary diagnosis of liver abscess at a major hospital over a 7-year period. RESULTS: Amongst 45 patients, 82.2% (37/45) had a pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) and 17.8% (8/45) had amoebic liver abscesses (ALA). Overall, patients were young (median age 42 years, IQR 35-52), mostly males (77.8%, 35/45) from the Indian subcontinent (55.6%, 25/45), presented with fever (88.9%, 40/45) and abdominal pain (88.9%, 40/45), and had a solitary abscess on imaging (71.1% (32/45). Crude annual incidence rates were 35.9/100,000 hospital admissions (95% CI 26.2-48.0) and 5.9/100,000 inhabitants (95% CI 4.3-7.9). All ALA patients were from the Indian subcontinent (100%, 8/8). Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most frequent pathogen in PLA (43.2% [16/37], 95% CI 27.1-60.5%). The hospital stay was shorter in ALA (7.5 days, IQR 7-8.5) than in PLA (14 days, IQR 9-17). No deaths were recorded within 30 days of hospitalisation. CONCLUSIONS: ALA was exclusively seen in migrants from the Indian subcontinent, suggesting importation. Further research to characterise K. pneumoniae isolates and assess potential risk factors is needed.

6.
Int J Infect Dis ; 107: 188-194, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33862208

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between plasma levels of the soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) and the incidence of severe complications of COVID-19. METHODS: 403 RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients were recruited and prospectively followed-up at a major hospital in the United Arab Emirates. The primary endpoint was time from admission until the development of a composite outcome, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), intensive care unit (ICU) admission, or death from any cause. Patients discharged alive were considered as competing events to the primary outcome. Competing risk regression was used to quantify the association between suPAR and the incidence of the primary outcome. RESULTS: 6.2% of patients experienced ARDS or ICU admission, but none died. Taking into account competing risk, the incidence of the primary outcome was 11.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.7-16.3) in patients with suPAR levels >3.91 ng/mL compared to 2.9% (95% CI, 0.4-5.5) in those with suPAR ≤3.91 ng/mL. Also, an increase by 1 ng/mL in baseline suPAR resulted in a 58% rise in the hazard of developing the primary outcome (hazard ratio 1.6, 95% CI, 1.2-2.1, p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: suPAR has an excellent prognostic utility in predicting severe complications in hospitalised COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Receptores de Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase/sangue , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Admissão do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos
7.
J Travel Med ; 24(3)2017 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28355620

RESUMO

Background: Dengue fever (DF) is a frequently imported arthropod-borne infection in the United Kingdom but its broad range of clinical presentations makes it potentially unrecognized by clinicians. Methods: We conducted a 6-year retrospective case note review of laboratory confirmed DF patients in East London in the period from 1 January 2010 through 31 December 2015. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory features of imported DF were described. Risk factors associated with viraemic DF presentations were assessed. Results: Forty-four patients (4 from primary care clinics and 40 from three acute hospitals) were confirmed to have DF through RNA and/or IgM detection. In total, 86.4% (38/44) had primary infection compared to 13.6% (6/44) with secondary infection. Viraemic DF presentations accounted for 59.1% (26/44) of cases. The median age was 34 years (IQR 25-43). Most patients were males (68.2%, 30/44) and of non-white ethnicity (81.8%, 36/44). South Asia was the most frequent travel destination (52.3%, 23/44) followed by Southeast Asia (20.5%, 9/44). July-September was the peak season of presentation (43.2%, 19/44). The median interval between arrival in the UK and laboratory testing was 7 days (IQR 4-13). Arriving from abroad ≤ 7 days before molecular testing (age-adjusted odds ratios [OR] 16.98, 95% CI 2.43-118.75, P = 0.004) and travel to South or Southeast Asia regions (age-adjusted OR 4.41, 95% CI 1.07-18.21, P = 0.040) were associated with detectable viraemia at presentation. Only one DF patient met the WHO severity criteria. HIV serostatus was determined in 61.4% (27/44) of cases. Conclusion: Clinicians need to improve DF recognition as well as rates of HIV testing in tropical travellers. Region of travel and time since arrival from DF endemic settings may help clinicians optimize requests for molecular testing. Further research on the clinical and public health aspects of imported DF is needed.


