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1.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 9: 59, 2012 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22620266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Socio-ecological models suggest that both individual and neighborhood characteristics contribute to facilitating health-enhancing behaviors such as physical activity. Few European studies have explored relationships between local built environmental characteristics, recreational walking and cycling and weight status in adults. The aim of this study was to identify built environmental patterns in a French urban context and to assess associations with recreational walking and cycling behaviors as performed by middle-aged adult residents. METHODS: We used a two-step procedure based on cluster analysis to identify built environmental patterns in the region surrounding Paris, France, using measures derived from Geographic Information Systems databases on green spaces, proximity facilities (destinations) and cycle paths. Individual data were obtained from participants in the SU.VI.MAX cohort; 1,309 participants residing in the Ile-de-France in 2007 were included in this analysis. Associations between built environment patterns, leisure walking/cycling data (h/week) and measured weight status were assessed using multinomial logistic regression with adjustment for individual and neighborhood characteristics. RESULTS: Based on accessibility to green spaces, proximity facilities and availability of cycle paths, seven built environmental patterns were identified. The geographic distribution of built environmental patterns in the Ile-de-France showed that a pattern characterized by poor spatial accessibility to green spaces and proximity facilities and an absence of cycle paths was found only in neighborhoods in the outer suburbs, whereas patterns characterized by better spatial accessibility to green spaces, proximity facilities and cycle paths were more evenly distributed across the region. Compared to the reference pattern (poor accessibility to green areas and facilities, absence of cycle paths), subjects residing in neighborhoods characterized by high accessibility to green areas and local facilities and by a high density of cycle paths were more likely to walk/cycle, after adjustment for individual and neighborhood sociodemographic characteristics (OR = 2.5 95%CI 1.4-4.6). Body mass index did not differ across patterns. CONCLUSIONS: Built environmental patterns were associated with walking and cycling among French adults. These analyses may be useful in determining urban and public health policies aimed at promoting a healthy lifestyle.


Assuntos
Ciclismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Planejamento Ambiental , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica/instrumentação , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Caminhada , Adulto , Idoso , Peso Corporal , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paris , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recreação , Características de Residência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Branca
2.
Int J Health Geogr ; 10: 2, 2011 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21219597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in the study of the relationships between individual health-related behaviours (e.g. food intake and physical activity) and measurements of spatial accessibility to the associated facilities (e.g. food outlets and sport facilities). The aim of this study is to propose measurements of spatial accessibility to facilities on the regional scale, using aggregated data. We first used a potential accessibility model that partly makes it possible to overcome the limitations of the most frequently used indices such as the count of opportunities within a given neighbourhood. We then propose an extended model in order to take into account both home and work-based accessibility for a commuting population. RESULTS: Potential accessibility estimation provides a very different picture of the accessibility levels experienced by the population than the more classical "number of opportunities per census tract" index. The extended model for commuters increases the overall accessibility levels but this increase differs according to the urbanisation level. Strongest increases are observed in some rural municipalities with initial low accessibility levels. Distance to major urban poles seems to play an essential role. CONCLUSIONS: Accessibility is a multi-dimensional concept that should integrate some aspects of travel behaviour. Our work supports the evidence that the choice of appropriate accessibility indices including both residential and non-residential environmental features is necessary. Such models have potential implications for providing relevant information to policy-makers in the field of public health.


Assuntos
Acessibilidade Arquitetônica/estatística & dados numéricos , Meios de Transporte/estatística & dados numéricos , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Demografia/estatística & dados numéricos , França , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Estatísticos , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Health Place ; 17(1): 114-21, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20870447

RESUMO

We conducted an environmental justice study of the spatial distribution of sport facilities, a major resource for physical activity, in the Paris Region in France. Comprehensive data of the French Census of Sport Facilities allowed us to investigate disparities not only in the spatial accessibility to facilities, but also in the characteristics of these facilities. We found that the associations between area income and the presence of facilities or favorable characteristics of these facilities varied from positive to negative depending on the facilities and on the characteristics examined. Sensitivity analyses defining area income in circular areas of different radii permitted a refined identification of areas underserved in sport facilities.


Assuntos
Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Esportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Geografia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Paris , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Esportes/economia
4.
Public Health Nutr ; 13(11): 1773-85, 2010 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20409354

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Through a literature review, we investigated the geographic information systems (GIS) methods used to define the food environment and the types of spatial measurements they generate. DESIGN: Review study. SETTING: Searches were conducted in health science databases, including Medline/Pubmed, PsycINFO, Francis and GeoBase. We included studies using GIS-based measures of the food environment published up to 1 June 2008. RESULTS: Twenty-nine papers were included. Two different spatial approaches were identified. The density approach quantifies the availability of food outlets using the buffer method, kernel density estimation or spatial clustering. The proximity approach assesses the distance to food outlets by measuring distances or travel times. GIS network analysis tools enable the modelling of travel time between referent addresses (home) and food outlets for a given transportation network and mode, and the assumption of travel routing behaviours. Numerous studies combined both approaches to compare food outlet spatial accessibility between different types of neighbourhoods or to investigate relationships between characteristics of the food environment and individual food behaviour. CONCLUSIONS: GIS methods provide new approaches for assessing the food environment by modelling spatial accessibility to food outlets. On the basis of the available literature, it appears that only some GIS methods have been used, while other GIS methods combining availability and proximity, such as spatial interaction models, have not yet been applied to this field. Future research would also benefit from a combination of GIS methods with survey approaches to describe both spatial and social food outlet accessibility as important determinants of individual food behaviours.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Preferências Alimentares , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , MEDLARS , Inquéritos Nutricionais , PubMed , Características de Residência , Restaurantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Meios de Transporte
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