Assuntos
Dengue/epidemiologia , Viagem , Adulto , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Dengue/sangue , Dengue/etiologia , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Londres/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
J Travel Med ; 23(6)2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27601534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria is the most common imported tropical disease in the United Kingdom (UK). The overall mortality is low but inter-regional differences have been observed. METHODS: We conducted a 2-year retrospective review of clinical and laboratory records of patients with malaria attending three acute hospitals in East London from 1 April 2013 through 31 March 2015. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of imported malaria were described and risk factors associated with severe falciparum malaria were explored. RESULTS: In total, 133 patients with laboratory-confirmed malaria were identified including three requiring critical care admission but no deaths. The median age at presentation was 41 years (IQR 30-50). The majority of patients were males (64.7%, 86/133) and had Black or Black British ethnicity (67.5%, 79/117). West Africa was the most frequent region of travel (70.4%, 76/108). Chemoprophylaxis use was poor (25.3%, 20/79). The interval between arriving in the UK and presenting to hospital was short (median 10 days; IQR 5-15.5, n = 84). July-September was the peak season of presentation (34.6%, 46/133). Plasmodium falciparum was the commonest species (76.7%, 102/133) and 31.4% (32/102) of these patients had parasitaemia >2%. Severe falciparum malaria was documented in 36.3% (37/102) of patients and the October-March season presentation was associated with an increased risk of severity (OR 3.00; 95% CI 1.30-6.93). Black patients appeared to have reduced risk of severe falciparum malaria (OR 0.46; 95% CI 0.16-1.35) but this was not statistically significant. HIV sero-status was determined in only 27.1% (36/133) of cases. Only 8.5% (10/117) of all malaria patients were treated as outpatients. CONCLUSION: Clinicians need to raise awareness on malaria prevention strategies, improve rates of HIV testing in tropical travellers, and familiarise themselves with ambulatory management of malaria. The relationship between season of presentation, ethnicity and severity of falciparum malaria should be explored further.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Malária/diagnóstico , Malária/epidemiologia , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Londres/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
9.
Int J STD AIDS ; 26(1): 68-71, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24737882

RESUMO

The diagnosis of primary HIV-1 infection can be challenging, especially in the absence of reported risks or when presenting features are unusual and uncommon. We report an atypical case of primary HIV-1 infection with HIV-1 subtype C in a 61-year old Caucasian man who presented with extreme hyperferritinaemia without iron overload and marked elevation of serum creatine kinase without rhabdomyolysis. In view of his symptomatic seroconversion and low baseline CD4+ T-lymphocyte count, the patient was treated promptly with combination antiretroviral therapy. Subsequently, he made good clinical improvement on treatment and no opportunistic infections were diagnosed at presentation or as part of a later immune reconstitution syndrome. This novel case highlights the importance of clinical suspicion of HIV and suggests that primary HIV-1 infection should be considered in patients presenting with severe hyperferritinaemia or markedly elevated creatine kinase levels. Further studies are required to explain the causative biological mechanisms underlying this rare presentation.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/administração & dosagem , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Ferritinas/sangue , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Análise Química do Sangue , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Quimioterapia Combinada , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care ; 12(1): 12-4, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23076664

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The use of maraviroc in our unit was reviewed with regard to efficacy and safety and also reviewed with regard to how our experience reflects the data presented in clinical trials. METHODS: We utilized the pharmacy dispensary system to identify any patient dispensed maraviroc and conducted a case note review. RESULTS: We identified 27 patients who have been prescribed maraviroc as part of their antiretroviral treatment. In all, 81% were men and 81% were white British. There were 26 treatment-experienced patients and 1 treatment-naive patient. At the time of switching to maraviroc, 17 patients had detectable HIV viral loads and 10 had HIV RNA levels <40 copies/mL. At completion, 6 undetectable patients maintained undetectability and 10 viremically detectable patients achieved viral suppression. Maraviroc was discontinued in 18.5% of patients and the only adverse drug reaction reported was a rash. CONCLUSIONS: The experience of using maraviroc by our study participants shows similarity in terms of efficacy and safety to the MERIT and MOTIVATE clinical trials.


Assuntos
Cicloexanos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Fusão de HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Triazóis/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas , Quimioterapia Combinada , Exantema/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , HIV-1/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Maraviroc , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Med Microbiol ; 61(Pt 12): 1780-1783, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22956751

RESUMO

Infection with hepatitis delta virus (HDV) always occurs in association with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. We present a case of severe acute HDV infection superimposed on a previously unrecognized HBV infection, in which an interferon-sparing antiviral therapy consisting of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and lamivudine was initiated and subsequently maintained. Evidence of successful suppression of HDV ribonucleic acid (RNA) was obtained after 65 weeks of TDF-based treatment. This was mirrored by a significant reduction in the levels of HBV DNA and HBV surface antigen. HDV RNA subsequently rebounded after our patient stopped antiviral therapy of his own accord. Interferon-sparing TDF-based antiviral therapy was safe and effective in achieving HDV RNA suppression in acute HDV superinfection. Further research into the utility of interferon-sparing TDF-based regimes in the treatment of acute HDV infection is needed.


Assuntos
Adenina/análogos & derivados , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite B/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite D/tratamento farmacológico , Lamivudina/uso terapêutico , Organofosfonatos/uso terapêutico , Doença Aguda , Adenina/farmacologia , Adenina/uso terapêutico , DNA Viral/análise , Quimioterapia Combinada , Vírus Delta da Hepatite/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus Delta da Hepatite/genética , Vírus Delta da Hepatite/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Interferons , Lamivudina/farmacologia , Masculino , Organofosfonatos/farmacologia , RNA Viral/análise , Superinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Superinfecção/virologia , Tenofovir , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Infect Public Health ; 4(1): 55-8, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21338960

RESUMO

We conducted a cross-sectional survey to determine the prevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among pregnant women attending a major hospital in Kassala state, eastern Sudan. Unlinked anonymous testing of residual blood specimens, which were originally collected for other routine clinical purposes, was performed using rapid immunochromatographic assays. In total, 430 residual blood specimens were consecutively collected over a 6-week period (April-May 2010). Specimens from the antenatal clinic (ANC) constituted 50.7% (218/430) of the total whereas specimens from the labour ward accounted for the remaining 49.3% (212/430). The median age of pregnant women was 29 years (range 16-40). The prevalence of HIV-1 infection was 0.23% (1/430) [95% confidence interval=0.01-1.29%]. The only reactive specimen came from a 20-year-old ANC attendee. We report low HIV prevalence among pregnant women in eastern Sudan but further research is needed to confirm our findings. An integrated framework to diagnose and treat maternal HIV infection should be developed in order to prevent transmission to infants.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoensaio/métodos , Gravidez , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sudão/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Med Microbiol ; 59(Pt 11): 1365-1367, 2010 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20634331

RESUMO

Restoration of the immune system following initiation of antiretroviral therapy can result in an adverse phenomenon known as immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). Herein, we report a case of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) suppurative parotitis associated with IRIS in a patient with advanced human immunodeficiency virus disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of MAC parotitis in the setting of IRIS and clinicians should be aware of this condition.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Inflamatória da Reconstituição Imune/complicações , Complexo Mycobacterium avium/isolamento & purificação , Infecção por Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare/diagnóstico , Parotidite/microbiologia , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Cabeça/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Infecção por Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare/microbiologia , Infecção por Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare/patologia , Supuração/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
15.
J Clin Virol ; 47(1): 82-4, 2010 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19857992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Paediatric clinical case definitions (CCDs) for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have been proposed as screening tools in resource-limited countries. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the performance of the World Health Organisation CCD (WHO-CCD), the Bloemfontein CCD (B-CCD) and a locally modified version of the Bloemfontein CCD (MB-CCD) in comparison with HIV serology in acutely hospitalised children aged 1.5-14 years. We also determined the HIV sero-prevalence among this group of children. STUDY DESIGN: A cohort of 106 consecutive acute paediatric admissions to a major teaching hospital in central Sudan was recruited over a 3-month period. RESULTS: The WHO-CCD, B-CCD, and MB-CCD were relatively specific with estimates of 96.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 90.1-98.9), 88.0% (95% CI 80.0-93.6), and 74.0% (95% CI 64.3-82.3), respectively. However, corresponding sensitivities were poor with estimates of 16.7% (95% CI 0.4-64.1), 33.3% (95% CI 4.3-77.7), and 66.7% (95% CI 22.3-95.7), respectively. The HIV sero-prevalence was high at 5.7% (95% CI 2.1-11.9). CONCLUSIONS: CCDs performed poorly against HIV serology in acutely hospitalised children aged 1.5-14 years in central Sudan and, therefore, we advocate improving access to serological diagnostic tools. The high HIV sero-prevalence rate among this group of children poses serious challenges to policy makers and warrants further research.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Soroprevalência de HIV , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sudão , Organização Mundial da Saúde
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